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Technical Paper

A Model for On-Line Monitoring of In-Cylinder Residual Gas Fraction (RGF) and Mass Flowrate in Gasoline Engines

In a gasoline engine, the unswept in-cylinder residual gas and introduction of external EGR is one of the important means of controlling engine raw NOx emissions and improving part load fuel economy via reduction of pumping losses. Since the trapped in-cylinder Residual Gas Fraction (RGF, comprised of both internal, and external) significantly affects the combustion process, on-line diagnosis and monitoring of in-cylinder RGF is very important to the understanding of the in-cylinder dilution condition. This is critical during the combustion system development testing and calibration processes. However, on-line measurement of in-cylinder RGF is difficult and requires an expensive exhaust gas analyzer, making it impractical for every application. Other existing methods, based on measured intake and exhaust pressures (steady state or dynamic traces) to calculate gas mass flowrate across the cylinder ports, provide a fast and economical solution to this problem.
Technical Paper

An Advanced Diesel Fuels Test Program

This paper reports on DaimlerChrysler's participation in the Ad Hoc Diesel Fuels Test Program. This program was initiated by the U.S. Department of Energy and included major U.S. auto makers, major U.S. oil companies, and the Department of Energy. The purpose of this program was to identify diesel fuels and fuel properties that could facilitate the successful use of compression ignition engines in passenger cars and light-duty trucks in the United States at Tier 2 and LEV II tailpipe emissions standards. This portion of the program focused on minimizing engine-out particulates and NOx by using selected fuels, (not a matrix of fuel properties,) in steady state dynamometer tests on a modern, direct injection, common rail diesel engine.
Technical Paper

An Experimental Study on the Effect of Intake Primary Runner Blockages on Combustion and Emissions in SI Engines under Part-Load Conditions

Charge motion is known to accelerate and stabilize combustion through its influence on turbulence intensity and flame propagation. The present work investigates the effect of charge motion generated by intake runner blockages on combustion characteristics and emissions under part-load conditions in SI engines. Firing experiments have been conducted on a DaimlerChrysler (DC) 2.4L 4-valve I4 engine, with spark range extending around the Maximum Brake Torque (MBT) timing. Three blockages with 20% open area are compared to the fully open baseline case under two operating conditions: 2.41 bar brake mean effective pressure (bmep) at 1600 rpm, and 0.78 bar bmep at 1200 rpm. The blocked areas are shaped to create different levels of swirl, tumble, and cross-tumble. Crank-angle resolved pressures have been acquired, including cylinders 1 and 4, intake runners 1 and 4 upstream and downstream of the blockage, and exhaust runners 1 and 4.
Technical Paper

Cam-phasing Optimization Using Artificial Neural Networks as Surrogate Models-Fuel Consumption and NOx Emissions

Cam-phasing is increasingly considered as a feasible Variable Valve Timing (VVT) technology for production engines. Additional independent control variables in a dual-independent VVT engine increase the complexity of the system, and achieving its full benefit depends critically on devising an optimum control strategy. A traditional approach relying on hardware experiments to generate set-point maps for all independent control variables leads to an exponential increase in the number of required tests and prohibitive cost. Instead, this work formulates the task of defining actuator set-points as an optimization problem. In our previous study, an optimization framework was developed and demonstrated with the objective of maximizing torque at full load. This study extends the technique and uses the optimization framework to minimize fuel consumption of a VVT engine at part load.
Technical Paper

Complex Systems Method Applied to Identify Carbon Dioxide Emission Reductions for Light-Duty Vehicles for the 2020-2025 Timeframe

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, U.S. Department of Transportation's National Highway and Traffic Safety Administration, and the California Air Resources Board have recently released proposed new regulations for greenhouse gas emissions and fuel economy for light-duty vehicles and trucks in model years 2017-2025. These proposed regulations intend to significantly reduce greenhouse gas emissions and increase fleet fuel economy from current levels. At the fleet level, these rules the proposed regulations represent a 50% reduction in greenhouse gas emissions by new vehicles in 2025 compared to current fleet levels. At the same time, global growth, especially in developing economies, should continue to drive demand for crude oil and may lead to further fuel price increases. Both of these trends will therefore require light duty vehicles (LDV) to significantly improve their greenhouse gas emissions over the next 5-15 years to meet regulatory requirements and customer demand.
Technical Paper

