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Technical Paper

A New 4.5 Liter In-Line 6 Cylinder Engine, 1FZ-FE for the Toyota Land Cruiser

1993-03-01
930876
A new 4.5 liter in-line 6 cylinder engine,1 FZ-FE has been developed for the Toyota Land Cruiser. To obtain high power, fuel efficient engine, we adopted the most advanced Toyota technologies, such as Toyota original 4 Valve DOHC system with scissors gear between camshafts, compact combustion chamber with smooth inlet and outlet system, KCS and so on. The engine produces 212 HP at 4600 rpm and 275 ft-lbs at 3200 rpm. Aluminum cylinder head,short skirt cylinder block stiffened with aluminum oil pan give the engine light weight and make it rigid enough to have low vibration and quietness. And we also designed every engine part appropriately so as to make the engine durable enough in severe operating condition of off-road vehicle.
Technical Paper

A Study of Additive Effects on ATF Frictional Properties Using New Test Methods

1990-10-01
902150
A new test machine has been developed which can evaluate vibration due to stick-slip using an actual full-scale clutch pack. Using this machine, a static breakaway friction coefficient measurement test method and a stick-slip test method have been established. Both methods have been shown to provide results which correlate with the results from both a full-scale assembly test and a vehicle shudder evaluation test. The evaluation of the frictional properties of commercial oils using these test methods showed that the static breakaway friction coefficient and the stick-slip properties have generally contradictory performance to each other for automatic transmission. The study of the frictional properties for typical additives and an analysis of the surface of the steel plates with ESCA (Electron Spectroscopy for Chemical Analysis) showed that the frictional properties are significantly affected by the additives adsorbed on the clutch plate sliding surface.
Technical Paper

A Technology of Weight Reduction for the Aluminum Cast Wheel

1993-11-01
931885
In the field of automobile disk wheels, demands for aluminum wheels have been increasing for the reason of ride comfort and better appearance. And over 90 percent of luxurious passenger cars are equipped with aluminum wheels. This trend is spurred also by the demand for higher fuel efficiency for the cause of environmental protection, which calls for weight reduction of automobiles. This paper reports our research on manufacturing light-weight, high-quality aluminum cast wheels; covering the entire process from basic design to casting, and placing emphasis on the following three points. 1) Determination of optimum wheel configuration through computer simulation 2) Selection of optimum material composition 3) Optimization of the thin plate casting conditions Combination of the above technologies developed for the purpose of weight reduction resulted in the weight reduction of approximately 20% over the conventional aluminum wheels.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Sintered Silicon Nitride Grinding Damage

1993-03-01
930163
Sintered silicon nitride, particularly in structural ceramics, has superior properties such as low weight, heat resistance, wear resistance, etc. It is already being applied to automobile engine parts such as the swirl chamber and the turbine rotor. In recent years, the strength of silicon nitride has shown to be above 1000MPa. This has been achieved through advances in manufacturing technology such as materials powder, forming, sintering and so on. But the silicon nitride is easily damaged during grinding because it has less fracture toughness than metal. Consequently, the inherent strength of the material is not demonstrated in the actual products presently produced. It is assumed that the main cause of strength reduction is microcrack. In ordinary grinding methods, the length of microcrack has been estimated at approximately twenty micrometers by fracture mechanics analysis.
Technical Paper

Anti-Shudder Mechanism of ATF Additives at Slip-Controlled Lock-Up Clutch

1999-10-25
1999-01-3616
The anti-shudder effect of ATF additives and their mechanisms have been investigated. Anti-shudder durability was evaluated using an automatic transmission (AT) on an engine stand under continuously slip-controlled condition. The addition of over-based Ca-sulfonate and friction modifier (FM) remarkably improved the anti-shudder durability of ATF. The surface roughness of the contact area (contact area roughness) of the clutch plates was measured by an electron probe surface roughness analyzer. To evaluate the boundary frictional properties of the adsorbed film formed, the friction coefficient of the clutch plates in the absence of oil was examined after the anti-shudder durability test. It was found that shudder occurrence was strongly correlated with the contact area roughness and the boundary frictional property of the steel plate surface. Large contact area roughness and low boundary friction were preferred to prevent shudder.
Technical Paper

Application of Dynamic Mode Decomposition to Influence the Driving Stability of Road Vehicles

2019-04-02
2019-01-0653
The recent growth of available computational resources has enabled the automotive industry to utilize unsteady Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) for their product development on a regular basis. Over the past years, it has been confirmed that unsteady CFD can accurately simulate the transient flow field around complex geometries. Concerning the aerodynamic properties of road vehicles, the detailed analysis of the transient flow field can help to improve the driving stability. Until now, however, there haven’t been many investigations that successfully identified a specific transient phenomenon from a simulated flow field corresponding to driving stability. This is because the unsteady flow field around a vehicle consists of various time and length scales and is therefore too complex to be analyzed with the same strategies as for steady state results.
Technical Paper

