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Technical Paper

A Correlation between Oberst Bar and Center Point Damping Results

The SAE International standard for testing Oberst bars has been used in the industry for many years with predictable results. Growing interest in testing wider samples to incorporate more of the variability in liquid applied sprayable dampers has led to increased use of a center point damping test method based on a Japanese standard JIS G 0602. This method is similar to that of the ISO 16940 standard for testing laminated glass. Theory shows us that an Oberst test with a free length equal to the half length of a bar used for center point testing will provide the same resonances. This paper intends to show a relationship between the resonances of bars tested with the Oberst and center point test methods. A correlation between the composite loss factor for samples tested with each of the methods will be illustrated.
Technical Paper

A Data Analysis Approach to Understand the Value of a Damping Treatment for Vehicle Interior Sound

An in-vehicle study was conducted to understand how damping treatments on the floor of a vehicle affect the interior sound in the vehicle. Three differently formulated damping treatments were tested on three similar sport utility vehicles for this purpose. Numerous on-road sound and vibration data were collected under different operating conditions, and were reduced to understand the value of the damping treatment in controlling interior noise caused by powertrain and rolling-tire/road interaction. The paper discusses different data analysis procedures that were used in this study to understand whether there is a damping treatment that performs better than others in spite of variances in test vehicles, and still minimize the adverse influence of other variables that are related to the vehicle performance variation itself.
Technical Paper

A Design Study to Determine the Impact of Various Parameters on Door Acoustics

Once the design of a door sheetmetal and accessories is confirmed, the acoustics of the door system depends on the sound package assembly. This essentially consists of a watershield which acts as a barrier and a porous material which acts as an absorber. The acoustical performance of the watershield and the reverberant sound build-up in the door cavity control the performance. This paper discusses the findings of a design study that was developed based on design of experiments (DOE) concepts to determine which parameters of the door sound package assembly are important to the door acoustics. The study was based on conducting a minimum number of tests on a five factor - two level design that covered over 16 different design configurations. In addition, other measurements were made that aided in developing a SEA model which is also compared with the findings of the results of the design study.
Technical Paper

A Development Procedure to Improve the Acoustical Performance of a Dash System

This paper discusses a development procedure that was used to evaluate the acoustical performance of one type of dashpanel construction over another type for a given application. Two very different constructions of dashpanels, one made out of plain steel and one made out of laminated steel, were studied under a series of different test conditions to understand which one performs better, and then to evaluate how to improve the overall performance of the inferior dashpanel for a given application. The poorly performing dashpanel was extensively tested with dashmat and different passthroughs to understand the acoustic strength of different passthroughs, to understand how passthroughs affect the overall performance of the dash system, and subsequently to understand how the performance can be improved by improving one of the passthroughs.
Technical Paper

A Graduated Assessment of a Sprayable Waterborne Damping Material as a Viable Acoustical Treatment

Damping treatments have been used in reducing structure-borne noise in vehicles for many years. Although sheet based heat bondable mastic products (often called melt sheets) are quite common in the industry, sprayable products have several advantages and have been cited in the literature. This paper discusses findings of numerous structure-borne noise studies that were conducted on sprayable materials with different base-chemistries. The analyses show that a waterborne product is the most advantageous damping treatment in an automotive assembly process. The results also reveal that application of this product provides effective damping treatment as well as reduces structurally radiated noise.
Technical Paper

A Novel Method and Product to Damp Cylindrical Articles: Constrained Layer Damping Tubing

Constrained layer damping (CLD) is a well known technique to efficiently damp low frequency vibration. CLD employs a viscoelastic material sandwiched between two very stiff, typically metal, layers. While effective over essentially flat surfaces, CLD has not been applicable to cylindrical shapes. In order to damp low frequency vibration in metal pipes, users have been forced to rely on extensional layer damping, typically consisting of thick layers of extruded or molded rubbers. This paper discusses a novel product to damp cylindrical articles such as metal pipes with a constrained layer heat shrink tubing. This product utilizes a stiff heat shrinkable polymeric jacket bonded on the inside with a viscoelastic layer. When shrunk on a metal pipe or rod, a CLD system is produced. The product is typically thinner than an extensional layer damper and is more effective. It also meets the other physical and environmental requirements for a pipe covering.
Technical Paper