Development of Truck Engine Technologies for Use with Fischer-Tropsch Fuels

The Fischer-Tropsch (FT) process can be used to synthesize diesel fuels from a variety of energy sources, including coal, natural gas and biomass. Diesel fuels produced from the FT process are essentially sulfur-free, have very low aromatic content, and have excellent ignition characteristics. Because of these favorable attributes, FT diesel fuels may offer environmental benefits over transportation fuels derived from crude oil. Previous tests have shown that FT diesel fuel can be used in unmodified engines and have been shown to lower regulated emissions. Whereas exhaust emissions reductions from these previous studies have been impressive, this paper demonstrates that far greater exhaust emissions reductions are possible if the diesel engine is optimized to exploit the properties of the FT fuels. A Power Stroke 7.3 liter turbocharged diesel engine has been modified for use with FT diesel.
Technical Paper

Development of an Engine Test Cell for Rapid Evaluation of Advanced Powertrain Technologies using Model-Controlled Dynamometers

Current engine development processes typically involve extensive steady-state and simple transient testing in order to characterize the engine's fuel consumption, emissions, and performance based on several controllable inputs such as throttle, spark advance, and EGR. Steady-state and simple transient testing using idealistic load conditions alone, however, is no longer sufficient to meet powertrain development schedule requirements. Mapping and calibration of an engine under transient operation has become critically important. And, independent engine development utilizing accelerated techniques is becoming more attractive. In order to thoroughly calibrate new engines in accelerated fashion and under realistic transient conditions, more advanced testing is necessary.
Technical Paper

Development of the Direct Nonmethane Hydrocarbon Measurement Technique for Vehicle Testing

The Automotive Industry/Government Emissions Research CRADA (AIGER) has been working to develop a new methodology for the direct determination of nonmethane hydrocarbons (DNMHC) in vehicle testing. This new measurement technique avoids the need for subtraction of a separately determined methane value from the total hydrocarbon measurement as is presently required by the Code of Federal Regulations. This paper will cover the historical aspects of the development program, which was initiated in 1993 and concluded in 2002. A fast, gas chromatographic (GC) column technology was selected and developed for the measurement of the nonmethane hydrocarbons directly, without any interference or correction being caused by the co-presence of sample methane. This new methodology chromatographically separates the methane from the nonmethane hydrocarbons, and then measures both the methane and the backflushed, total nonmethane hydrocarbons using standard flame ionization detection (FID).
Technical Paper

EBDI® - Application of a Fully Flexible High BMEP Downsized Spark Ignited Engine

The Ethanol-Boosted Direct Injection (EBDI) demonstrator engine is a collaborative project led by Ricardo targeted at reducing the fuel consumption of a spark-ignited engine. This paper describes the design challenges to upgrade an existing engine architecture and the synergistic use of a combination of technologies that allows a significant reduction in fuel consumption and CO₂ emissions. Features include an extremely reduced displacement for the target vehicle, 180 bar cylinder pressure capability, cooled exhaust gas recirculation, advanced boosting concepts and direct injection. Precise harmonization of these individual technologies and control algorithms provide optimized operation on gasoline of varying octane and ethanol content.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of the Bag Mini-Diluter and Direct Vehicle Exhaust Volume System for Low Level Emissions Measurement

With the adoption of the California Low-Emission Vehicle Regulations and the associated lower emission standards such as LEV (Low-Emission Vehicle in 1990), ULEV (Ultra-Low-Emission Vehicle), and LEV II (1998 with SULEV-Super Ultra Low Emission Vehicle), concerns were raised by emissions researchers over the accuracy and reliability of collecting and analyzing emissions measurements at such low levels. The primary concerns were water condensation, optimizing dilution ratios, and elimination of background contamination. These concerns prompted a multi-year research program looking at several new sampling techniques. This paper will describe the cooperative research conducted into one of these new technologies, namely the Bag Mini-Diluter (BMD) and Direct Vehicle Exhaust (DVE) Volume system.
Technical Paper

