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Technical Paper

A Fully Variable Mechanical Valvetrain with a Simple Moving Pivot

2005-04-11
2005-01-0770
A continuously variable lift, duration and phase mechanical lift mechanism is described, as applied to the intake valvetrain of a SOHC, 4-valve per cylinder, four-cylinder production engine. Improvements in fuel economy were sought by reduction of pumping losses and improved charge preparation, and optimization of WOT torque was attempted by variation of intake valve closing angle. Adjustment of the mechanism is achieved by movement of the pivot shaft for the rocker arms. The relationship between lift, duration and phase is predetermined at the design stage, and is fixed during operation. There is considerable design flexibility to achieve the envelope of lift curves deemed desirable. The operation of the mechanism is described, as are the development procedure, testing with fixed cams, some cycle simulation, friction testing on a separate rig and dyno testing results for idle, part load and WOT.
Technical Paper

A Model for On-Line Monitoring of In-Cylinder Residual Gas Fraction (RGF) and Mass Flowrate in Gasoline Engines

2006-04-03
2006-01-0656
In a gasoline engine, the unswept in-cylinder residual gas and introduction of external EGR is one of the important means of controlling engine raw NOx emissions and improving part load fuel economy via reduction of pumping losses. Since the trapped in-cylinder Residual Gas Fraction (RGF, comprised of both internal, and external) significantly affects the combustion process, on-line diagnosis and monitoring of in-cylinder RGF is very important to the understanding of the in-cylinder dilution condition. This is critical during the combustion system development testing and calibration processes. However, on-line measurement of in-cylinder RGF is difficult and requires an expensive exhaust gas analyzer, making it impractical for every application. Other existing methods, based on measured intake and exhaust pressures (steady state or dynamic traces) to calculate gas mass flowrate across the cylinder ports, provide a fast and economical solution to this problem.
Technical Paper

A Multiple Order Conformability Model for Uniform Cross-Section Piston Rings

2005-04-11
2005-01-1643
This paper examines the conformability of elastic piston rings to a distorted cylinder bore. Several bounds are available in the literature to help estimate the maximum allowable Fourier coefficient in a Fourier expansion of bore distortion: the analytically derived bounds in [7] and [8], and the semi-empirically derived bounds discussed in [9]. The underlying assumptions for each set of analytic bounds are examined and a multiple order algorithm is derived. The proposed algorithm takes account of multiple orders of distortion at once. It is tested with finite element (FE) data and compared to the classical bound approach. The results indicate that the bounds in [7] are compatible with linear elasticity theory (LET), whereas the bounds in [8] are not. Furthermore, numerical evidence indicates that the present multiple order algorithm can predict seal breaches more accurately than either of the other analytic bounds.
Technical Paper

An Experimental Study on the Effect of Intake Primary Runner Blockages on Combustion and Emissions in SI Engines under Part-Load Conditions

2004-10-25
2004-01-2973
Charge motion is known to accelerate and stabilize combustion through its influence on turbulence intensity and flame propagation. The present work investigates the effect of charge motion generated by intake runner blockages on combustion characteristics and emissions under part-load conditions in SI engines. Firing experiments have been conducted on a DaimlerChrysler (DC) 2.4L 4-valve I4 engine, with spark range extending around the Maximum Brake Torque (MBT) timing. Three blockages with 20% open area are compared to the fully open baseline case under two operating conditions: 2.41 bar brake mean effective pressure (bmep) at 1600 rpm, and 0.78 bar bmep at 1200 rpm. The blocked areas are shaped to create different levels of swirl, tumble, and cross-tumble. Crank-angle resolved pressures have been acquired, including cylinders 1 and 4, intake runners 1 and 4 upstream and downstream of the blockage, and exhaust runners 1 and 4.
Technical Paper

An Exploration of Failure Modes in Rolled, Ductile, Cast-Iron Crankshafts Using a Resonant Bending Testing Rig

