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Technical Paper

Anti-Shudder Property of Automatic Transmission Fluids - A Study by the International Lubricants Standardization and Approval Committee (ILSAC) ATF Subcommittee

2000-06-19
2000-01-1870
In recent years, the slip lock-up mechanism has been adopted widely, because of its fuel efficiency and its ability to improve NVH. This necessitates that the automatic transmission fluid (ATF) used in automatic transmissions with slip lock-up clutches requires anti-shudder performance characteristics. The test methods used to evaluate the anti-shudder performance of an ATF can be classified roughly into two types. One is specified to measure whether a μ-V slope of the ATF is positive or negative, the other is the evaluation of the shudder occurrence in the practical vehicle. The former are μ-V property tests from MERCON® V, ATF+4®, and JASO M349-98, the latter is the vehicle test from DEXRON®-III. Additionally, in the evaluation of the μ-V property, there are two tests using the modified SAE No.2 friction machine and the modified low velocity friction apparatus (LVFA).
Technical Paper

Body/Chassis Dynamic Response Under Experimental Modal Test

2005-05-16
2005-01-2463
Mode management is an essential part of the design process for NVH performance. System resonances must be sufficiently separated to minimize interaction from source inputs and each other [1]. Such resonances are typically determined through experimental modal testing conducted in a lab environment under controlled and repeatable conditions. Global vehicle and suspension system response demonstrate soft nonlinear behavior, however. Their resonant frequencies may thus decrease under on-road input not reproducible in a lab environment. Subsequently, mode management charts derived from lab testing may not be representative of the vehicle's on-road dynamic response. This paper presents modal model determination methodologies, and examines suspension system and vehicle global dynamic response under lab modal test and operating conditions. Vehicle suspension modes measured under static and dynamic (rolling) conditions will be compared.
Technical Paper

CAE Approach for Light Truck Frame Durability Evaluation Due to Payload Increase

2004-11-16
2004-01-3411
The growing competition of the automotive market makes more and more necessary the reduction of development time and consequently, the increase of the capacity to quickly respond to the launching of the competitors. One of the most costly phases on the vehicle development process is the field durability test, both in function of the number of prototypes employed and the time needed to its execution. More and more diffused, the fatigue life prediction methods have played an important part in the durability analysis via CAE. Nevertheless, in order they can be reliable and really being able to reduce the development time and cost, they need to be provided with load cases that can accurately represent the field durability tests. This work presents a CAE approach used for light trucks in order to get a reasonable understanding of component durability behavior due to payload increase. In general, road load data is not available for a new payload condition.
Technical Paper

Chrysler 45RFE a New Generation Light Truck Automatic Transmission

1999-03-01
1999-01-1260
The 45RFE is a new generation electronically controlled rear wheel drive automatic transmission. It employs real-time feedback, closed-loop modulation of shift functions to achieve outstanding shift quality and to meet demanding durability goals. It uses no shift valves; all friction element applications are effected with high-flow electro-hydraulic solenoid valves. A unique gear train arrangement of three planetary carriers allows all sun gears and annulus gears to have the same number of teeth respectively and use a common pinion gear in all carriers, resulting in significant manufacturing simplification. The three-planetary system is designed for four forward ratios of 3.00, 1.67, 1.00 and 0.75 and one reverse gear ratio equal to the low gear ratio. A fifth ratio of 1.50 is used only in certain kick-down shift sequences for highway passing. A sixth forward ratio, an additional overdrive ratio of 0.67, is available in the hardware.
Technical Paper

Clamp Load Consideration in Fatigue Life Prediction of a Cast Aluminum Wheel Using Finite Element Analysis

