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Technical Paper

2D Mapping and Quantification of the In-Cylinder Air/Fuel-Ratio in a GDI Engine by Means of LIF and Comparison to Simultaneous Results from 1D Raman Measurements

2001-05-07
2001-01-1977
The optimization of the vaporization and mixture formation process is of great importance for the development of modern gasoline direct injection (GDI) engines, because it influences the subsequent processes of the ignition, combustion and pollutant formation significantly. In consequence, the subject of this work was the development of a measurement technique based on the laser induced exciplex fluorescence (LIF), which allows the two dimensional visualization and quantification of the in-cylinder air/fuel ratio. A tracer concept consisting of benzene and triethylamine dissolved in a non-fluorescent base fuel has been used. The calibration of the equivalence ratio proportional LIF-signal was performed directly inside the engine, at a well known mixture composition, immediately before the direct injection measurements were started.
Technical Paper

A New Method for the Investigation of Unburned Oil Emissions in the Raw Exhaust of SI Engines

1998-10-19
982438
The study of oil emission is of essential interest for the engine development of modern cars, as well as for the understanding of hydrocarbon emissions especially during cold start conditions. A laser mass spectrometer has been used to measure single aromatic hydrocarbons in unconditioned exhaust gas of a H2-fueled engine at stationary and transient motor operation. These compounds represent unburned oil constituents. The measurements were accompanied by FID and GC-FID measurements of hydrocarbons which represent the burned oil constituents. The total oil consumption has been determined by measuring the oil sampled by freezing and weighing. It has been concluded that only 10 % of the oil consumption via exhaust gas has burned in the cylinders. A correlation of the emission of single oil-based components at ppb level detected with the laser mass spectrometer to the total motor oil emission has been found.
Technical Paper

A Sound Quality System for Engineers

2001-03-05
2001-01-3834
In the eighties, the main concern in the automotive industry from a designer's standpoint was a level issue. In the nineties, the market has put more stringent requirements on the automotive industry with respect to noise in general and psychoacoustics. The governments have imposed lower limits with respect to pass-by noise standards. Customers are spending more time in their car than in the past and are demanding acoustical comfort. All of this is leading to an environment where a sound quality system is becoming a daily tool in the design and trouble-shooting world. This paper describes what should be looked for in a sound, how to quantify these properties and what tools are needed. These steps are then applied in a case study.
Technical Paper

A Source-Transfer-Receiver Approach to NVH Engineering of Hybrid/Electric Vehicles

2012-11-25
2012-36-0646
Vehicles with electrified powertrains are being introduced at an increasing pace. On the level of interior sound, one is often inclined to assume that NVH problems in EV have disappeared together with the combustion engine. Three observations demonstrate that this is not the case. First of all, only the dominant engine sound disappears, not the noise from tire, wind or auxiliaries, which consequently become increasingly audible due to the removal of the broadband engine masking sound. Secondly, new noise sources like tonal sounds from the electro-mechanical drive systems emerge and often have, despite their low overall noise levels, a high annoyance rating. Thirdly, the fact that engine/exhaust sounds are often used to contribute to the “character” of the vehicle leads to an open question how to realize an appealing brand sound with EV. Hybrid vehicles are furthermore characterized by mode-switching effects, with impact on both continuity feeling and sound consistency problems.
Technical Paper

A Steel Solution for a Firewall Using a Hybrid Test/CAE Approach

2009-04-20
2009-01-1547
The firewall design of a BMW1 is optimized for interior noise and weight using a Hybrid Interior Noise Synthesis (HINS) approach. This method associates a virtual firewall with a test based body model. A vibro-acoustic model of the firewall panel, including trim elements and full vehicle boundary conditions, is used for predictions in the 40 Hz - 400 Hz range. The short calculation time of this set-up allows multiple design iterations. The firewall noise is reduced by 0.9 dB and its mass by 5.1% through structural changes. Crashworthiness is maintained at its initial level using advanced steel processing. The total interior noise shows improvement in the 90 Hz - 140 Hz range.
Technical Paper

Advances in Industrial Modal Analysis

2001-03-05
2001-01-3832
One of the scientific fields where, for already more than 20 years, system identification plays a crucial role is this of structural dynamics and vibro-acoustic system optimization. The experimental approach is based on the “Modal Analysis” concept. The present paper reviews the test procedure and system identification principles of this approach. The main focus though is on the real problems with which engineers, performing modal analysis on complex structures on a daily basis, are currently confronted. The added value of several new testing approaches (laser methods, smart transducers…) and identification algorithms (spatial domain, subspace, maximum likelihood,..) for solving these problems is shown. The discussed elements are illustrated with a number of industrial case studies.
Technical Paper

Application of Energy Flow Analysis Focused on Path Visualization into Vehicle Design