2005-04-11
2005-01-1906
This report explores the relationship of different failure criteria - specifically, surface cracks, stiffness changes, and two-piece failures - on rolled, ductile, cast-iron crankshafts. Crankshaft samples were closely monitored throughout resonant bending fatigue testing and were taken to near complete fracture. By monitoring resonance shifts of the samples during testing, stiffness changes and cracks were monitored. These data showed that an accelerating frequency shift was sufficient to indicate imminent two-piece failure and that this condition can be used as a failure criterion. Fatigue studies on two different crankshafts using this failure criterion were compared to those using a surface crack failure criterion. This comparison showed that using the surface crack failure criterion erroneously decreased the apparent fatigue life of the crankshaft significantly.
Technical Paper

Correlating an Air Motion Number to Combustion Metrics and Initial Flame Kernel Development

2007-04-16
2007-01-0653
This study attempts to develop a correlation between an airflow motion number, combustion burn rates, and initial flame kernel development. To accomplish this task, several motion plates were evaluated on a flowbench in order to calculate a motion number that would represent the dynamic motion in the combustion chamber. Afterwards, the plates were tested on a spark ignited engine at several part throttle conditions while gathering cylinder pressure measurements. These cylinder pressure measurements would then yield the combustion burn rates for each plate. In addition to the combustion measurements, the flame kernel growth, velocity and direction of the flame kernel were measured using an AVL Visio-flame. Finally, the data was evaluated and an attempt to correlate the motion number of the plates to the different measurements for describing combustion was made.
Technical Paper

Design of a Rapid Prototyping Engine Management System for Development of Combustion Feedback Control Technology

2006-04-03
2006-01-0611
Combustion feedback using cylinder pressure sensors, ion current sensors or alternative sensing techniques is actively under investigation by the automotive industry to meet future legislative emissions requirements. One of the drawbacks of many rapid prototyping engine management systems is their available analog interfaces, often limited to 10-12 bits with limited bandwidth, sampling rate and very simple anti-aliasing filters. Processing cylinder pressure or other combustion feedback sensors requires higher precision, wider bandwidths and more processing power than is typically available. For these reasons, Ricardo in collaboration with GM Research has developed a custom, high precision analog input subsystem for the rCube rapid prototyping control system that is specifically targeted at development of combustion feedback control systems.
Technical Paper

Detailed Modeling of Liquid Fuel Sprays in One-Dimensional Gas Flow Simulation

2004-10-25
2004-01-3000
In internal combustion engines, liquid fuel injection is one of the most prevalent means of fuel delivery and air-fuel mixture preparation. The behavior of the fuel spray and wall film is a key factor in determining air-fuel mixing and hence combustion and emissions. A comprehensive model for the liquid fuel spray has been developed in conjunction with the one-dimensional gas flow code WAVE. The model includes droplet dynamics and evaporation, spray-wall impingement, wall film dynamics and evaporation. The fuel injector can be placed in the manifold, inlet port or cylinder. Liquid fuel droplets are injected with a prescribed size distribution, and their subsequent movement and vaporization are modeled via the discrete particle approach, frequently used in multi-dimensional CFD codes. This approach ensures conservation of mass, momentum and energy between the gas and liquid phases.
Technical Paper

Development of a Computerized Digital Resonance Fatigue Test Controller with Load Feedback Management

2006-04-03
2006-01-1620
In this report, the DCX Stress Lab and the Tool Development & Test Support groups investigated automating a resonant bending crankshaft fatigue test. Fatigue testing, in general, is a laborious process since many samples are needed for analysis. This makes development cost and speed dependant on the component test efficiency. In the case of crankshaft resonant bending testing, both cost and speed are influenced by the manual feedback operation needed to run the current procedure. In order to increase the efficiency of this process, this project sought to automate the following tasks: maintaining the load on the part, reacting to resonance changes in the part, mapping resonance changes, logging the number of cycles, and discerning resonance frequency shift failure modes objectively.
Technical Paper

Development of an Engine Stop/Start at Idle System

2005-04-11
2005-01-0069
A project was undertaken to demonstrate an engine stop/start at idle system utilizing a 12 volt Belt driven Starter Generator (BSG). The system was developed on a production four cylinder vehicle to determine emissions, driveability, and fuel economy impact.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of Cylinder Pressure Transducer Accuracy based upon Mounting Style, Heat Shields, and Watercooling

