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Technical Paper

An HCCI Engine: Power Plant for a Hybrid Vehicle

2004-03-08
2004-01-0933
Homogenous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engines offer a great potential in achieving high thermal efficiency and extremely low NOx at the same time. However, control of combustion phasing over a wide speed and load range has been a challenge, especially during transient operations. This paper describes work conducted at the National Vehicle and Fuel Emissions Laboratory, which explores the potential use of an HCCI engine as a power plant for a hybrid vehicle. A four-cylinder, 1.9 L commercial diesel engine was modified to operate with port-injected regular grade gasoline in HCCI mode. The combustion phasing is controlled by a combination of boost, EGR and thermal management as a function of engine speed and load. As a stand-alone unit, the engine has demonstrated a wide operation range with efficiency like that of a diesel engine and NOx below 0.2 g/kWh. At room temperature, the engine starts in SI mode and then transitions to HCCI in about 25 seconds.
Technical Paper

CAE Approach for Light Truck Frame Durability Evaluation Due to Payload Increase

2004-11-16
2004-01-3411
The growing competition of the automotive market makes more and more necessary the reduction of development time and consequently, the increase of the capacity to quickly respond to the launching of the competitors. One of the most costly phases on the vehicle development process is the field durability test, both in function of the number of prototypes employed and the time needed to its execution. More and more diffused, the fatigue life prediction methods have played an important part in the durability analysis via CAE. Nevertheless, in order they can be reliable and really being able to reduce the development time and cost, they need to be provided with load cases that can accurately represent the field durability tests. This work presents a CAE approach used for light trucks in order to get a reasonable understanding of component durability behavior due to payload increase. In general, road load data is not available for a new payload condition.
Technical Paper

Characterization of GHG Reduction Technologies in the Existing Fleet

2018-04-03
2018-01-1268
By almost any definition, technology has penetrated the U.S. light-duty vehicle fleet significantly in conjunction with the increased stringency of fuel economy and GHG emissions regulations. The physical presence of advanced technology components provides one indication of the efforts taken to reduce emissions, but that alone does not provide a complete measure of the benefits of a particular technology application. Differences in the design of components, the materials used, the presence of other technologies, and the calibration of controls can impact the performance of technologies in any particular implementation. The effectiveness of a technology for reducing emissions will also be influenced by the extent to which the technologies are applied towards changes in vehicle operating characteristics such as improved acceleration, or customer features that may offset mass reduction from the use of lightweight materials.
Technical Paper

Chrysler 45RFE a New Generation Light Truck Automatic Transmission

1999-03-01
1999-01-1260
The 45RFE is a new generation electronically controlled rear wheel drive automatic transmission. It employs real-time feedback, closed-loop modulation of shift functions to achieve outstanding shift quality and to meet demanding durability goals. It uses no shift valves; all friction element applications are effected with high-flow electro-hydraulic solenoid valves. A unique gear train arrangement of three planetary carriers allows all sun gears and annulus gears to have the same number of teeth respectively and use a common pinion gear in all carriers, resulting in significant manufacturing simplification. The three-planetary system is designed for four forward ratios of 3.00, 1.67, 1.00 and 0.75 and one reverse gear ratio equal to the low gear ratio. A fifth ratio of 1.50 is used only in certain kick-down shift sequences for highway passing. A sixth forward ratio, an additional overdrive ratio of 0.67, is available in the hardware.
Technical Paper

Complex Systems Method Applied to Identify Carbon Dioxide Emission Reductions for Light-Duty Vehicles for the 2020-2025 Timeframe

2012-04-16
2012-01-0360
The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, U.S. Department of Transportation's National Highway and Traffic Safety Administration, and the California Air Resources Board have recently released proposed new regulations for greenhouse gas emissions and fuel economy for light-duty vehicles and trucks in model years 2017-2025. These proposed regulations intend to significantly reduce greenhouse gas emissions and increase fleet fuel economy from current levels. At the fleet level, these rules the proposed regulations represent a 50% reduction in greenhouse gas emissions by new vehicles in 2025 compared to current fleet levels. At the same time, global growth, especially in developing economies, should continue to drive demand for crude oil and may lead to further fuel price increases. Both of these trends will therefore require light duty vehicles (LDV) to significantly improve their greenhouse gas emissions over the next 5-15 years to meet regulatory requirements and customer demand.
Journal Article