Automobile Navigation System Using Individual Communication Beacon

1991-10-01
912758
A communication system that uses roadside beacons to broadcast road and traffic information and private messages to vehicles has been developed. The system, called Road/Automobile Communication System (RACS), was the result of a joint research project involving the Public Works Research Institute and 25 private-sector corporations. This paper contains an outline of RACS and of an onboard system developed by TOYOTA and presents the results of field tests conducted in the Tokyo area. The results not only verify the capability of the RACS system and the effectiveness of the in-vehicle equipment but also indicate the potential of such a beacon based network to improve traffic jam and driving safety whilst providing enhanced communication facilities without increasing radio-wave congestion.
Technical Paper

Color and Height Characteristics of Surrogate Grass for the Evaluation of Vehicle Road Departure Mitigation Systems

2019-04-02
2019-01-1026
In recent years Road Departure Mitigation Systems (RDMS) is introduced to the market for avoiding roadway departure collisions. To support the performance testing of the RDMS, the most commonly seen road edge, grass, is studied in this paper for the development of standard surrogate grass. This paper proposes a method for defining the resembling grass color and height features due to significant variations of grass appearances in different seasons, temperatures and environments. Randomly selected Google Street View images with grass road edges are gathered and analyzed. Image processing techniques are deployed to obtain the grass color distributions. The height of the grass is determined by referencing the gathered images with measured grass heights. The representative colors and heights of grass are derived as the specifications of surrogate grass for the standard evaluation of RDMS.
Technical Paper

Development and Application of Simulation for Low-Frequency Boom Noise and Ride Comfort

1990-09-01
901753
This paper investigates a new approach to the quantification technique for road induced vehicle interior noise and vibration within the frequency range up to 40 Hz. By employing the least squares method, both vertical and fore-aft load to each wheel were quantified using transfer function and actual vibration response of the vehicle driven on a road. The coupled structural-acoustic vehicle model using the finite element method, which is also detailed in this paper, is combined with the quantified input load to simulate road induced interior noise and vibration response. Experimental verification, which indicates reasonable accuracy of the simulation, and an application for the prototype development are also presented.
Technical Paper

Development of Advanced Three-Way Catalyst with Improved NOx Conversion

2015-04-14
2015-01-1005
Countries and regions around the world are tightening emissions regulations in reaction to the increasing awareness of environmental conservation. At the same time, growing concerns about the depletion of raw materials as vehicle ownership continues to increase is prompting automakers to look for ways of decreasing the use of platinum-group metals (PGMs) in the exhaust systems. This research has developed a new catalyst with strong robustness against fluctuations in the exhaust gas and excellent nitrogen oxide (NOx) conversion performance. This catalyst incorporates rhodium (Rh) clusters with a particle size of several nanometers, and stabilized CeO2-ZrO2 solid-solution (CZ) with a pyrochlore crystal structure as a high-volume oxygen storage capacity (OSC) material with a slow O2 storage rate.
Technical Paper

Development of Alloy Cast Iron for Press Die

1999-09-28
1999-01-3215
This paper describes about development of the alloy cast iron which can be used as the cutting edges of a trimming die of press die. Usually, the block of a tool steel or steel casting is inserted to the cutting edge of the trimming die of a press die. However, we unified the structure part and the cutting-edge part of a press die with alloy cast iron. Of course, in this state, since it can't bear as the cutting edge, the cutting edge is processed in flame-hardening. After the flame hardening, we developed the alloy cast iron so that hardness enough by the natural air cooling might be obtained. Thereby, the machining of the installation seat of the cutting edge decreased and the expenses on dies has been reduced.
Technical Paper

Development of Assembly Line Verification

1994-03-01
940890
To more effectively improve the work on a vehicle assembly line, it is desirable to have a method by which the degree of work load on each person can be evaluated quantitatively; enables us to decide the priority order of improvement; and calculates the improvement effect. We developed a quantitative evaluation method of work load by introducing a concept of physiological stress generated regardless of the type of muscles involved. Applying the burden borne by the body to the load evaluation of various assembly operations involved the problem of complex load measuring methods. We solved this problem by categorizing the load conditions for various assembly operations and converting each to a standard state of loads evaluated by experiments.
Technical Paper

Development of Bearing with Composite Overlay for High-Performance Engines

1996-02-01
960988
Recently, there has been a tendency of high power and high speed in automotive engines. In addition they have been also required high reliability. And engine bearings have been required to be advanced in wear resistance as well as seizure resistance. Therefore, copper-lead alloy bearings with overlay, which have better seizure resistance, have been widely used for high speed engines up to the present. But it becomes very important for them to advance the overlay wear resistance. In this paper, the composite overlay is mainly researched to improve wear resistance regarding kind of hard particles and their amounts in the overlay.
Journal Article