Experimental and Modeling Evaluations of a Vacuum-Insulated Catalytic Converter

Vehicle evaluations and model calculations were conducted on a vacuum-insulated catalytic converter (VICC). This converter uses vacuum and a eutectic PCM (phase-change material) to prolong the temperature cool-down time and hence, may keep the converter above catalyst light-off between starts. Tailpipe emissions from a 1992 Tier 0 5.2L van were evaluated after 3hr, 12hr, and 24hr soak periods. After a 12hr soak the HC emissions were reduced by about 55% over the baseline HC emissions; after a 24hr soak the device did not exhibit any benefit in light-off compared to a conventional converter. Cool-down characteristics of this VICC indicated that the catalyst mid-bed temperature was about 180°C after 24hrs. Model calculations of the temperature warm-up were conducted on a VICC converter. Different warm-up profiles within the converter were predicted depending on the initial temperature of the device.
Technical Paper

Fuel Effects in a Boosted DISI Engine

Due to the recent drive to reduce CO₂ emissions, the turbocharged direct injection spark ignition (turbo DISI) gasoline engine has become increasingly popular. In addition, future turbo DISI engines could incorporate a form of charge dilution (e.g., lean operation or external EGR) to further increase fuel efficiency. Thus, the conditions experienced by the fuel before and during combustion are and will continue to be different from those experienced in naturally aspirated SI engines. This work investigates the effects of fuel properties on a modern and prototype turbo DISI engine, with particular focus on the octane appetite: How relevant are RON and MON in predicting a fuel's anti-knock performance in these modern/future engines? It is found that fuels with high RON and low MON values perform the best, suggesting the current MON requirements in fuel specifications could actually be detrimental.
Technical Paper

In Vehicle Exhaust Mount Load Measurement and Calculation

Exhaust durability is an important measure of quality, which can be predicted using CAE with accurate mount loads. This paper proposes an innovative method to calculate these loads from measured mount accelerations. A Chrysler vehicle was instrumented with accelerometers at both ends of its four exhaust mounts. The vehicle was tested at various durability routes or events at DaimlerChrysler Proving Grounds. These measured accelerations were integrated to obtain their velocities and displacements. The differences in velocities and displacements at each mount were multiplied by its damping and stiffness rates to obtain the mount load. The calculation was conducted for all three translational directions and for all events. The calculated mount loads are shown within reasonable range. Along with CAE, it is suggested to explore this method for exhaust durability development.
Technical Paper

Injection Molded, Extruded-In-Color Film Fascia

A new multi-layer co-extruded in-color Ionomer film is developed to provide an alternative decoration process to replace paint on Dodge Neon Fascias. The Ionomer film provides a high-gloss “class-A” surface in both non-metallic and metallic colors that match the car body paint finish. Using the Ionomer film to decorate fascias reduces cost; eliminates VOCs; increases manufacturing flexibility and improves performance (weatherability and durability). The molding process consists of thermoforming a film blank and injection molding Polypropylene or TPO behind the film. The paper will include the background, the benefits, the technology development objectives, the film materials development, tooling optimization, film fascia processing (co-extrusion; thermoforming and injection molding) and validation testing of the film.
Technical Paper

NVH Considerations for Zero Emissions Vehicle Driveline Design

In response to environmental and fossil fuel usage concerns, the automotive industry will gradually move from Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEV) which includes a shift of internal combustion engines toward Zero Emissions Vehicles (ZEV). Refinement is an important aspect in the successful adoption of any new technology and ZEV brings its own NVH challenges owing to the unique dynamic characteristics of the powertrain and driveline system. This paper presents considerations for addressing dynamic driveline NVH issues that are common to 100% electric vehicles; issues that manifest themselves as groans, rattles and clunks. A dynamic torsional analytical model of the powertrain & driveline will be presented. The analytical model served as the baseline for an extensive parametric study using the Genetic Algorithm (GA) technique, whereby the effectiveness of practical countermeasures was investigated.
Technical Paper