Design and Demonstration of EPA's Integrated Drive Module for Commercial Series Hydraulic Hybrid Trucks and Buses

2015-09-29
2015-01-2850
The United States Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) National Center for Advanced Technology (NCAT), located at its National Vehicle and Fuel Emissions Laboratory in Ann Arbor, Michigan, has been a global leader in development and demonstration of low-greenhouse gas emitting, highly fuel efficient series hydraulic hybrid drivetrain technologies. Advances in these exciting new technologies have stimulated industry to begin manufacturing hydraulic hybrids for both commercial truck and non-road equipment markets. Development activities are continuing for other markets, including light-duty vehicles. Given the commercial emergence of these low-greenhouse gas emitting series hydraulic hybrids, EPA has passed the leadership for further development to industry.
Technical Paper

EBDI® - Application of a Fully Flexible High BMEP Downsized Spark Ignited Engine

2010-04-12
2010-01-0587
The Ethanol-Boosted Direct Injection (EBDI) demonstrator engine is a collaborative project led by Ricardo targeted at reducing the fuel consumption of a spark-ignited engine. This paper describes the design challenges to upgrade an existing engine architecture and the synergistic use of a combination of technologies that allows a significant reduction in fuel consumption and CO₂ emissions. Features include an extremely reduced displacement for the target vehicle, 180 bar cylinder pressure capability, cooled exhaust gas recirculation, advanced boosting concepts and direct injection. Precise harmonization of these individual technologies and control algorithms provide optimized operation on gasoline of varying octane and ethanol content.
Technical Paper

Effects of Different Vehicle Parameters on Car to Car Frontal Crash Fatality Risk Estimated through a Parameterized Model

2006-04-03
2006-01-1134
For the purposes of analyzing and understanding the general effects of a set of different vehicle attributes on overall crash outcome a fleet model is used. It represents the impact response, in a one-dimensional sense, of two vehicle frontal crashes, across the frontal crash velocity spectrum. The parameters studied are vehicle mass, stiffness, intrusion, pulse shape and seatbelt usage. The vehicle impact response parameters are obtained from the NCAP tests. The fatality risk characterization, as a function of the seatbelt use and vehicle velocity, is obtained from the NASS database. The fatality risk is further mapped into average acceleration to allow for evaluation of the different vehicle impact response parameters. The results indicate that the effects of all the parameters are interconnected and none of them is independent. For example, the effect of vehicle mass on fatality risk depends on seatbelt use, vehicle stiffness, available crush, intrusion and pulse shape.
Technical Paper

Energy Management Options for an Electric Vehicle with Hydraulic Regeneration System

2011-04-12
2011-01-0868
Energy security and climate change challenges provide a strong impetus for investigating Electric Vehicle (EV) concepts. EVs link two major infrastructures, the transportation and the electric power grid. This provides a chance to bring other sources of energy into transportation, displace petroleum and, with the right mix of power generation sources, reduce CO₂ emissions. The main obstacles for introducing a large numbers of EVs are cost, battery weight, and vehicle range. Battery health is also a factor, both directly and indirectly, by introducing limits on depth of discharge. This paper considers a low-cost path for extending the range of a small urban EV by integrating a parallel hydraulic system for harvesting and reusing braking energy. The idea behind the concept is to avoid replacement of lead-acid or small Li-Ion batteries with a very expensive Li-Ion pack, and instead use a low-cost hydraulic system to achieve comparable range improvements.
Journal Article

Fuel-Savings from Aerodynamic Efficiency Improvements for Combination Tractor-Trailers Relative to Vehicle Speed