Development of Clean Diesel NOx After-treatment System with Sulfur Trap Catalyst

2010-04-12
2010-01-0303
Diesel engines with relatively good fuel economy are known as an effective means of reducing CO₂ emissions. It is expected that diesel engines will continue to expand as efforts to slow global warming are intensified. Diesel particulate and NOx reduction system (DPNR), which was first developed in 2003 for introduction in the Japanese and European markets, shows high purification performance which can meet more stringent regulations in the future. However, it is poisoned by sulfur components in exhaust gas derived from fuel and lubricant. We then developed the sulfur trap DPNR with a sulfur trap catalyst that traps sulfur components in the exhaust gas. High purification performance could be achieved with a small amount of platinum group metal (PGM) due to prevention of sulfur poisoning and thermal deterioration.
Technical Paper

Development of Ductile Cast Iron Flywheel Integrated with Hot Form-Rolled Gear

1998-02-01
980568
New ductile cast iron flywheel integrated with gear and its manufacturing process were developed to reduce the manufacturing steps and cost compared with conventional flywheel around which a steel ring gear is fit. In this process, the ring gear teeth around a cast iron flywheel are formed directly in net shape and free from any defect by the hot form-rolling method, followed by the thermomechanical treatment in a short time. The gear is superior to that made by the conventional hobbing and heat treatment in accuracy, strength and anti-wear property.
Technical Paper

Development of Engine Valve Seats Directly Deposited onto Aluminum Cylinder Head by Laser Cladding Process

1992-02-01
920571
A new technologies for manufacturing of engine valve seats have been developed. This process, different from the conventional method that valve seats made of sintered alloy were press-fit into the cylinder head, is directly formed valve seats onto cylinder head by using the laser cladding technique. In order to develope the cylinder head with laser cladding valve seats, the laser cladding technology by which copper based alloy is deposited onto aluminum alloy with little dilution and stable bead has been established. And the unique cladding alloy, which is two phases in the liquid stage and in which iron or molybdenum rich hard particles are dispersed in the solid state, has been developed. Based on this technique, the practical process has been successfully completed.
Technical Paper

Development of Galvanized Aluminum Alloy Sheet for Body Panels with an Excellent Filiform Corrosion Resistance

1993-03-01
930703
Filiform corrosion phenomenon and its prevention method for 5000 series aluminum alloy sheet have been investigated. The painted aluminum alloy sheets were subject significantly to filiform corrosion caused by formation of a mottled and coarse zinc phosphate film during chemical conversion process. On the other hand, galvanized aluminum alloy sheet showed an uniform and fine phosphate film in a brief time and the filiform corrosion resistance was improved markedly. The test results of press-forming and corrosion for the prototype engine hoods made of this newly developed galvanized sheets have revealed a good formability and an excellent filiform corrosion resistance.
Technical Paper

Development of Gear Parts for VVT Unit

1997-02-24
970337
The new intelligent VVT (Variable Valve Timing) -i, is one of the systems developed to improve engine performance. The pulley unit is one of the most important mechanical components of the system. We developed a suitable process for the four main parts of the VVT-i pulley in order to achieve the target performance at a minimal cost. The requirements for the mechanical component, the pulley unit, include light weight and compact design as well as a quick response time. To satisfy these requirements, we developed three helical gears having unique profiles and high accuracy, and a timing pulley which must prevent pressurized oil from leaking. The inner gear is a helical gear with external teeth,and a key way on its inside diameter. The piston gear is a helical gear of which the inside and outside teeth have opposite helix angles. We developed a unique powder compacting technology for these two gears. The timing pulley is also made of sintered metal alloy.
Technical Paper

Development of High Fatigue Strength Spring - Application on Clutch Disc Torsional Damper

1995-02-01
950903
We have developed a new torsional damper spring which lowers the torsional rigidity of the clutch disc while retaining its conventional size. The following two items have been adopted in the newly developed spring: 1) A new steel wire which suppresses any core-softening of the element wire through nitriding. 2) A dual-stage shot peening method which uses harder steel shots (rather than conventional shots) in order to obtain an optimal residual stress profile. As a result of evaluating the fatigue characteristics of this spring, it was discovered that its fatigue strength is approximately 35% higher than that of the conventional spring. A clutch disc using this spring was able to absorb rattling noises which conventional clutch discs could not.
Technical Paper

Development of High Performance Three-Way-Catalyst

2006-04-03
2006-01-1061
In conventional gasoline engine vehicles, three-way catalysts are used to simultaneously remove HC, CO and NOx from the exhaust gas. The effectiveness of the catalyst to remove these harmful species depends strongly on the oxygen concentration in the exhaust gas. Deterioration of three-way catalyst results in a reduction in its purification activity and OSC (oxygen storage capacity). In this investigation, additive elements were used to enhance the durability and OSC of the catalyst support material. An optimized formulation of a CeO2-ZrO2 and a ZrO2 material was developed to have excellent durability, improved OSC, enhanced interaction between precious metals and support materials, and increase thermal stability. Using these newly developed support materials, catalysts with increased performance was designed.
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