2005-10-24
2005-01-3750
This investigation evaluated different pressure transducers in one cylinder to examine the combustion measurement differences between them simultaneously. There were a total of eleven transducers ranging in both diameter and type of transducer (piezo-electric, piezoresistive, and optical). Furthermore, the sensors differed in the methodology for minimizing signal distortion due to temperature. This methodology could take the form of various size mounting passages, heat shields, watercooling or heat transfer paths. To evaluate the sensors, different engine operating conditions were conducted, focusing at full load and low speeds. Other hardware configurations of the same engine family were used to exaggerate the combustion environment, specifically a tumble-motion plate and turbocharging.
Technical Paper

Gaseous Hydrogen Station Test Apparatus: Verification of Hydrogen Dispenser Performance Utilizing Vehicle Representative Test Cylinders

2005-04-11
2005-01-0002
The paper includes the development steps used in creating a station test apparatus (STA) and a description of the apparatus design. The purpose of this device is to simulate hydrogen vehicle conditions for the verification of gaseous hydrogen refueling station dispenser performance targets and hydrogen quality. This is done at the refueling station/vehicle interface (i.e. the refueling nozzle.) In addition, the device is to serve as a means for testing and developing future advanced fueling algorithms and protocols. The device is to be outfitted with vehicle representative container cylinders and sensors located inside and outside the apparatus to monitor refueling rate, ambient and internal gas temperature, pressure and weight of fuel transferred. Data is to be recorded during refueling and graphed automatically.
Technical Paper

Improving Low Frequency Torsional Vibrations NVH Performance through Analysis and Test

2007-05-15
2007-01-2242
Low frequency torsional vibrations can be a significant source of objectionable vehicle vibrations and in-vehicle boom, especially with changes in engine operation required for improved fuel economy. These changes include lower torque converter lock-up speeds and cylinder deactivation. This paper has two objectives: 1) Examine the effect of increased torsional vibrations on vehicle NVH performance and ways to improve this performance early in the program using test and simulation techniques. The important design parameters affecting vehicle NVH performance will be identified, and the trade-offs required to produce an optimized design will be examined. Also, the relationship between torsional vibrations and mount excursions, will be examined. 2) Investigate the ability of simulation techniques to predict and improve torsional vibration NVH performance. Evaluate the accuracy of the analytical models by comparison to test results.
Technical Paper

Journal Bearing Analysis in Engines Using Simulation Techniques

2003-03-03
2003-01-0245
This paper describes the features and capabilities of a comprehensive yet flexible computational tool ORBIT developed for analyzing journal bearings (e.g. connecting rod bearings and crankshaft bearings) in internal combustion engines. Several techniques for solving the hydrodynamic Reynolds Equation have been developed within this methodology which can be used appropriately by bearing designers/analysts depending on the level of detail required. Besides ideal circular bearings, this simulation tool also enables the analyst to consider the influence of a) non-circular journal bearing geometry, b) oil-feed holes/grooves, c) surface roughness, d) journal misalignment, e) rise in oil temperature and f) bearing elasticity effects (EHL) on bearing performance. The capabilities of the simulation code are demonstrated through a series of validation and case studies.
Technical Paper

Powertrain Mounting Design Principles to Achieve Optimum Vibration Isolation with Demonstration Tools

2003-05-05
2003-01-1476
The way a powertrain is mounted plays an important role in improving vehicle noise and vibration caused by the engine firing forces and can be an effective role in improving vehicle ride comfort. This paper describes the basic concepts in powertrain mounting and derives a new concept of evaluating powertrain mounting. It is well known in publications that a decoupled powertrain mounting system has better NVH characteristics[3][4][6]. But how to relate percentage of decouple to powertrain mounts transmitted forces, what “decoupled” really means, and how to evaluate how much it is decoupled are still ambiguous to many engineers. The traditional “one coordinate system” kinetic energy fraction (KEF) index can't give a clear picture of how much the engine mounting is decoupled and is often misleading. The new concept focuses on the excitations acting on the powertrain system.
Technical Paper

