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Technical Paper

A Copper-Lead Bearing Corrosion Test Replacement

The Cooperative Lubrication Research (CLR) Oil Test Engine, usually called the L-38, has been used for nearly 25 years to evaluate copper-lead journal bearing protection of gasoline rnotoroils under high-temperature, heavy-duty conditions. The test is sensitive to aggressive surface active additives that may encourage bearing corrosion. The L-38 also provides an estimate of oil durability, assessing the resistance of an oil to the accumulation of acidic by-products of combustion that could attack copper-lead bearings. However, the L-38 engine dynamometer test uses a heavily leaded gasoline that is no longer representative of the commercial fuels available in North America, Europe, or Japan. Rather than discard the L-38, this paper describes work to modify the L-38 procedure to run with unleaded gasoline.
Technical Paper

A Vegetable Oil Based Tractor Lubricant

Increased awareness of preserving the environment has motivated the development of a wide variety of environmentally compatible products. Such products include environmentally compatible lubricants. Sale and use of these types of lubricants illustrates diligence by the lubricant manufacturer, original equipment manufacturer (OEM), and the consumer in contributing to a cleaner environment. The use of this type of lubricant could enhance the image of the lubricant manufacturer and vendor as well as the equipment manufacturer who employs such a fluid. To base such a lubricant on a vegetable oil creates a product environmentally friendly by its farming origin and its ability to readily biodegrade if released. No machinery is so uniquely suited to using vegetable oil based lubricants as agricultural equipment. Since this equipment is particularly close to the environment, the lubricant can easily come in contact with the soil, ground water, and crops.
Technical Paper

Advanced Power-Cylinder Tribology Using A Dynamically Loaded Piston Ring on Cylinder Bore Tribometer

It has long been understood that the piston assembly of the internal combustion engine accounts for a significant proportion of total engine friction. Modern engines are required to have better fuel economy without sacrificing durability. The pursuit of better fuel economy drives trends like downsizing, turbocharging and direct injection fuelling systems that increase cylinder pressures and create a more arduous operating environment for the piston ring / cylinder bore tribocouple. The power-cylinder lubricant is therefore put under increased stress as modern engine technology continues to evolve. The conventional approach to investigating fundamental power-cylinder tribology employs bench-tests founded on assumptions which allow for simplification of experimental conditions.
Technical Paper

Anatomy of an L-37 Hypoid Gear Durability Test Ridging Failure

The ASTM D6121 (L-37) is a key hypoid gear lubricant durability test for ASTM D7450-08 (API Category GL-5) and the higher performance level SAE J2360. It is defined as the ‘Standard Test Method for Evaluation of Load-Carrying Capacity of Lubricants Under Conditions of Low Speed and High Torque Used for Final Hypoid Drive Axles’. Pass/fail is determined upon completion of the test by rating the pinion and ring gears for several types of surface distress, including wear, rippling, ridging, pitting, spalling and scoring. Passing the L-37 in addition to the other tests required for API Category GL-5 credentials, as well as the more strenuous SAE J2360 certification, requires in-depth formulating knowledge to appropriately balance the additive chemistry. This paper describes the results of ASTM D6121 experiments run for the purposes of better understanding gear oil durability.
Journal Article

Challenging Conventional Wisdom by Utilizing Group II Base Oils in Fuel Efficient Axle Oils

Improving vehicle fuel economy is a major consideration for original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) and their technology suppliers worldwide as government legislation increasingly limits carbon dioxide emissions. At the same time that automotive OEMs have been driving toward lower viscosity axle oils to improve fuel economy, OEMs have worked to improved durability over an extended drain interval. These challenges have driven the use of API group III and/or API group IV base oils in most factory fill axle oils. This paper details the development of a novel lower viscosity SAE 75W-85 axle technology based on group II base oil that rivals the performance of a PAO-based axle oil and challenges the conventional wisdom of not using group II base oils in fuel efficient axle oils.
Technical Paper

Correlating Laboratory Oil Aerosol Coking Rig Tests to Diesel Engine Tests to Understand the Mechanisms Responsible for Turbocharger Compressor Coking

Deposit formation within turbocharger compressor housings can lead to compressor efficiency degradation. This loss of turbo efficiency may degrade fuel economy and increase CO2 and NOx emissions. To understand the role that engine oil composition and formulation play in deposit formation, five different lubricants were run in a fired engine test while monitoring turbocharger compressor efficiency over time. Base stock group, additive package, and viscosity modifier treat rate were varied in the lubricants tested. After each test was completed the turbocharger compressor cover and back plate deposits were characterized. A laboratory oil mist coking rig has also been constructed, which generated deposits having the same characteristics as those from the engine tests. By analyzing results from both lab and engine tests, correlations between deposit characteristics and their effect on compressor efficiency were observed.
Journal Article

Demonstration of the Ability of a Novel Engine Oil to Remove Hydrocarbon Deposits in Two-Stroke Engines