2016-09-27
2016-01-8133
Commercial, class-8 tractor-trailers were tested to develop a relationship between vehicle speed and fuel savings associated with trailer aerodynamic technologies representative of typical long-haul freight applications. This research seeks to address a concern that many long-distance U.S. freight companies hold that, as vehicle speed is reduced, the fuel savings benefits of aerodynamic technologies are not realized. In this paper, the reductions in fuel consumption were measured using the SAE J1231 test method and thru-engine fueling rates recorded from the vehicle’s electronic data stream. Constant speed testing was conducted on road at different speeds and corresponding testing was conducted on track to confirm results. Data was collected at four (4) vehicle speeds: 35, 45, 55, and 62 miles per hour. Two different trailer aerodynamic configurations were evaluated relative to a baseline tractor trailer.
Technical Paper

Influence of Fuel PM Index and Ethanol Content on Particulate Emissions from Light-Duty Gasoline Vehicles

2015-04-14
2015-01-1072
The EPAct/V2/E-89 gasoline fuel effects program collected emissions data for 27 test fuels using a fleet of 15 high-sales cars and light trucks from the 2008 model year (all with port fuel injection). The test fuel matrix covered values of T50, T90, vapor pressure, ethanol content, and total aromatic content spanning ranges typical of market gasolines. Emission measurements were made over the LA92 cycle at a nominal temperature of 24°C (75°F). The resulting emissions database of 956 tests includes a particulate matter (PM) mass measurement for each. Emission models for PM fuel effects were fit based on terms for which the fuel matrix was originally optimized, with results published by EPA in a 2013 analysis report. This paper presents results of a subsequent modeling analysis of this PM data using the PM Index fuel parameter, and compares these models to the original versions.
Technical Paper

Large Scale High Speed Dynamic Crush Tests Using Two Sleds

2005-04-11
2005-01-1418
It is often necessary to dynamically test a big vehicle part such as a rail tip at component level in high speed. Such a big part can be crush tested dynamically using two sled carriers. The methodology is shown and discussed here, and equations are developed to help determine required parameters such as sled velocity and weights. Test results using a truck rail tip are shown and compared to full vehicle test results for correlation.
Technical Paper

Light Truck Frame Joint Stiffness Study

2003-03-03
2003-01-0241
Truck frame structural performance of body on frame vehicles is greatly affected by crossmember and joint design. While the structural characteristics of these joints vary widely, there is no known tool currently in use that quickly predicts joint stiffness early in the design cycle. This paper will describe a process used to evaluate the structural stiffness of frame joints based on research of existing procedures and implementation of newly developed methods. Results of five different joint tests selected from current production body-on-frame vehicles will be reported. Correlation between finite element analysis and test results will be shown. Three samples of each joint were tested and the sample variation will be shown. After physical and analytical testing was completed, a Design of Experiments approach was implemented to evaluate the sensitivity of joints with respect to gauge and shape modification.
Technical Paper

Lightweight Magnesium Intensive Body Structure

2006-04-03
2006-01-0523
This paper describes a lightweight magnesium intensive automobile body structure concept developed at DaimlerChrysler to support a high fuel-efficiency vehicle project. This body structure resulted in more than 40% weight reduction over a conventional steel structure while achieving significantly improved structural performance as evaluated through CAE simulations. A business case analysis was conducted and showed promising results. One concept vehicle was built for the purpose of demonstrating concept feasibility. The paper also identifies areas for further development to enable such a vehicle to become a production reality at a later time.
Journal Article

Maneuver-Based Battery-in-the-Loop Testing - Bringing Reality to Lab

2013-04-08
2013-01-0157
The increasing numbers of hybrid electric and full electric vehicle models currently in the market or in the pipeline of automotive OEMs require creative testing mechanisms to drive down development costs and optimize the efficiency of these vehicles. In this paper, such a testing mechanism that has been successfully implemented at the US Environmental Protection Agency National Vehicle and Fuel Emissions Laboratory (EPA NVFEL) is described. In this testing scheme, the units-under-test consist of a battery pack and its associated battery management system (BMS). The remaining subsystems, components, and environment of the vehicle are virtual and modeled in high fidelity.
Technical Paper

