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Technical Paper

A Multi-Zone Model for Prediction of HCCI Combustion and Emissions

Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) combustion is a process dominated by chemical kinetics of the fuel-air mixture. The hottest part of the mixture ignites first, and compresses the rest of the charge, which then ignites after a short time lag. Crevices and boundary layers generally remain too cold to react, and result in substantial hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide emissions. Turbulence has little effect on HCCI combustion, and may be most important as a factor in determining temperature gradients and boundary layer thickness inside the cylinder. The importance of thermal gradients inside the cylinder makes it necessary to use an integrated fluid mechanics-chemical kinetics code for accurate predictions of HCCI combustion. However, the use of a fluid mechanics code with detailed chemical kinetics is too computationally intensive for today's computers.
Technical Paper

A Real Time NOx Model for Conventional and Partially Premixed Diesel Combustion

In this paper a fast NOx model is presented which can be used for engine optimization, aftertreatment control or virtual mapping. A cylinder pressure trace is required as input data. High calculation speed is obtained by using table interpolation to calculate equilibrium temperatures and species concentrations. Test data from a single-cylinder engine and from a complete six-cylinder engine have been used for calibration and validation of the model. The model produces results of good agreement with emission measurements using approximately 50 combustion product zones and a calculation time of one second per engine cycle. Different compression ratios, EGR rates, injection timing, inlet pressures etc. were used in the validation tests.
Technical Paper

A Theoretical Study of the Potential of NOx Reduction by Fuel Rate Shaping in a DI Diesel Engine

In this paper, a theoretical study is presented where fuel rate shaping is analyzed in combination with EGR as a method for reducing NOx formation. The analytical tools used include an empirically based model to convert fuel rate to heat release rate, and a zero dimensional multizone combustion model to calculate combustion products, local flame temperatures and NOx emissions at a given heat release rate. The multizone model, which has been presented earlier, includes flame radiation and convective heat losses. Several geometrical shapes of the fuel rate are tested for different combustion timings and EGR rates. It is found that the fuel rate giving the lowest NOx formation varies with the injection timing. In order to lower the NOx emissions at normal and advanced injection timings, the fuel rate should have a rather long duration, and start at its maximum level followed by a slow decay.
Technical Paper

An Air Hybrid for High Power Absorption and Discharge

An air hybrid is a vehicle with an ICE modified to also work as an air compressor and air motor. The engine is connected to two air reservoirs, normally the atmosphere and a high pressure tank. The main benefit of such a system is the possibility to make use of the kinetic energy of the vehicle otherwise lost when braking. The main difference between the air hybrid developed in this paper and earlier air hybrid concepts is the introduction of a pressure tank that substitutes the atmosphere as supplier of low air pressure. By this modification, a very high torque can be achieved in compressor mode as well as in air motor mode. A model of an air hybrid with two air tanks was created using the engine simulation code GT-Power. The results from the simulations were combined with a driving cycle to estimate the reduction in fuel consumption.
Technical Paper

An Ionization Equilibrium Analysis of the Spark Plug as an Ionization Sensor

The use of a spark plug as an ionization sensor in an engine, and its physical and chemical explanation has been investigated. By applying a small constant DC voltage across the electrodes of the spark plug and measuring the current through the electrode gap, the state of the gas can be probed. An analytical expression for the current as a function of temperature is derived, and an inverse relation, where the pressure is a function of the current, is also presented. It is also found that a relatively minor species, NO, seems to be the major agent responsible for the conductivity of the hot gas in the spark gap.
Technical Paper

Boosting for High Load HCCI

Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) holds great promises for good fuel economy and low emissions of NOX and soot. The concept of HCCI is premixed combustion of a highly diluted mixture. The dilution limits the combustion temperature and thus prevents extensive NOX production. Load is controlled by altering the quality of the charge, rather than the quantity. No throttling together with a high compression ratio to facilitate auto ignition and lean mixtures results in good brake thermal efficiency. However, HCCI also presents challenges like how to control the combustion and how to achieve an acceptable load range. This work is focused on solutions to the latter problem. The high dilution required to avoid NOX production limits the mass of fuel relative to the mass of air or EGR. For a given size of the engine the only way to recover the loss of power due to dilution is to force more mass through the engine.
Technical Paper