New Methods for Emission Analyzer Calibrations

Traditionally, vehicle emission testing has used non-intelligent analyzers to meet government-regulated standards. Typically, these instruments would provide a 0 to 5-volt signal to a central test cell computer which would then handle all calibrations including analyzer linearization, zero and span corrections, stability checks, time delays, and sample readings. Modern gas analyzers now contain intelligence within each individual analyzer; this has caused the calibration methods to change dramatically. New methods were developed in the bench control system to take advantage of the intelligence of the analyzers by creating a distributed control architecture. The zeroing, spanning, and linearization methods are quite different from the previous protocols. The results, however, will provide more accurate reading to be used in calculating vehicle emissions.
Technical Paper

Parameters Affecting Direct Vehicle Exhaust Flow Measurement

As SULEV emission regulations approach, the bag mini-diluter (BMD) technology is gaining acceptance as a replacement for the existing constant volume sampler (CVS) for SULEV exhaust emission measurement and certification. The heart of the BMD system is the direct vehicle exhaust (DVE) flow measurement system. Due to the transient nature of vehicle exhaust during a standard FTP emission test cycle, the DVE must be capable of rapid and accurate response in order to track these varying exhaust flow rates. The DVE must also be robust enough to accurately measure flow rate despite variations in exhaust gas composition, pulsation effects, and rapid changes in both exhaust temperature and pressure. One of the primary DVE systems used on BMDs is the E-Flow, an ultrasonic flow meter manufactured by Flow Technologies, Inc.
Technical Paper

Sensorless Control Strategy Enabled by a Sophisticated Tool Chain

Internal combustion engines continue to grow more complex every day out of necessity. Legislation and increasing customer demand means that advanced technologies like variable valve actuation (VVA), multi-path exhaust gas recirculation (EGR), advanced boosting, and aftertreatment systems continue to drive ever-expanding requirements for engine control to improve performance, fuel economy, and reduce emissions. Therefore, controller development and implementation are becoming more costly, both in terms of time and the monetary investment in engine hardware. To help reduce these costs, a sophisticated tool chain has been created which allows a real-time, physical, crank-angle resolved one-dimensional (1D) engine model to be implemented on a rapid prototyping engine control unit (ECU) which is then used in the control strategy of a running engine. Model-based controllers have been developed and validated to perform as well as or better than controllers using traditional sensors.
Journal Article

Studies on the Impact of 300 MPa Injection Pressure on Engine Performance, Gaseous and Particulate Emissions

An investigation has been carried out to examine the influence of up to 300 MPa injection pressure on engine performance and emissions. Experiments were performed on a 4 cylinder, 4 valve / cylinder, 4.5 liter John Deere diesel engine using the Ricardo Twin Vortex Combustion System (TVCS). The study was conducted by varying the injection pressure, Start of Injection (SOI), Variable Geometry Turbine (VGT) vane position and a wide range of EGR rates covering engine out NOx levels between 0.3 g/kWh to 2.5 g/kWh. A structured Design of Experiment approach was used to set up the experiments, develop empirical models and predict the optimum results for a range of different scenarios. Substantial fuel consumption benefits were found at the lowest NOx levels using 300 MPa injection pressure. At higher NOx levels the impact was nonexistent. In a separate investigation a Cambustion DMS-500 fast particle spectrometer, was used to sample and analyze the exhaust gas.
Technical Paper

The Use of Ozone in Low Temperature Methane Control for Natural Gas Applications

Lean operating natural gas heavy duty applications have advantages in terms of lower CO2 and PM compared to Diesel applications. This makes operating heavy duty applications on natural gas attractive and currently, they do not have to implement an exhaust particulate filter. However, the challenge is controlling methane emissions over a range of vehicle operating conditions. Methane is extremely stable and light off occurs at temperatures above 400 °C, with high efficiency occurring >500 °C and requires high precious metal loaded catalysts in the range of 150 - 200 g/ft3. Under stoichiometric conditions, 500 °C can be met in many engine operating points however, for lean operating applications, the exhaust temperature can be significantly lower than 500 °C posing a significant challenge for exhaust catalytic CH4 control. This paper will discuss synthetic gas reactor study results using ozone in the feed gas to perform low temperature methane control.