Modeling and Validation of Lithium-Ion Automotive Battery Packs

2013-04-08
2013-01-1539
The Advanced Light-Duty Powertrain and Hybrid Analysis (ALPHA) tool was created by EPA to evaluate the Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions of Light-Duty (LD) vehicles. It is a physics-based, forward-looking, full vehicle computer simulator capable of analyzing various vehicle types combined with different powertrain technologies. The software tool is a freely-distributed, MATLAB/Simulink-based desktop application. Version 1.0 of the ALPHA tool was applicable only to conventional, non-hybrid vehicles and was used to evaluate off-cycle technology such as air-conditioning, electrical load reduction technology and road load reduction technologies for the 2017-2025 LD GHG and Fuel Economy rule. The next version of the ALPHA tool extends its modeling capabilities to include power-split and P2 parallel hybrid electric vehicles and their battery pack energy storage systems. Future versions of ALPHA will incorporate plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) and electric vehicle (EV) architectures.
Technical Paper

Modeling and Validation of Power-Split and P2 Parallel Hybrid Electric Vehicles

2013-04-08
2013-01-1470
The Advanced Light-Duty Powertrain and Hybrid Analysis tool was created by EPA to evaluate the Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions of Light-Duty (LD) vehicles. It is a physics-based, forward-looking, full vehicle computer simulator capable of analyzing various vehicle types combined with different powertrain technologies. The software tool is a freely-distributed, MATLAB/Simulink-based desktop application. Version 1.0 of the ALPHA tool was applicable only to conventional, non-hybrid vehicles and was used to evaluate off-cycle technologies such as air-conditioning, electrical load reduction technology and road load reduction technologies for the 2017-2025 LD GHG rule. The next version of the ALPHA tool will extend its modeling capabilities to include power-split and P2 parallel hybrid electric vehicles and their battery pack energy storage systems. Future versions of ALPHA will incorporate plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) and electric vehicle (EV) architectures.
Technical Paper

Multi-Disciplinary Aerodynamics Analysis for Vehicles: Application of External Flow Simulations to Aerodynamics, Aeroacoustics and Thermal Management of a Pickup Truck

2007-04-16
2007-01-0100
During the design process for a vehicle, the CAD surface geometry becomes available at an early stage so that numerical assessment of aerodynamic performance may accompany the design of the vehicle's shape. Accurate prediction requires open grille models with detailed underhood and underbody geometry with a high level of detail on the upper body surface, such as moldings, trim and parting lines. These details are also needed for aeroacoustics simulations to compute wall-pressure fluctuations, and for thermal management simulations to compute underhood cooling, surface temperatures and heat exchanger effectiveness. This paper presents the results of a significant effort to capitalize on the investment required to build a detailed virtual model of a pickup truck in order to simultaneously assess performance factors for aerodynamics, aeroacoustics and thermal management.
Technical Paper

NVH Considerations for Zero Emissions Vehicle Driveline Design

2011-05-17
2011-01-1545
In response to environmental and fossil fuel usage concerns, the automotive industry will gradually move from Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEV) which includes a shift of internal combustion engines toward Zero Emissions Vehicles (ZEV). Refinement is an important aspect in the successful adoption of any new technology and ZEV brings its own NVH challenges owing to the unique dynamic characteristics of the powertrain and driveline system. This paper presents considerations for addressing dynamic driveline NVH issues that are common to 100% electric vehicles; issues that manifest themselves as groans, rattles and clunks. A dynamic torsional analytical model of the powertrain & driveline will be presented. The analytical model served as the baseline for an extensive parametric study using the Genetic Algorithm (GA) technique, whereby the effectiveness of practical countermeasures was investigated.
Technical Paper

Optimization of Damping Treatment for Structure Borne Noise Reduction

2003-05-05
2003-01-1592
In automotive industry, all passenger vehicles are treated with damping materials to reduce structure borne noise. The effectiveness of damping treatments depends upon design parameters such as choice of damping materials, locations and size of the treatment. This paper proposes a CAE (Computer Aided Engineering) methodology based on finite element analysis to optimize damping treatments. The developed method uses modal strain-energy information of bare structural panels to identify flexible regions, which in turn facilitates optimization of damping treatments with respect to location and size. The efficacy of the method is demonstrated by optimizing damping treatment for a full-size pick-up truck. Moreover, simulated road noise performances of the truck with and without damping treatments are compared, which show the benefits of applying damping treatment.
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