Combustion Chambers for Natural Gas SI Engines Part 2: Combustion and Emissions

The objective of this paper is to investigate how the combustion chamber design will influence combustion parameters and emissions in a natural gas SI engine. Ten different geometries were tried on a converted Volvo TD102 engine. For the different combustion chambers emissions and the pressure in the cylinder have been measured. The pressure in the cylinder was then used in a one-zone heat-release model to get different combustion parameters. The engine was operated unthrottled at 1200 rpm with different values of air/fuel ratio and EGR. The air/fuel ratio was varied from stoichiometric to lean limit. EGR values from 0 to 30% at stoichiometric air/fuel ratio were used. The results show a remarkably large difference in the rate of combustion between the chambers. The cycle-to-cycle variations are fairly independent of combustion chamber design as long as there is some squish area and the air and the natural gas are well mixed.
Technical Paper

Comparison of Heat Release and NOx Formation in a DI Diesel Engine Running on DME and Diesel Fuel

Although there seems to be a consensus regarding the low emission potential of DME, there are still different opinions about why the low NOx emissions can be obtained without negative effects on thermal efficiency. Possible explanations are: The physical properties of DME affecting the spray and the mixture formation Different shape and duration of the heat release in combination with reduced heat losses In this paper an attempt is made to increase the knowledge of DME in relation to diesel fuel with respect to heat release and NOx formation. The emphasis has been to create injection conditions as similar as possible for both fuels. For that purpose the same injection system (CR), injection pressure (270 bar), injection timing and duration have been used for the two fuels. The only differences were the diameters of the nozzle holes, which were chosen to give the same fuel energy supply, and the physical properties of the fuels.
Technical Paper

Compression Ratio Influence on Maximum Load of a Natural Gas Fueled HCCI Engine

This paper discusses the compression ratio influence on maximum load of a Natural Gas HCCI engine. A modified Volvo TD100 truck engine is controlled in a closed-loop fashion by enriching the Natural Gas mixture with Hydrogen. The first section of the paper illustrates and discusses the potential of using hydrogen enrichment of natural gas to control combustion timing. Cylinder pressure is used as the feedback and the 50 percent burn angle is the controlled parameter. Full-cycle simulation is compared to some of the experimental data and then used to enhance some of the experimental observations dealing with ignition timing, thermal boundary conditions, emissions and how they affect engine stability and performance. High load issues common to HCCI are discussed in light of the inherent performance and emissions tradeoff and the disappearance of feasible operating space at high engine loads.
Technical Paper

Concurrent Quantitative Laser-Induced Incandescence and SMPS Measurements of EGR Effects on Particulate Emissions from a TDI Diesel Engine

A comparison of scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) and laser-induced incandescence (LII) measurements of diesel particulate matter (PM) was performed. The results reveal the significance of the aggregate nature of diesel PM on interpretation of size and volume fraction measurements obtained with an SMPS, and the accuracy of primary particle size measurements by LII. Volume fraction calculations based on the mobility diameter measured by the SMPS substantially over-predict the space-filling volume fraction of the PM. Correction algorithms for the SMPS measurements, to account for the fractal nature of the aggregate morphology, result in a substantial reduction in the reported volume. The behavior of the particulate volume fraction, mean and standard deviation of the mobility diameter, and primary particle size are studied as a function of the EGR for a range of steady-state engine speeds and loads for a turbocharged direct-injection diesel engine.
Technical Paper

Crank Angle Resolved HC-Detection Using LIF in the Exhausts of Small Two-Stroke Engines Running at High Engine Speed