In a two-stroke engine, carbon is a natural by-product of incomplete combustion. Fuel and oil quality vary leading to various degrees of carbon deposit build up on critical engine parts over time. If the carbon deposits are left on engine components and allowed to accumulate, it can lead to reduced horsepower, reduced fuel economy, increased emissions, and in the worst case the deposits can cause engine damage. A novel two-stroke engine oil was developed specifically to remove these deposits, restore the operating efficiency, and potentially lengthen the useful life of the two-stroke engine. In order to prove the restorative ability of this novel technology, dynamometer tests and field trials were conducted. In the dynamometer portion, the oil was tested in two of the standard TC-W3® certification tests for marine engine oils. The first was the OMC 40HP and the second was the OMC 70HP test.
Technical Paper

Development of Heavy Duty Diesel Real World Drive Cycles for Fuel Economy Measurements

Over several years, a fuel economy test measurement technique has been developed to highlight the magnitude of benefits expected in real world applications of different heavy-duty vehicle (HDV) engine oils in an operating vehicle. This method provides discriminatory results using an alternative to the widely used gravimetric fuel measurement methodology of Brake Specific Fuel Consumption (BSFC), in order to measure gains of <2% in a more repeatable manner. For the results to prove meaningful to the wider commercial audience, such as vehicle operators, original equipment manufacturers and oil providers, the systemic test vehicle operating conditions need to closely represent on-road conditions experienced on a daily basis by long haul, heavy duty diesel vehicles. This paper describes the parameters, necessary measures and methodologies required to record real world data and create representative proving ground test cycles.
Technical Paper

Development of a Laboratory Hypoid Gear Spalling Test

The laboratory tests used to define API GL5 have been the cornerstone of gear oil development for well over thirty years. In that time they have served the market very well. Lubricants developed with these test methods have provided adequate protection of axle components from severe wear, scuffing, corrosion, and oxidation. Recently, however, there has been an increasing trend toward extended drain intervals which changes the picture. Coupled with longer oil drain intervals there is a continuing increase of power throughput in the equipment. The combination of increased power and extended service life places significant stress on the oil such that the load carrying ability and thermal and oxidative stability could be greatly diminished under these conditions. During the past ten years the industry has been actively working toward a new gear oil specification that will address the performance needs of today's vehicles.
Technical Paper

Effects of Exhaust Gas Recirculation on the Degradation Rates of Lubricating Oil in a Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine

The specific goal of this project was to determine if there is a difference in the lube oil degradation rates in a heavy-duty diesel engine equipped with an EGR system, as compared to the same configuration of the engine, but minus the EGR system. A secondary goal was to develop FTIR analysis of used lube oil as a sensitive technique for rapid evaluation of the degradation properties of lubricants. The test engine selected for this work was a Caterpillar 3176 engine. Two engine configurations were used, a standard 1994 design and a 1994 configuration with EGR designed to meet the 2004 emissions standards. The most significant changes in the lubricant occurred during the first 50-100 hours of operation. The results clearly demonstrated that the use of EGR has a significant impact on the degradation of the engine lubricant.
Journal Article

Extending SAE J300 to Viscosity Grades below SAE 20

The SAE Engine Oil Viscosity Classification (EOVC) Task Force has been gathering data in consideration of extending SAE J300 to include engine oils with high temperature, high shear rate (HTHS) viscosity below the current minimum of 2.6 mPa⋅s for the SAE 20 grade. The driving force for doing so is fuel economy, although it is widely recognized that hardware durability can suffer if HTHS viscosity is too low. Several Japanese OEMs have expressed interest in revising SAE J300 to allow official designation of an engine oil viscosity category with HTHS viscosity below 2.6 mPa⋅s to enable the development of ultra-low-friction engines in the future. This paper summarizes the work of the SAE EOVC Low Viscosity Grade Working Group comprising members from OEMs, oil companies, additive companies and instrument manufacturers to explore adoption of one or more new viscosity grades.
Journal Article

Impact of Viscosity Modifiers on Gear Oil Efficiency and Durability: Part II

This paper outlines the second part in a series on the effect of polymeric additives commonly known as viscosity modifiers (VM) or viscosity index improvers (VII) on gear oil efficiency and durability. The main role of the VM is to improve cold temperature lubrication and reduce the rate of viscosity reduction as the gear oil warms to operating temperature. However, in addition to improved operating efficiency across a broad temperature range compared to monograde fluids the VM can impart a number of other significant rheological improvements to the fluid [1]. This paper expands on the first paper in the series [2], covering further aspects in fluid efficiency, the effect of VM chemistry on these and their relationship to differences in hypoid and spur gear rig efficiency testing. Numerous VM chemistry types are available and the VM chemistry and shear stability is key to fluid efficiency and durability.
Technical Paper

Improved Lubricants Extend Diesel Engine Life

Diesel engine oils containing a balanced additive package composed of oxidation, corrosion, wear, rust and foam inhibitors plus ashless dispersants and metallic detergents provide long engine life. The major factor is metallic detergent component which contributes alkalinity to the oil and has a direct effect on engine cleanliness and durability. Increased detergent alkalinity reduces deposits and wear, resulting in improved oil control and longer engine life. Careful selection of detergent components is required to control cylinder-bore polishing in diesel engines to assure optimum antiwear and oil control performance.
Journal Article

