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Technical Paper

Autoignition Chemistry of the Hexane Isomers: An Experimental and Kinetic Modeling Study

Autoignition of the five distinct isomers of hexane is studied experimentally under motored engine conditions and computationally using a detailed chemical kinetic reaction mechanism. Computed and experimental results are compared and used to help understand the chemical factors leading to engine knock in spark-ignited engines and the molecular structure factors contributing to octane rating for hydrocarbon fuels. The kinetic model reproduces observed variations in critical compression ratio with fuel structure, and it also provides intermediate and final product species concentrations in much better agreement with observed results than has been possible previously. In addition, the computed results provide insights into the kinetic origins of fuel octane sensitivity.
Technical Paper

Detailed Chemical Kinetic Modeling of Diesel Combustion with Oxygenated Fuels

The influence of the addition of oxygenated hydrocarbons to diesel fuels has been studied, using a detailed chemical kinetic model. Resulting changes in ignition and soot precursor production have been examined. N-heptane was used as a representative diesel fuel, and methanol, ethanol, dimethyl ether, dimethoxymethane and methyl butanoate were used as oxygenated fuel additives. It was found that addition of oxygenated hydrocarbons reduced the production of soot precursors. When the overall oxygen content in the fuel reached approximately 30-40 % by mass, production of soot precursors fell effectively to zero, in agreement with experimental studies. The kinetic factors responsible for these observations are discussed.
Technical Paper

Detailed Kinetic Modeling of Conventional Gasoline at Highly Boosted Conditions and the Associated Intermediate Temperature Heat Release

The combustion behavior of conventional gasoline has been numerically investigated by means of detailed chemical-kinetic modeling simulations, with particular emphasis on analyzing the chemistry of the intermediate temperature heat release (ITHR). Previous experimental work on highly boosted (up to 325 kPa absolute) HCCI combustion of gasoline (SAE 2020-01-1086) showed a steady increase in the charge temperature up to the point of hot ignition, even for conditions where the ignition point was retarded well after top dead center (TDC). Thus, sufficient energy was being released by early pre-ignition reactions resulting in temperature rise during the early part of the expansion stroke This behavior is associated with a slow pre-ignition heat release (ITHR), which is critical to keep the engine from misfiring at the very late combustion phasings required to prevent knock at high-load boosted conditions.
Journal Article

Detailed Kinetic Modeling of HCCI Combustion with Isopentanol

Isopentanol is an advanced biofuel that can be produced by micro-organisms through genetically engineered metabolic pathways. Compared to the more frequently studied ethanol, isopentanol's molecular structure has a longer carbon chain and includes a methyl branch. Its volumetric energy density is over 30% higher than ethanol, and it is less hygroscopic. Some fundamental combustion properties of isopentanol in an HCCI engine have been characterized in a recent study by Yang and Dec (SAE 2010-01-2164). They found that for typical HCCI operating conditions, isopentanol lacks two-stage ignition properties, yet it has a higher HCCI reactivity than gasoline. The amount of intermediate temperature heat release (ITHR) is an important fuel property, and having sufficient ITHR is critical for HCCI operation without knock at high loads using intake-pressure boosting. Isopentanol shows considerable ITHR, and the amount of ITHR increases with boost, similar to gasoline.
Journal Article

Effects of Fuel Laminar Flame Speed Compared to Engine Tumble Ratio, Ignition Energy, and Injection Strategy on Lean and EGR Dilute Spark Ignition Combustion

Previous studies have shown that fuels with higher laminar flame speed also have increased tolerance to EGR dilution. In this work, the effects of fuel laminar flame speed on both lean and EGR dilute spark ignition combustion stability were examined. Fuels blends of pure components (iso-octane, n-heptane, toluene, ethanol, and methanol) were derived at two levels of laminar flame speed. Each fuel blend was tested in a single-cylinder spark-ignition engine under both lean-out and EGR dilution sweeps until the coefficient of variance of indicated mean effective pressure increased above thresholds of 3% and 5%. The relative importance of fuel laminar flame speed to changes to engine design parameters (spark ignition energy, tumble ratio, and port vs. direct injection) was also assessed.
Technical Paper