2004-03-08
2004-01-1581
Loads generated during assembly may cause significant stress levels in components. Under test conditions, these stresses alter the mean stress which in turn, alters the fatigue life and critical stress area of the components as well. This paper describes the Finite Element Analysis (FEA) procedure to evaluate behavior of a cast aluminum wheel subjected to the rotary fatigue test condition as specified in the SAE test procedure (SAE J328 JUN94). Fatigue life of the wheel is determined using the S-N approach for a constant reversed loading condition. In addition, fatigue life predictions with and without clamp loads are compared. It is concluded that the inclusion of clamp load is necessary for better prediction of the critical stress areas and fatigue life of the wheel.
Technical Paper

Complex Systems Method Applied to Identify Carbon Dioxide Emission Reductions for Light-Duty Vehicles for the 2020-2025 Timeframe

2012-04-16
2012-01-0360
The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, U.S. Department of Transportation's National Highway and Traffic Safety Administration, and the California Air Resources Board have recently released proposed new regulations for greenhouse gas emissions and fuel economy for light-duty vehicles and trucks in model years 2017-2025. These proposed regulations intend to significantly reduce greenhouse gas emissions and increase fleet fuel economy from current levels. At the fleet level, these rules the proposed regulations represent a 50% reduction in greenhouse gas emissions by new vehicles in 2025 compared to current fleet levels. At the same time, global growth, especially in developing economies, should continue to drive demand for crude oil and may lead to further fuel price increases. Both of these trends will therefore require light duty vehicles (LDV) to significantly improve their greenhouse gas emissions over the next 5-15 years to meet regulatory requirements and customer demand.
Technical Paper

EBDI® - Application of a Fully Flexible High BMEP Downsized Spark Ignited Engine

2010-04-12
2010-01-0587
The Ethanol-Boosted Direct Injection (EBDI) demonstrator engine is a collaborative project led by Ricardo targeted at reducing the fuel consumption of a spark-ignited engine. This paper describes the design challenges to upgrade an existing engine architecture and the synergistic use of a combination of technologies that allows a significant reduction in fuel consumption and CO₂ emissions. Features include an extremely reduced displacement for the target vehicle, 180 bar cylinder pressure capability, cooled exhaust gas recirculation, advanced boosting concepts and direct injection. Precise harmonization of these individual technologies and control algorithms provide optimized operation on gasoline of varying octane and ethanol content.
Technical Paper

Effects of Different Vehicle Parameters on Car to Car Frontal Crash Fatality Risk Estimated through a Parameterized Model

2006-04-03
2006-01-1134
For the purposes of analyzing and understanding the general effects of a set of different vehicle attributes on overall crash outcome a fleet model is used. It represents the impact response, in a one-dimensional sense, of two vehicle frontal crashes, across the frontal crash velocity spectrum. The parameters studied are vehicle mass, stiffness, intrusion, pulse shape and seatbelt usage. The vehicle impact response parameters are obtained from the NCAP tests. The fatality risk characterization, as a function of the seatbelt use and vehicle velocity, is obtained from the NASS database. The fatality risk is further mapped into average acceleration to allow for evaluation of the different vehicle impact response parameters. The results indicate that the effects of all the parameters are interconnected and none of them is independent. For example, the effect of vehicle mass on fatality risk depends on seatbelt use, vehicle stiffness, available crush, intrusion and pulse shape.
Technical Paper

Experimental Determination of an Engine's Inertial Properties

2007-05-15
2007-01-2291
Determination of an engine's inertial properties is critical during vehicle dynamic analysis and the early stages of engine mounting system design. Traditionally, the inertia tensor can be determined by torsional pendulum method with a reasonable precision, while the center of gravity can be determined by placing it in a stable position on three scales with less accuracy. Other common experimental approaches include the use of frequency response functions. The difficulty of this method is to align the directions of the transducers mounted on various positions on the engine. In this paper, an experimental method to estimate an engine's inertia tensor and center of gravity is presented. The method utilizes the traditional torsional pendulum method, but with additional measurement data. With this method, the inertia tensor and center of gravity are estimated in a least squares sense.
Technical Paper