The Measurement and Control of Cyclic Variations of Flow in a Piston Cylinder Assembly

2003-03-03
2003-01-1357
The existence of the cyclic variation of the flow inside an cylinder affects the performance of the engine. Developing methods to understand and control in-cylinder flow has been a goal of engine designers for nearly 100 years. In this paper, passive control of the intake flow of a 3.5-liter DaimlerChrysler engine was examined using a unique optical diagnostic technique: Molecular Tagging Velocimetry (MTV), which has been developed at Michigan State University. Probability density functions (PDFs) of the normalized circulation are calculated from instantaneous planar velocity measurements to quantify gas motion within a cylinder. Emphasis of this work is examination of methods that quantify the cyclic variability of the flow. In addition, the turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) of the flow on the tumble and swirl plane is calculated and compared to the PDF circulation results.
Technical Paper

The New DaimlerChrysler Corporation 5.7L HEMI® V8 Engine

2002-10-21
2002-01-2815
For the 2003 model year DaimlerChrysler Corporation (DCC) will introduce an all-new 5.7L V8 truck engine manufactured at the new Saltillo II Engine Plant (SEPII) in Saltillo, Mexico. The product will debut in the new RAM series of pick-up trucks and marks the return of the hemispherical combustion chamber architecture. This paper covers the engine design features, simulation methods, development, and manufacturing processes. Also reviewed are the project objectives and the organizational processes used to manage and deliver the program.
Technical Paper

Theoretical and Practical Aspects of Balancing a V-8 Engine Crankshaft

2005-05-16
2005-01-2454
Crankshafts must be balanced statically and dynamically before being put into service. However, without pistons and connecting-rod assemblies, a non-symmetric crankshaft is not in dynamic balance. Therefore, it is necessary to apply equivalent ring-weights on each of the crankpins of the crankshaft when balancing it on a dynamic balancing machine. The value of the ring weight must be accurately determined, otherwise all advantages that are derived from balancing would be of no avail. This paper analytically examines the theoretical background of this problem. Formulas for calculating the ring weights are derived and presented. These formulas are applicable to a generic class of crankshafts of V-type engines with piston pin offset. Also, practical consideration, such as the design and manufacturing of these ring weights, the method of testing, and correction is addressed.
Technical Paper

Turbocharging the Chrysler 2.4L Engine

2003-03-03
2003-01-0410
A turbocharged version of the 2.4L engine has been developed by the Chrysler Group of DaimlerChrysler Corporation. This new engine is derived from the proven 2.4L 4-cylinder, with significant changes to achieve a durable, high performance package for the PT Cruiser vehicle. The package includes an integrated turbocharger / exhaust manifold, oil squirters for piston cooling, and numerous other upgrades to satisfy the demanding performance, emissions, and durability requirements unique to this powertrain. The purpose of this paper is to describe the mechanical changes to the base engine, the unique turbocharger configuration, and the new parts necessary to accommodate the higher output.
Technical Paper

Using Neural Networks to Compensate Altitude Effects on the Air Flow Rate in Variable Valve Timing Engines

2005-04-11
2005-01-0066
An accurate air flow rate model is critical for high-quality air-fuel ratio control in Spark-Ignition engines using a Three-Way-Catalyst. Emerging Variable Valve Timing technology complicates cylinder air charge estimation by increasing the number of independent variables. In our previous study (SAE 2004-01-3054), an Artificial Neural Network (ANN) has been used successfully to represent the air flow rate as a function of four independent variables: intake camshaft position, exhaust camshaft position, engine speed and intake manifold pressure. However, in more general terms the air flow rate also depends on ambient temperature and pressure, the latter being largely a function of altitude. With arbitrary cam phasing combinations, the ambient pressure effects in particular can be very complex. In this study, we propose using a separate neural network to compensate the effects of altitude on the air flow rate.
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