Gaseous Fuel Injection Modeling Using a Gaseous Sphere Injection Methodology

To facilitate the growing interest in hydrogen combustion for internal combustion engines, computer models are being developed to simulate gaseous fuel injection, air entrainment and the ensuing combustion. This paper introduces a new method for modeling the injection and air entrainment processes for gaseous fuels. Modeling combustion is not covered in this paper. The injection model uses a gaseous sphere injection methodology, similar to liquid droplet injection techniques used for liquid fuel injection. In this paper, the model concept is introduced and model results are compared with correctly- and under-expanded experimental data.
Technical Paper

Improving Ethanol Life Cycle Energy Efficiency by Direct Utilization of Wet Ethanol in HCCI Engines

Homogenous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) is a new engine technology with fundamental differences over conventional engines. HCCI engines are intrinsically fuel flexible and can run on low-grade fuels as long as the fuel can be heated to the point of ignition. In particular, HCCI engines can run on “wet ethanol:” ethanol-in-water mixtures with high concentration of water, such as the high water content ethanol-in-water mixture that results from fermentation of corn mash. Considering that much of the energy required for processing fermented ethanol is spent in distillation and dehydration, direct use of wet ethanol in HCCI engines considerably shifts the energy balance in favor of ethanol.
Technical Paper

Isotopic Tracing of Fuel Carbon in the Emissions of a Compression-Ignition Engine Fueled with Biodiesel Blends

Experimental tests were conducted on a Cummins B5.9 direct-injected diesel engine fueled with biodiesel blends. 20% and 50% blend levels were tested, as was 100% (neat) biodiesel. Emissions of particulate matter (PM), nitrogen oxides (NOx), hydrocarbons (HC) and CO were measured under steady-state operating conditions. The effect of biodiesel on total PM emissions was mixed; however, the contribution of the volatile organic fraction to total PM was greater for higher biodiesel blend levels. When only non-volatile PM mass was considered, reductions were observed for the biodiesel blends as well as for neat biodiesel. The biodiesel test fuels increased NOx, while HC and CO emissions were reduced. PM collected on quartz filters during the experimental runs were analyzed for carbon-14 content using accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS).
Technical Paper

The Effect of Oxygenates on Diesel Engine Particulate Matter

A summary is presented of experimental results obtained from a Cummins B5.9 175 hp, direct-injected diesel engine fueled with oxygenated diesel blends. The oxygenates tested were dimethoxy methane (DMM), diethyl ether, a blend of monoglyme and diglyme, and ethanol. The experimental results show that particulate matter (PM) reduction is controlled largely by the oxygen content of the blend fuel. For the fuels tested, the effect of chemical structure was observed to be small. Isotopic tracer tests with ethanol blends reveal that carbon from ethanol does contribute to soot formation, but is about 50% less likely to form soot when compared to carbon from the diesel portion of the fuel. Numerical modeling was carried out to investigate the effect of oxygenate addition on soot formation. This effort was conducted using a chemical kinetic mechanism incorporating n-heptane, DMM and ethanol chemistry, along with reactions describing soot formation.
Technical Paper

The Effect of the Di-Tertiary Butyl Peroxide (DTBP) additive on HCCI Combustion of Fuel Blends of Ethanol and Diethyl Ether

The influence of the small amounts (1-3%) of the additive di-tertiary butyl peroxide (DTBP) on the combustion event of Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) engines was investigated using engine experiments, numerical modeling, and carbon-14 isotope tracing. DTBP was added to neat ethanol and diethyl ether (DEE) in ethanol fuel blends for a range of combustion timings and engine loads. The addition of DTBP to the fuel advanced combustion timing in each instance, with the DEE-in-ethanol mixture advancing more than the ethanol alone. A numerical model reproduced the experimental results. Carbon-14 isotope tracing showed that more ethanol burns to completion in DEE-in-ethanol blends with a DTBP additive when compared to results for DEE-in-ethanol without the additive. However, the addition of DTBP did not elongate the heat release in either case.