Improving Fuel Efficiency of Motorcycle Oils

As the motorcycle market grows, the fuel efficiency of motorcycle oils is becoming an important issue due to concerns over the conservation of natural resources and the protection of the environment. Fuel efficient engine oils have been developed for passenger cars by moving to lower viscosity grades and formulating the additive package to reduce friction. Motorcycle oils, however, which operate in much higher temperature regimes, must also lubricate the transmission and the clutch, and provide gear protection. This makes their requirements fundamentally very different from passenger car oils. Developing fuel efficient motorcycle oils, therefore, can be a difficult challenge. Formulating to reduce friction may cause clutch slippage and reducing the viscosity grade in motorcycles must be done carefully due to the need for gear protection.
Technical Paper

In-Situ Measurement of Holistic Powertrain Efficiency in Vehicles

Conventional methods for determining automotive powertrain efficiency include (1) component-level testing, such as engine dynamometer, transmission stand or axle stand testing, (2) simulations based on component level test data and (3) vehicle-level testing, such as chassis dynamometer or on-road testing. This paper focuses on vehicle-level testing to show where energy is lost throughout a complete vehicle powertrain. This approach captures all physical effects of a vehicle driving in real-world conditions, including torque converter lockup strategies, transmission shifting, engine control strategies and inherent mechanical efficiency of the components. A modern rear-wheel drive light duty pickup truck was instrumented and tested on a chassis dynamometer. Power was measured at the engine crankshaft output, the rear driveshaft and at the dynamometer.
Technical Paper

Investigations of Lubricant Sludge Formation in the Field: Development of an Effective New Fleet Test Technique

A new field test procedure for evaluation of the sludge formation tendencies of lubricants has been developed. The procedure has the benefits of short running time, reduced variability, and dramatic separation of API SF vs API SG oils. This paper discusses development of the operational procedure and evaluation of four lubricants, including commercial-type API SF and API SG oils as well as experimental future oils. Significantly improved sludge ratings were obtained with an experimental API SG oil. The sludge formation process was studied using infrared spectroscopy, TAN, dielectric measurements, viscosity, quasielastic light scattering particle size, and transmission electron microscopy techniques. These analyses show production of contaminants which form insoluble particles that build up and precipitate out of suspension as sludge. Certain drain analyses can be used as tools for predicting field sludge deposition time.
Technical Paper

Lubricant Technology for Hybrid Electric Automatic Transmissions

The automotive vehicle market has seen an increase in the number of hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), and forecasts predict additional growth. In HEVs, the hybrid drivetrain hardware can combine electric motor, clutches, gearbox, electro-hydraulics and the control unit. In HEV hardware the transmission fluid can be designed to be in contact with an integrated electric motor. One transmission type well-suited to such hybridization is the increasingly utilized dual clutch transmission (DCT), where a lubricating fluid is in contact with the complete motor assembly as well as the DCT driveline architecture. This includes its electrical components and therefore raises questions around the suitability of standard transmission fluids in such an application. This in turn drives the need for further understanding of fluid electrical properties in addition to the more usually studied engineering hardware electrical properties.
Technical Paper

Test Techniques for the Evaluation of Lubricant Effects on Axle Break-In Temperature-Investigation of Test Techniques with a Domestic (USA) Sedan

High lubricant temperatures generated during the break-in of new differential assemblies has been of concern among original equipment manufacturers (OEM's). Many tests have been devised to measure the effects of speed, load and lubricant on the temperature generated in the axle. The major problem confronting the use of these tests has been a lack of repeatability and/or reproducibility. Recently, a European OEM axle lubricant break-in test procedure using a European sedan test vehicle has demonstrated highly repeatable and reproducible results. Test work had been limited to the European sedan. The applicability of the European OEM test procedure to a larger domestic U.S. vehicle was questioned. This paper discusses the applicability of the European test to a domestic sedan. Additionally, two other axle break-in test procedures were conducted using the same domestic sedan test vehicle. Three sulfur-phosphorus multi-purpose gear lubricants were evaluated.
Technical Paper

Understanding Soot Mediated Oil Thickening Through Designed Experimentation Part 3: An Improved Approach to Drain Oil Viscosity Measurements - Rotational Rheology

Lubricating oil viscosity is commonly measured by the kinematic method as outlined in ASTM 0445. This method is also used to measure drain oil viscosity as an indicator of soot induced thickening. Drain oils can contain solid particles and exhibit non-Newtonian flow behavior. This paper discusses the use of rotational rheometers to measure the rheology of drain oils. These instruments have been used for many years in other industries (food, paints and coatings) to measure particle filled, non- Newtonian fluids. The rotational method yields the general flow curve of viscosity versus shear rate as compared to the single point, low shear kinematic viscosity measurement. The rotational method includes the kinematic viscosity single point but also yields significantly more information on shear behavior. Both pumpability (low shear) and flowability(higher shear) can be ascertained from the rotational method.