Large Scale High Speed Dynamic Crush Tests Using Two Sleds

2005-04-11
2005-01-1418
It is often necessary to dynamically test a big vehicle part such as a rail tip at component level in high speed. Such a big part can be crush tested dynamically using two sled carriers. The methodology is shown and discussed here, and equations are developed to help determine required parameters such as sled velocity and weights. Test results using a truck rail tip are shown and compared to full vehicle test results for correlation.
Technical Paper

Light Truck Frame Joint Stiffness Study

2003-03-03
2003-01-0241
Truck frame structural performance of body on frame vehicles is greatly affected by crossmember and joint design. While the structural characteristics of these joints vary widely, there is no known tool currently in use that quickly predicts joint stiffness early in the design cycle. This paper will describe a process used to evaluate the structural stiffness of frame joints based on research of existing procedures and implementation of newly developed methods. Results of five different joint tests selected from current production body-on-frame vehicles will be reported. Correlation between finite element analysis and test results will be shown. Three samples of each joint were tested and the sample variation will be shown. After physical and analytical testing was completed, a Design of Experiments approach was implemented to evaluate the sensitivity of joints with respect to gauge and shape modification.
Technical Paper

Lightweight Magnesium Intensive Body Structure

2006-04-03
2006-01-0523
This paper describes a lightweight magnesium intensive automobile body structure concept developed at DaimlerChrysler to support a high fuel-efficiency vehicle project. This body structure resulted in more than 40% weight reduction over a conventional steel structure while achieving significantly improved structural performance as evaluated through CAE simulations. A business case analysis was conducted and showed promising results. One concept vehicle was built for the purpose of demonstrating concept feasibility. The paper also identifies areas for further development to enable such a vehicle to become a production reality at a later time.
Technical Paper

Measurement of Dynamic Parameters of Automotive Exhaust Hangers

2001-04-30
2001-01-1446
Different methodologies to test and analyze the dynamic stiffness (K) and damping (C) properties of several silicone and EPDM rubber automotive exhaust hangers were investigated in this research. One test method utilized a standard MTS hydraulic test machine with a single sine excitation at discrete frequencies and amplitude levels, while a second method utilized an electrodynamic shaker with broadband excitation. Analysis techniques for extracting the equivalent stiffness and damping were developed in the shaker tests using data from time domain, frequency domain, as well as force transmissibility. A comparison of all of the shaker testing methods for repeatability and accuracy was done with the goal of determining the appropriate method that generates the most consistent results over the range of testing. The shaker testing in the frequency domain using a frequency response function model produced good results and the set-up is relatively inexpensive.
Technical Paper

Multi-Disciplinary Aerodynamics Analysis for Vehicles: Application of External Flow Simulations to Aerodynamics, Aeroacoustics and Thermal Management of a Pickup Truck

2007-04-16
2007-01-0100
During the design process for a vehicle, the CAD surface geometry becomes available at an early stage so that numerical assessment of aerodynamic performance may accompany the design of the vehicle's shape. Accurate prediction requires open grille models with detailed underhood and underbody geometry with a high level of detail on the upper body surface, such as moldings, trim and parting lines. These details are also needed for aeroacoustics simulations to compute wall-pressure fluctuations, and for thermal management simulations to compute underhood cooling, surface temperatures and heat exchanger effectiveness. This paper presents the results of a significant effort to capitalize on the investment required to build a detailed virtual model of a pickup truck in order to simultaneously assess performance factors for aerodynamics, aeroacoustics and thermal management.
Technical Paper

NVH Considerations for Zero Emissions Vehicle Driveline Design

2011-05-17
2011-01-1545
In response to environmental and fossil fuel usage concerns, the automotive industry will gradually move from Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEV) which includes a shift of internal combustion engines toward Zero Emissions Vehicles (ZEV). Refinement is an important aspect in the successful adoption of any new technology and ZEV brings its own NVH challenges owing to the unique dynamic characteristics of the powertrain and driveline system. This paper presents considerations for addressing dynamic driveline NVH issues that are common to 100% electric vehicles; issues that manifest themselves as groans, rattles and clunks. A dynamic torsional analytical model of the powertrain & driveline will be presented. The analytical model served as the baseline for an extensive parametric study using the Genetic Algorithm (GA) technique, whereby the effectiveness of practical countermeasures was investigated.
Technical Paper

