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Technical Paper

An Efficient Procedure for Vehicle Thermal Protection Development

Vehicle thermal protection is an important aspect of the overall vehicle development process. It involves optimizing the exhaust system routing and designing heat shields to protect various components that are in near proximity to the exhaust system. Reduced time to market necessitates an efficient process for thermal protection development. A robust procedure that utilizes state of the art CFD simulation techniques proactively during the design phase is described. Simulation allows for early detection of thermal issues and development of countermeasures several months before prototype vehicles are built. Physical testing is only used to verify the thermal protection package rather than to develop heat shields. The new procedure reduces the number of physical tests and results in a robust, efficient methodology.
Technical Paper

Development of Truck Engine Technologies for Use with Fischer-Tropsch Fuels

The Fischer-Tropsch (FT) process can be used to synthesize diesel fuels from a variety of energy sources, including coal, natural gas and biomass. Diesel fuels produced from the FT process are essentially sulfur-free, have very low aromatic content, and have excellent ignition characteristics. Because of these favorable attributes, FT diesel fuels may offer environmental benefits over transportation fuels derived from crude oil. Previous tests have shown that FT diesel fuel can be used in unmodified engines and have been shown to lower regulated emissions. Whereas exhaust emissions reductions from these previous studies have been impressive, this paper demonstrates that far greater exhaust emissions reductions are possible if the diesel engine is optimized to exploit the properties of the FT fuels. A Power Stroke 7.3 liter turbocharged diesel engine has been modified for use with FT diesel.
Technical Paper

Exhaust Catalytic Converter Bench Fatigue Test Specification Based on Equivalent Damage

Component bench fatigue testing is a cost-effective way to evaluate the durability of exhaust catalytic converters. A successful bench fatigue test depends on the development of a test specification. The test specification should represent the actual customer duty cycle that the component is exposed to. Based on the concept of equivalent fatigue damage, a systematic approach is presented to obtain the test specification from the acquired road load data. A method based on damage analysis is proposed to determine the effective notch factor, and an empirical relationship is presented to account for the thermal effect on the test specification. The principles and procedures of multiple block testing and constant amplitude testing are also presented.
Technical Paper

Experimental and Modeling Evaluations of a Vacuum-Insulated Catalytic Converter

Vehicle evaluations and model calculations were conducted on a vacuum-insulated catalytic converter (VICC). This converter uses vacuum and a eutectic PCM (phase-change material) to prolong the temperature cool-down time and hence, may keep the converter above catalyst light-off between starts. Tailpipe emissions from a 1992 Tier 0 5.2L van were evaluated after 3hr, 12hr, and 24hr soak periods. After a 12hr soak the HC emissions were reduced by about 55% over the baseline HC emissions; after a 24hr soak the device did not exhibit any benefit in light-off compared to a conventional converter. Cool-down characteristics of this VICC indicated that the catalyst mid-bed temperature was about 180°C after 24hrs. Model calculations of the temperature warm-up were conducted on a VICC converter. Different warm-up profiles within the converter were predicted depending on the initial temperature of the device.
Technical Paper

Linear Acoustic Modelling using 1-D Flow Systems which represent Complex 3-D Components

Acoustics of automotive intake and exhaust systems have been modelled very successfully for many years using 1D gas dynamic simulations. These use pseudo 3D models to allow complex components to be constructed from simple building blocks. In recent years, tools have appeared that automate the construction of network models from 3D geometries of intake and exhaust components. Using these tools, concurrent noise and performance predictions are a core part of most engine development programmes. However, there is still much interest in the more traditional field of linear acoustics: analysing the acoustic behaviour of isolated components or predicting radiated noise using a linear source. Existing approaches break the intake and exhaust system down into a set of components, each with known acoustic properties. They are then connected together to create a network that replicates the donor non-linear model.
Technical Paper

Robust Design of a Catalytic Converter with Material and Manufacturing Variations