A Tool for Predicting Interior Sound Package Treatment in a Truck

This paper discusses an analytical tool that has been developed to predict what types of interior sound package treatments may be necessary in a truck cab to meet a predetermined target sound level at the driver location. The steps that were taken to develop this tool involved a combination of experimental measurement and analytical based studies. Measurements were conducted to identify the acoustic strengths of the major noise paths through which sound travels from outside to inside the truck. These findings were then used to develop a sound package that reduced the vehicle interior noise to meet the target. Measurements were primarily made on a chassis roll dynamometer with final road verification to substantiate the dynamometer data. Data obtained from these measurements were also used in the analytical model that predicts the impact of various acoustics parts in the vehicle, and has the capability to optimize the sound package treatment in the vehicle.
Technical Paper

Acoustical Performance Testing of Automotive Weatherseals

Advances in vehicle noise control are leading the automotive industry to place increasing emphasis on weatherseals to block exterior noise. As a result, properly evaluating the acoustical performance of automotive weatherseals is of increasing importance. There is no current specific standard for this testing. Rather, there has been reliance on adaptations of SAE Standard 51400 “Laboratory Measurement of the Airborne Sound Barrier Performance of Automotive Materials and Assemblies” by testing laboratories. However, the 51400 standard addresses testing of flatstock materials and does not readily lend application to pre-formed parts such as weatherseals. For this reason, adaptation of the standard can vary significantly from facility to facility and manufacturer to manufacturer. These differences can be significant and can render comparisons between test results on competing materials very difficult.
Technical Paper

Application of Noise Control Materials to Trucks and Buses

This paper provides an overview of sound and sound package (noise control) materials that are used in heavy trucks and buses. Transportation noise is a longstanding and complex problem. The challenge is to have a thorough understanding of the source-path-receiver relationship with respect to the noise generation and propagation such that one can find feasible solutions and applications of noise control materials. This paper discusses different types of noise control materials and also provides some examples of different noise control material applications.
Technical Paper

Automotive Testing Requirements in the Design of a Reverberation Chamber

The purpose of this paper is to identify various concerns that need to be evaluated prior to the design and construction of a reverberation chamber, such that the chamber can be used for various automotive related acoustical measurements. Some of the concerns involve issues such as room shape and size, the degree of sound and vibration isolation required, the use of conventional building materials versus traditional massive construction, construction cost, and the performance requirements for the test noise generation system. Various uses of a reverberation chamber include random incidence sound absorption measurements, small sample sound transmission loss measurements, vehicle insertion loss tests, dash panel, door, and other “buck” evaluation tests, and sound power level measurements of small automotive components and devices. These uses have differing and in some cases conflicting requirements that compete in the selection of room design parameters.
Technical Paper

Developing a Custom Data Acquisition Software Package for a Self-contained Acoustic Test Facility

This paper provides an overview of a custom software developed to obtain measurement data in a self-contained acoustic test facility system used for conducting random incidence sound absorption tests and sound transmission loss tests on small samples in accordance with SAE J2883 and J1400 standards, respectively. Special features have been incorporated in the software for the user to identify anomalies due to extraneous noise intrusion and thereby to obtain good data. The paper discusses the thoughts behind developing user-friendly algorithms and graphical user interfaces (GUI) for the sound generation, control, data acquisition, signal processing, and identifying anomalies.
Technical Paper

Development of Quiet Sound Package Treatments for Class 8 Trucks

This paper focuses on the development of treatments to control airborne noise through the dash panel. For a noise control material supplier, these treatments can be the most challenging to design because of the number of pass-throughs and design constraints. The dash panel development process includes extensive in-truck testing and analysis to identify sound paths (location and magnitude) and establish design criteria, laboratory material testing to aid in the selection of appropriate materials, laboratory component testing to select areas requiring treatment and to design the shape of the treatments, and in-truck testing to verify the performance of the new treatments.
Technical Paper

Development of a Small Size Reverberation Room Standardized Test Procedure for Random Incidence Sound Absorption Testing

Small reverberation rooms are used in common practice for determining random incidence sound absorption properties of flat materials and finished parts. Based on current small reverberation room usage in the automotive industry, there is a need for standardization that would bring about an appropriate level of consistency and repeatability. To respond to this need, a feasibility study is being pursued by an SAE task force, under the direction of the Acoustical Materials Committee, to develop a small volume reverberation room test method for conducting random incidence sound absorption tests. In addition to an accepted test method for small reverberation rooms, a data driven correlation that relates full size reverberation room absorption testing to small size reverberation room testing would be beneficial in understanding the usage of both. A Round Robin study has been underway for more than three years and will be completed in 2005.
Technical Paper

Evaluating Acoustical Performance of Expandable Sealant Materials

The use of sealant materials to improve interior acoustics has increased significantly in todays automobiles. One such application is to use expandable sealant materials in rails, pillars, and cavities to reduce noise propagation. However, there is no standardized method for evaluating the acoustical performance of these materials. This paper reviews the basics of noise control engineering and discusses a proposed laboratory based test methodology that has been developed for properly evaluating the acoustical performance or expandable sealant materials. The test method is intended to simulate actual applications so that different materials can be evaluated to achieve optimum acoustical performance within a channel representing the rails or pillars in automobiles.
Technical Paper