Optimization of Damping Treatment for Structure Borne Noise Reduction

2003-05-05
2003-01-1592
In automotive industry, all passenger vehicles are treated with damping materials to reduce structure borne noise. The effectiveness of damping treatments depends upon design parameters such as choice of damping materials, locations and size of the treatment. This paper proposes a CAE (Computer Aided Engineering) methodology based on finite element analysis to optimize damping treatments. The developed method uses modal strain-energy information of bare structural panels to identify flexible regions, which in turn facilitates optimization of damping treatments with respect to location and size. The efficacy of the method is demonstrated by optimizing damping treatment for a full-size pick-up truck. Moreover, simulated road noise performances of the truck with and without damping treatments are compared, which show the benefits of applying damping treatment.
Technical Paper

Optimizing 4×4 Steering Geometry

2007-11-28
2007-01-2675
This paper is related to a new concept for the steering linkage of light trucks featuring mono-beam front axles. The current configuration of steering systems for those vehicles comprise a worm and sector steering with a Pitman arm connected to a transverse drag link. This last one connects to the steering link that finally steers the left and right wheels. The problem that has been experienced with this system is that, during a braking event, results in a very unfavorable bump steering condition.
Technical Paper

Oxidation Stability of Automatic Transmission Fluids -A Study by the International Lubricants Standardization and Approval Committee (ILSAC) ATF Subcommittee

2001-05-07
2001-01-1991
The International Lubricant Standardization and Approval Committee (ILSAC) ATF subcommittee members have compared the two oxidation bench test methods, Aluminum Beaker Oxidation Test (ABOT) and Indiana Stirring Oxidation Stability Test (ISOT), using a number of factory-fill and service-fill ATFs obtained in Japan and in the US. In many cases, the ATFs were more severely oxidized after the ABOT procedure than after the same duration of the ISOT procedure. The relative severity of these two tests was influenced by the composition of the ATFs. The bench test oxidation data were compared with the transmission and the vehicle oxidation test data.
Technical Paper

Pass-by-Noise Development for Trucks Considering Cooling and Airflow Management

2001-03-05
2001-01-3849
The work carried out with external noise insulation has been demanding high importance in vehicle concept since the second External Noise Regulation in Brazil (Conama 001/ 1993). The engineering effort shall increase significantly for near future developments due to the new Regulation (Conama 272 / 2000) with more stringent limits. The effect over vehicle systems beyond noise requirements is not restricted to the addition of shields and insulators. The airflow restriction created by the noise shields surfaces may become a huge cooling issue. This situation is usually observed on trucks designed for tropical markets and submitted to severe environments. Lessons learned in a current development are the basis of the proposed methodology. Vehicle and lab sound intensity noise source ranking tests are suggested as development tools. The paper also presents a pass-by-noise development strategy that includes CAE airflow and cooling management tools.
Technical Paper

Reliability Analysis of Dynamometer Loading Parameters during Vehicle Cell Testing

2007-04-16
2007-01-0600
In automotive testing, a chassis dynamometer is typically used, during cell testing, to evaluate vehicle performance by simulating actual driving conditions. The use of indoor cell testing has the advantage of running controlled tests where the cell temperature and humidity and solar loads can be well controlled. Driving conditions such as vehicle speed, wind speed and grade can be also controlled. Thus, repeated tests can be conducted with minimum test variations. The tractive effort required at the wheels of a vehicle for a given set of operating parameters is determined by taking into account a set of variables which affect vehicle performance. The forces considered in determination of the tractive effort include the constant friction force, variable friction force due to mechanical and tire friction, forces due to inertia and forces due to aerodynamic and wind effects. In addition, forces due to gravity are considered when road grades are simulated.
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