In order to separate the HC-emissions from two-stroke engines into short-circuit losses and emissions due to incomplete combustion, Laser Induced Fluorescence (LIF) measurements were performed on the exhaust gases just outside the exhaust ports of two engines of different designs. The difference between the two engines was the design of the transfer channels. One engine had “finger” transfer channels and one had “cup handle” transfer channels. Apart from that they were similar. The engine with “finger” transfer channels was earlier known to give more short-circuiting losses than the other engine, and that behavior was confirmed by these measurements. Generally, the results show that the emission of hydrocarbons has two peaks, one just after exhaust port opening and one late in the scavenging phase. The spectral information shows differences between the two peaks and it can be concluded that the latter peak is due to short-circuiting and the earlier due to incomplete combustion.
Technical Paper

Cylinder to Cylinder and Cycle to Cycle Variations in a Six Cylinder Lean Burn Natural Gas Engine

The cylinder to cylinder and cycle to cycle variations were measured in a production type Volvo natural gas engine. Cylinder pressure was measured in all six cylinders. Emission measurements were performed individually after all cylinders, and commonly after the turbocharger. Measurements (ECE R49 13-mode) were performed with different spark gap and two different locations for fuel injection, one before the throttle and one before the turbocharger. Heat-release and lambda calculations show substantial cylinder to cylinder variations, due to lambda variations between the cylinders. The slow burn combustion chamber, with low turbulence, results in high cycle to cycle variations (> 100% COV imep) for some of the load cases.
Technical Paper

Cylinder-to-Cylinder and Cycle-to-Cycle Variations at HCCI Operation With Trapped Residuals

A naturally aspirated in-line six-cylinder 2.9-litre Volvo engine is operated in Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) mode, using camshafts with low lift and short duration generating negative valve overlap. Standard port fuel injection is used and pistons and cylinder head are unchanged from the automotive application. HCCI through negative valve overlap is recognized as one of the possible implementation strategies of HCCI closest to production. It is important to gain knowledge of the constraints and limits on the possible operating region. In this work, the emphasis is on investigating how cycle-to-cycle and cylinder-to-cylinder deviations limit the operating region, how these effects change in different parts of the operating region and how they can be controlled. At low load the cycle-to-cycle phenomena cause periodic behavior in combustion timing; together with cylinder deviations this is found responsible for decreasing the operating regime.
Technical Paper

Demonstrating the Multi Fuel Capability of a Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition Engine with Variable Compression Ratio

The potential of a Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) engine with variable compression ratio has been experimentally investigated. The experiments were carried out in a single cylinder engine, equipped with a modified cylinder head. Altering the position of a secondary piston in the cylinder head enabled a change of the compression ratio. The secondary piston was controlled by a hydraulic system, which was operated from the control room. Dual port injection systems were used, which made it possible to change the ratio of two different fuels with the engine running. By mixing iso-octane with octane number 100 and normal heptane with octane number 0, it was possible to obtain any octane rating between 0 and 100. By using an electrical heater for the inlet air, it was possible to adjust the inlet air temperature to a selected value.
Technical Paper

Detailed Heat Release Analyses with Regard to Combustion of RME and Oxygenated Fuels in an HSDI Diesel Engine

Experiments on a modern DI Diesel engine were carried out: The engine was fuelled with standard Diesel fuel, RME and a mixture of 85% standard Diesel fuel, 5% RME and 10% higher alcohols under low load conditions (4 bar IMEP). During these experiments, different external EGR levels were applied while the injection timing was chosen in a way to keep the location of 50% heat release constant. Emission analysis results were in accordance with widely known correlations: Increasing EGR rates lowered NOx emissions. This is explained by a decrease of global air-fuel ratio entailing longer ignition delay. Local gas-fuel ratio increases during ignition delay and local combustion temperature is lowered. Exhaust gas analysis indicated further a strong increase of CO, PM and unburned HC emissions at high EGR levels. This resulted in lower combustion efficiency. PM emissions however, decreased above 50% EGR which was also in accordance with previously reported results.
Technical Paper