2010-10-17
2010-36-0505
The development of new design tools to predict the vibro-acoustic behavior within the vehicle development process is of essential importance to achieve better products in an ever shorter timeframe. In this paper, an energy flow post-processing tool for structural dynamic analysis is presented. The method is based on the conversion of conventional finite element (FE) results into energy quantities corresponding with each of the vehicle subcomponents. Based on the global dynamic system behavior and local subcomponent descriptions, one can efficiently evaluate the energy distribution and analyze the vibro-acoustic behavior in complex structures. By using energy as a response variable, instead of conventional design variables as pressure or velocity, one can obtain important information regarding the understanding of the vibro-acoustic behavior of the system.
Technical Paper

Application of a New Method for On-Line Oil Consumption Measurement

1999-10-25
1999-01-3460
Fast and exact measurement of engine oil consumption is a very difficult task. Our aim is to achieve this measurement at a common test bed without engine modifications. We resolved this problem with a new technique using Laser Mass Spectrometry to detect appropriate tracers in the raw engine exhaust. The tracers are added to the engine oil. to the engine oil. For detection of these tracers we use a Laser Mass Spectrometer (LAMS). This is a combination of resonant laser ionization (with an all-solid-state laser) and Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry. Currently this is the only way to detect oil originated molecules (like our tracers) in the raw exhaust very fast (50 Hz) and sensitive (ppb-region). Thus, engine mapping of oil consumption over load and speed can be performed in 1-2 days with about 90 measurements. Even measurement during dynamic engine operation is possible, but not quantitative (due to the lack of information about dynamic exhaust gas mass flow).
Technical Paper

Challenges in Vibroacoustic Vehicle Body Simulation Including Uncertainties

2020-09-30
2020-01-1571
During the last decades, big steps have been taken towards a realistic simulation of NVH (Noise Vibration Harshness) behavior of vehicles using the Finite Element (FE) method. The quality of these computation models has been substantially increased and the accessible frequency range has been widened. Nevertheless, to perform a reliable prediction of the vehicle vibroacoustic behavior, the consideration of uncertainties is crucial. With this approach there are many challenges on the way to valid and useful simulation models and they can be divided into three areas: the input uncertainties, the propagation of uncertainties through the FE model and finally the statistical output quantities. Each of them must be investigated to choose sufficient methods for a valid and fast prediction of vehicle body vibroacoustics. It can be shown by rough estimation that dimensionality of the corresponding random space for different types of uncertainty is tremendously high.
Technical Paper

Development of Hybrid Model for Powerplant Vibration

1999-05-17
1999-01-1656
This paper covers the application of hybrid vibro-acoustic simulation methods to shorten the design cycle of power-plant components. A comparison is made between Frequency Response Function based and Modal based algorithms for the generation of a predictive powerplant assembly model. The effectiveness of design modifications is evaluated by loading the original and modified predictive models with experimentally identified excitation forces. The procedure is validated by correlation with experimental data.
Technical Paper

Digital Aeroacoustics Design Method of Climate Systems for Improved Cabin Comfort

2017-06-05
2017-01-1787
Over the past decades, interior noise from wind noise or engine noise have been significantly reduced by leveraging improvements of both the overall vehicle design and of sound package. Consequently, noise sources originating from HVAC systems (Heat Ventilation and Air Conditioning), fans or exhaust systems are becoming more relevant for perceived quality and passenger comfort. This study focuses on HVAC systems and discusses a Flow-Induced Noise Detection Contributions (FIND Contributions) numerical method enabling the identification of the flow-induced noise sources inside and around HVAC systems. This methodology is based on the post-processing of unsteady flow results obtained using Lattice Boltzmann based Method (LBM) Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations combined with LBM-simulated Acoustic Transfer Functions (ATF) between the position of the sources inside the system and the passenger’s ears.
Journal Article

Effect of Local Mesh Refinement on Inverse Numerical Acoustics

2010-06-09
2010-01-1413
Inverse numerical acoustics is a method which reconstructs the source surface normal velocity from the sound measured in the near-field around the source. This is of particular interest when the source is rotating or moving, too light or too hot to be instrumented by accelerometers. The use of laser vibrometers is often of no remedy due to the complex shape of the source. The Inverse Numerical Acoustics technique is based on the inversion of transfer relations (Acoustic Transfer Vectors) using truncated Singular Value Decomposition (SVD). Most of the time the system is underdetermined which results in a non unique solution. The solution obtained by the truncated SVD is the minimal solution in the RMS sense. This paper is investigating the impact of non homogeneities in the mesh density (local mesh refinement) on the retrieved solution for underdetermined systems. It will be shown that if transfer quantities are inverted as such, big elements get a higher weight in the inversion.
Technical Paper

Electric Motor Noise in a Lightweight Steel Vehicle

2011-05-17
2011-01-1724
The present work attempts a complete noise and vibration analysis for an electric vehicle at concept stage. The candidate vehicle is the Future Steel Vehicle (FSV), a lightweight steel body with an electric motor developed by WorldAutoSteel [1,2,3]. Measurements were conducted on two small Mitsubishi vehicles that both share the same body, yet one is equipped with an internal combustion engine and the other with an electric motor. The outcome was used as a starting point to identify assets and pitfalls of electric motor noise and draw a set of Noise Vibration and Harshness (NVH) targets for FSV. Compared to a combustion engine, the electric motor shows significantly lower sound pressure levels, except for an isolated high frequency peak heard at high speeds (3500 Hz when the vehicle drives at top speed). The prominence of this peak is lowered by increased use of acoustic absorbent materials in the motor compartment.
Technical Paper

