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Technical Paper

Beam Element Leaf Spring Suspension Model Development and Assessment Using Road Load Data

Knowledge of the loads experienced by a leaf spring suspension is required for the optimal design of the suspension components and frame. The most common method of representing leaf springs is the SAE 3 link model, which does not give good results in the lateral direction. In this paper, a beam element leaf spring model is developed. This model is validated using data obtained from laboratory tests done on leaf spring assemblies. The model is then subjected to actual road load data measured on the Proving Ground. Lastly, results from the beam element model are presented and compared with results obtained from proving ground tests. Overall, the beam element model gives good results in all directions except in situations where it is subjected to high fore/aft acceleration and high reverse braking events.
Technical Paper

Body/Chassis Dynamic Response Under Experimental Modal Test

Mode management is an essential part of the design process for NVH performance. System resonances must be sufficiently separated to minimize interaction from source inputs and each other [1]. Such resonances are typically determined through experimental modal testing conducted in a lab environment under controlled and repeatable conditions. Global vehicle and suspension system response demonstrate soft nonlinear behavior, however. Their resonant frequencies may thus decrease under on-road input not reproducible in a lab environment. Subsequently, mode management charts derived from lab testing may not be representative of the vehicle's on-road dynamic response. This paper presents modal model determination methodologies, and examines suspension system and vehicle global dynamic response under lab modal test and operating conditions. Vehicle suspension modes measured under static and dynamic (rolling) conditions will be compared.
Technical Paper

Development of a Nonlinear Shock Absorber Model for Low-Frequency NVH Applications

This paper dis cusses the development of a nonlinear shock absorber model for low-frequency CAE-NVH applications of body-on-frame vehicles. In CAE simulations, the shock absorber is represented by a linear damper model and is found to be inadequate in capturing the dynamics of shock absorbers. In particular, this model neither captures nonlinear behavior of shock absorbers nor distinguishes between compression and rebound motions of the suspension. Such an inadequacy limits the utility of CAE simulations in understanding the influence of shock absorbers on shake performance of body-on-frame vehicles in the low frequency range where shock absorbers play a significant role. Given this background, it becomes imperative to develop a shock absorber model that is not only sophisticated to describe shock absorber dynamics adequately but also simple enough to implement in full-vehicle simulations. This investigation addresses just that.
Technical Paper

Shock Absorber Force and Velocity Sensitivity to Its Damping Characteristics

In this study, a full vehicle with durability tire model established with ADAMS is applied to simulate the dynamic behavior of the vehicle under severe rough road proving ground events, where the shock force-velocity characteristics are modeled as nonlinear curves and multi-stage representations, respectively. The shock forces and velocities at each corner are resolved and through full factorial DOE, the shock forces and velocities response surface models are established to analyze the sensitivities of shock force and velocity to the shock damping characteristics.
Technical Paper

Suspension Tuning Parameters Affecting Impact Harshness Performance Evaluation

In this paper, a comprehensive evaluation index for impact harshness (IH) is proposed. A mid-sized uni-body SUV is selected for this study, with the acceleration responses at the various vehicle body locations as objective functions. A sensitivity study is conducted using an ADAMS full vehicle model with flexible body structure representation over an IH event to analyze the influence of various suspension tuning parameters, including suspension springs, shock damping, steer gear ratio, unsprung mass, track-width, and bushing stiffness.
Technical Paper

The Effects of Different Input Excitation on the Dynamic Characterization of an Automotive Shock Absorber

This paper deals with the dynamic characterization of an automotive shock absorber, a continuation of an earlier work [1]. The objective of this on-going research is to develop a testing and analysis methodology for obtaining dynamic properties of automotive shock absorbers for use in CAE-NVH low-to-mid frequency chassis models. First, the effects of temperature and nominal length on the stiffness and damping of the shock absorber are studied and their importance in the development of a standard test method discussed. The effects of different types of input excitation on the dynamic properties of the shock absorber are then examined. Stepped sine sweep excitation is currently used in industry to obtain shock absorber parameters along with their frequency and amplitude dependence. Sine-on-sine testing, which involves excitation using two different sine waves has been done in this study to understand the effects of the presence of multiple sine waves on the estimated dynamic properties.