Employing an Ionization Sensor for Combustion Diagnostics in a Lean Burn Natural Gas Engine

An ionization sensor has been used to study the combustion process in a six-cylinder lean burn, truck-sized engine fueled with natural gas and optimized for low emissions of nitric oxides. The final goal of the investigations is to study the prospects of using the ionization sensor for finding the optimal operating position with respect to low NOx emission and stable engine operation. The results indicate that unstable combustion can be detected by analyzing the coefficient of variation (CoV) of the detector current amplitude. Close relationships between this measure and the CoV of the indicated mean effective pressure have been found during an air-fuel ratio scan with fixed ignition advance.
Technical Paper

Experimental Investigations of Flow and Temperature Fields in an SI Engine and Comparison with Numerical Analysis

Two-dimensional cycle-resolved burnt gas temperatures were measured using two line atomic fluorescence (TLAF) in a single cylinder spark ignition car engine. Mapping of the in-cylinder flow was done under the same operating conditions using Particle Imaging Velocimetry (PIV). Experimental data for temperature and flow was compared to results from numerical simulations.
Technical Paper

Fuel Injection and Mean Swirl Effects on Combustion and Soot Formation in Heavy Duty Diesel Engines

High-speed video imaging in a swirl-supported (Rs = 1.7), direct-injection heavy-duty diesel engine operated with moderate-to-high EGR rates reveals a distinct correlation between the spatial distribution of luminous soot and mean flow vorticity in the horizontal plane. The temporal behavior of the experimental images, as well as the results of multi-dimensional numerical simulations, show that this soot-vorticity correlation is caused by the presence of a greater amount of soot on the windward side of the jet. The simulations indicate that while flow swirl can influence pre-ignition mixing processes as well as post-combustion soot oxidation processes, interactions between the swirl and the heat release can also influence mixing processes. Without swirl, combustion-generated gas flows influence mixing on both sides of the jet equally. In the presence of swirl, the heat release occurs on the leeward side of the fuel sprays.
Technical Paper

Heat Release in the End-Gas Prior to Knock in Lean, Rich and Stoichiometric Mixtures With and Without EGR

SI Engine knock is caused by autoignition in the unburnt part of the mixture (end-gas) ahead of the propagating flame. Autoignition of the end-gas occurs when the temperature and pressure exceeds a critical limit when comparatively slow reactions-releasing moderate amounts of heat-transform into ignition and rapid heat release. In this paper the difference in the heat released in the end-gas-by low temperature chemistry-between lean, rich, stochiometric, and stoichiometric mixtures diluted with cooled EGR was examined by measuring the temperature in the end-gas with Dual Broadband Rotational CARS. The measured temperature history was compared with an isentropic temperature calculated from the cylinder pressure trace. The experimentally obtained values for knock onset were compared with results from a two-zone thermodynamic model including detailed chemistry modeling of the end-gas reactions.
Technical Paper

Hydrocarbon (HC) Reduction of Exhaust Gases from a Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) Engine Using Different Catalytic Mesh-Coatings

A FeCrAlloy mesh-type catalyst has been used to reduce hydrocarbons (HC) and carbon monoxide (CO) emissions from a 4-stroke HCCI engine. Significant for the HCCI engine is a high compression ratio and lean mixtures, which leads to a high efficiency, low combustion temperatures and thereby low NOx emissions, <5 pmm, but also low exhaust temperatures, around 300°C. It becomes critical to: 1. Ensure that the HCCI-combustion generates as low HC emissions as possible, this can be done by very precise control of engine inlet conditions and, if possible, compression ratio. 2. Ensure that the exhaust temperature is high enough, without loosing efficiency or producing NOx; in order to get an oxidizing catalyst to work. 3. Select proper catalyst material for the catalyst so that the exhaust temperature can be as low as possible.