Feasibility of a Standardized Test Procedure for Random Incidence Sound Absorption Tests Using a Small Size Reverberation Room

In the automotive industry, random incidence sound absorption tests are conducted on flat material samples as well as on finished components such as headliners, seats, and floor carpet systems. This paper discusses a feasibility study that is being pursued by an SAE task force, under the direction of the Acoustical Materials Committee, to develop a small volume reverberation room test method for conducting random incidence sound absorption tests. This method has the potential to be suitable for flat material and component testing. A round-robin test program is being conducted to determine variability due to test procedures, room size differences and laboratory differences. The paper discusses the selection of test samples and provides an update on the findings of the round-robin test study.
Technical Paper

Predicting the Acoustical Performance of Weak Paths in a Sound Package System

The presence of any weak paths or leakage limits the best design and the acoustical performance of a sound package system in a vehicle. Techniques to predict the response at the design level could help in improving the performance of the sound package system. This paper discusses the development, verification, and implementation of an analytical technique for predicting the acoustical performance of a sound package system based on the principles of sound transmission coefficient and the surface area covered by each sub-system. This technique is especially suitable for predicting the acoustical performance of a weak path created by passthroughs or plugs in a sound package system. Initially, a simple system was developed and studied to verify the model. The predicted values were compared with the measured values. Based on the comparison, different parameters were identified and modified such that the model agrees closely with the measured data.
Technical Paper

Random Incidence Sound Absorption Measurement of Automotive Seats in Small Size Reverberation Rooms

Random incidence sound absorption measurements of automotive components such as floor carpets, seats, headliners and hoodliners are important during the design and development of noise control treatments in a vehicle. Small volume reverberation rooms [1]1 have been widely used in practice to determine the absorption properties of those components. The SAE Acoustical Materials Committee has organized a task force to develop a standard procedure for measuring random incidence sound absorption properties of flat samples, as well as automotive components in small reverberation rooms. Statistical analysis and correlation study between large reverberation rooms and small reverberation rooms of flat samples using data acquired from a recent round robin study were reported in SAE Paper 2005-01-2284 [2, 3].
Technical Paper

Rationale for a Standardized Vibration Damping Test Procedure for Automotive Applications

This paper discusses the importance of having an industry-wide standardized laboratory test procedure for proper evaluation of vibration damping materials, and for consistency between damping tests conducted by different test facilities. Several different vibration damping test procedures that are presently used in the automotive industry are briefly discussed. However, a test method that has been selected for a new proposed SAE Recommended Practice based on exciting a beam at various modes of vibration and at different temperatures is discussed here. The relative superiority of this test method over other methods, the importance of selecting the most appropriate beam size, and how the damping performance should be measured for consistency and clarity are emphasized. A round-robin test was conducted to determine the variability of the test procedure. Factors considered were type of damping material, bar mounting, and differences between laboratory instrumentation.
Technical Paper

Recycling of Automotive Seat Foam: Acoustics of Post Consumer Rebond Seat Foam For Carpet Underlayment Application

A study was conducted to understand the acoustic viability of using post consumer rebond seat foam materials in vehicles for floor carpet underlayment applications. These foam materials were obtained from two different sources: 1) polyurethane foam dismantled from seats of end of life vehicles (ELV or scrap vehicles), and 2) polyurethane foam recovered and cleaned from auto shredder residue (ASR) by the Argonne National Laboratories (ANL) using their cleaning method. The study was conducted using three North-American cars, each serving different market segments. Based on both laboratory and on-road tests conducted on each vehicle, the study concluded that the acoustical performance of the floor carpet underlayment part made of post consumer rebond foam is comparable to that of the current production part mostly made of shoddy materials.
Technical Paper

The Thought and Reasoning Behind Developing SAE J1637 - Vibration Damping Test Method

The paper discusses the importance of a well documented standardized laboratory test procedure to evaluate damping material performance for the automotive industry, and to understand the parameters that influence the precision of the test method. The standard outlines a methodology which was developed with the general consensus of automotive engineers, suppliers, and independent test laboratories. The methodology is based on the Oberst bar test method where a damping material is bonded to a specific size steel bar and the system is excited at its various modes of vibration under a cantilevered configuration. The damping performance is expressed in terms of composite loss factor, ηc, within the frequency range of approximately 100 Hz to 1000 Hz, and over the useful range of temperatures for the given application.