Experimental Determination of Low Frequency Noise Contributions of Interior Vehicle Body Panels in Normal Operation

1996-02-01
960194
Low frequency noise from engine- and wheel-vibrations often dominates the interior noise spectrum in vehicles. For the optimization of vehicle bodies it is necessary to know the contribution of individual body panels to sound pressures at the passengers ear. An experimental approach is presented which makes use of reciprocal acoustic transfer function measurements and surface acceleration measurements in normal road operation. This method, called Airborne Source Quantification, has been applied as a diagnostic tool to the interior noise of a four cylinder diesel engined van.
Technical Paper

Experimental Transfer Path Analysis of a Hybrid Bus

2005-05-16
2005-01-2335
This paper presents the results of an experimental test campaign carried out on a city bus powered by serial hybrid power train. The driveline system combines an Internal Combustion Engine with a battery pack and two electric motors. Tests were aimed at identifying the salient signal characteristics of the noise spectra recorded during operating conditions and to assess the acoustic comfort in the passenger compartment. Transfer Path Analysis technique was applied to identify airborne and structure borne vibro-acoustic loads, to measure transfer functions linking source locations to target locations and to estimate the internal vibro-acoustic comfort in operating conditions.
Technical Paper

Experimental and Numerical Modelling of Friction Induced Noise in Disc Brakes

2002-03-04
2002-01-1192
Friction-induced vibration is a serious problem in many industrial applications containing systems with rotating and/or sliding parts. Brake noise is a typical example. The critical element in the noise generation process is the combination of friction-induced loads with the dynamics of the braking system. In the present paper, a detailed experimental and numerical study of a specific low-frequency brake squeal problem is made on a simplified brake noise test rig. First, the signal and spatial characteristics of the noise were analyzed by spectral and acoustic holography techniques. A parametric study of influence factors as brake pressure, rotation speed, etc. was made. Operational deformation analysis during squeal confirms the dominant modal behavior of the components, implying the critical role of the assembly structural dynamics.
Technical Paper

Gear Mesh Excitation Models for Assessing Gear Rattle and Gear Whine of Torque Transmission Systems with Planetary Gear Sets

2007-05-15
2007-01-2245
This paper presents four methodologies for modeling gear mesh excitations in simple and compound planetary gear sets. The gear mesh excitations use simplified representations of the gear mesh contact phenomenon so that they can be implemented in a numerically efficient manner. This allows the gear mesh excitations to be included in transmission system-level, multibody dynamic models for the assessment of operating noise and vibration levels. After presenting the four approaches, a description is made regarding how they have been implemented in software. Finally, example models are used to do a comparison between the methods
Technical Paper

Identification, Quantification and Reduction of Structural- Borne Road Noise in a Mid-Size Passenger Car

1996-02-01
960195
This paper presents the measurement & analysis procedures and the results of a complete road noise identification and reduction project on a midsize passenger car. Operational interior noise signals and structural accelerations are measured for several test conditions. The operating data are decomposed into sets of mathematically independent phenomena by Principal Component Analysis. Operating Deflection Shape Analysis and Transfer Path Analysis are applied to each of these independent phenomena. Critical transfer paths are thus identified and quantified. The interior sound level is amplified when the frequency content of the transmitted energy coincides with structural resonances or standing waves of the interior car cavity. The vehicle is dynamically characterized by Experimental Structural Modal Analysis and by Acoustic Modal Analysis.
Technical Paper

Industrial Applicability of Modal Analysis on Operating Data, 1999

1999-05-17
1999-01-1783
Traditionally, vibration analysis in operating conditions (on the road or on a bench) had to be combined with experimental modal analysis in controlled laboratory conditions in order to understand the modal behaviour of the structure. This requires additional measurements, costs and time. However, in many applications, the real operating conditions may differ significantly from those applied during the modal test and hence the vibration modes from the modal test might not be representative for the active modes in operation conditions. The need for a capability of doing a modal analysis on data from operating conditions is obvious. Over the last years, several modal parameter estimation techniques have been proposed and studied for modal parameter extraction from output-only data. Each method needs to make a number of assumptions and has some limitations.
Technical Paper

Industrial Applicability of Modal Analysis on Operating Data, 2001

2001-03-05
2001-01-3833
Traditionally, vibration analysis in operating conditions (on the road or on a bench) had to be combined with experimental modal analysis in controlled laboratory conditions in order to understand the modal behaviour of the structure. This requires additional measurements, costs and time. However, in many applications, the real operating conditions may differ significantly from those applied during the modal test and hence the vibration modes from the modal test might not be representative for the active modes in operation conditions. The need for a capability of doing a modal analysis on data from operating conditions is obvious. Over the last years, several modal parameter estimation techniques have been proposed and studied for modal parameter extraction from output-only data. Each method needs to make a number of assumptions and has some limitations.
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