A design is robust when the performance targets have been achieved and the effects of variation have been minimized without eliminating the causes of the variation such as manufacturing tolerances, material properties, environmental temperature, humidity, operational wear etc. In recent years several robust design concepts have been introduced in an effort to obtain optimum designs and minimize the variation in the product characteristics [1,2]. In this study, a probabilistic design analysis was performed on a catalytic converter substrate in order to determine the required manufacturing tolerance that results in a robust design. Variation in circularity (roundness) and the ultimate shear stress of the substrate material were considered. The required manufacturing tolerance for a robust design with 1,2 and 3 sigma quality levels was determined. The same manufacturing tolerance for a reliability based design with reliability levels of 85%, 90% and 95% was also determined and compared.
Technical Paper

Simulating Odd Fire V-10 Exhaust Noise for Sound Quality Evaluation

This paper presents an integrated design/simulation/test approach for evaluating the sound quality of exhaust noise as early as possible in the exhaust system design and development process. A time domain engine/exhaust simulation program is used to calculate the engine order content of the tailpipe radiated noise from an odd fire V-10 exhaust system. Both steady state and transient conditions are simulated and sound files generated for exhaust sound quality evaluation. To increase the realism of played back sounds, the predicted engine orders are mixed with synthesized or recorded background noise for both steady state and transient conditions. These alternative approaches will be described and evaluated for technical feasibility and sound quality.
Technical Paper

Streamlining the Process of Developing Intake and Exhaust Acoustics Using an Improved Linear Simulation Approach

Intake and exhaust system development is an important step in automotive design. The intake system must allow sufficient air to flow into the engine, and the exhaust system must allow exhaust gases to depart at the rear of the vehicle, without excessive pressure loss. These systems must also attenuate the acoustic pressure pulsations generated by the engine, such that the noise emitted from the intake and exhaust orifices is constrained within reasonable limits, and exhibits a sound quality in keeping with the brand and vehicle image. Pressure loss and orifice noise tend to be in conflict, so an appropriate trade-off must be sought. Simulation of both parameters allows intake and exhaust systems to be designed effectively, quickly, cheaply and promptly. Linear simulation approaches have been widely used for intake and exhaust acoustic prediction for many decades.
Technical Paper

The Use of Ozone in Low Temperature Methane Control for Natural Gas Applications

Lean operating natural gas heavy duty applications have advantages in terms of lower CO2 and PM compared to Diesel applications. This makes operating heavy duty applications on natural gas attractive and currently, they do not have to implement an exhaust particulate filter. However, the challenge is controlling methane emissions over a range of vehicle operating conditions. Methane is extremely stable and light off occurs at temperatures above 400 °C, with high efficiency occurring >500 °C and requires high precious metal loaded catalysts in the range of 150 - 200 g/ft3. Under stoichiometric conditions, 500 °C can be met in many engine operating points however, for lean operating applications, the exhaust temperature can be significantly lower than 500 °C posing a significant challenge for exhaust catalytic CH4 control. This paper will discuss synthetic gas reactor study results using ozone in the feed gas to perform low temperature methane control.
Technical Paper

Turbocharging the Chrysler 2.4L Engine

A turbocharged version of the 2.4L engine has been developed by the Chrysler Group of DaimlerChrysler Corporation. This new engine is derived from the proven 2.4L 4-cylinder, with significant changes to achieve a durable, high performance package for the PT Cruiser vehicle. The package includes an integrated turbocharger / exhaust manifold, oil squirters for piston cooling, and numerous other upgrades to satisfy the demanding performance, emissions, and durability requirements unique to this powertrain. The purpose of this paper is to describe the mechanical changes to the base engine, the unique turbocharger configuration, and the new parts necessary to accommodate the higher output.
Technical Paper

Using Artificial Neural Networks for Representing the Air Flow Rate through a 2.4 Liter VVT Engine

The emerging Variable Valve Timing (VVT) technology complicates the estimation of air flow rate because both intake and exhaust valve timings significantly affect engine's gas exchange and air flow rate. In this paper, we propose to use Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) to model the air flow rate through a 2.4 liter VVT engine with independent intake and exhaust camshaft phasers. The procedure for selecting the network architecture and size is combined with the appropriate training methodology to maximize accuracy and prevent overfitting. After completing the ANN training based on a large set of dynamometer test data, the multi-layer feedforward network demonstrates the ability to represent air flow rate accurately over a wide range of operating conditions. The ANN model is implemented in a vehicle with the same 2.4 L engine using a Rapid Prototype Controller.