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Journal Article

Combustion Stratification with Partially Premixed Combustion, PPC, using NVO and Split Injection in a LD - Diesel Engine

Partially Premixed Combustion (PPC) is used to meet the increasing demands of emission legislation and to improve fuel efficiency. PPC with gasoline fuels have the advantage of a longer premixed duration of fuel/air mixture which prevents soot formation at higher loads. The objective of this paper is to investigate the degree of stratification for low load (towards idle) engine conditions using different injection strategies and negative valve overlap (NVO). The question is, how homogenous or stratified is the partially premixed combustion (PPC) for a given setting of NVO and fuel injection strategy. In this work PRF 55 has been used as PPC fuel. The experimental engine is a light duty (LD) diesel engine that has been modified to single cylinder operation to provide optical access into the combustion chamber, equipped with a fully variable valve train system. Hot residual gases were trapped by using NVO to dilute the cylinder mixture.
Technical Paper

Effect of Piston Bowl Shape and Swirl Ratio on Engine Heat Transfer in a Light-Duty Diesel Engine

Heat transfer losses are one of the largest loss contributions in a modern internal combustion engine. The aim of this study is to evaluate the contribution of the piston bowl type and swirl ratio to heat losses and performance. A commercial CFD tool is used to carry out simulations of four different piston bowl geometries, at three engine loads with two different swirl ratios at each load point. One of the geometries is used as a reference point, where CFD results are validated with engine test data. All other bowl geometries are scaled to the same compression ratio and make use of the same fuel injection, with a variation in the spray target between cases. The results show that the baseline case, which is of a conventional diesel bowl shape, provides the best emission performance, while a more open, tapered, lip-less combustion bowl is the most thermodynamically efficient.
Technical Paper

Effect of Relative Mixture Strength on Performance of Divided Chamber ‘Avalanche Activated Combustion’ Ignition Technique in a Heavy Duty Natural Gas Engine

This article deals with application of a pre-chamber type ignition device in a heavy duty engine operated with natural gas. A particular pre-chamber ignition strategy called Avalanche Activated Combustion (originally ‘Lavinia Aktyvatsia Gorenia’ in Russian), commonly referred to as LAG-ignition process, has been studied by performing a parametric study of various pre- and main chamber mixture strength combinations. This strategy was first proposed in 1966 and has been mostly applied in light duty automotive engines. A majority of published data are results from developmental studies but the fundamental mechanism of the LAG-ignition process is unclear to date. To the best of authors' knowledge, the study presented in this article is the first generalized study to gain deeper understanding of the LAG-ignition process in heavy duty engines operating with natural gas as fuel for both chambers.
Technical Paper

Flow Field Measurements inside a Piston Bowl of a Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine

Combination of flow field measurements, shown in this paper, give new information on the effect of engine run parameters to formation of different flow fields inside piston bowl. The measurements were carried out with particle image velocimetry (PIV) technique in optical engine. Good set of results was achieved even though the feasibility of this technique in diesel engines is sometimes questioned. Main challenge in diesel engines is background radiation from soot particles which is strong enough to conceal the PIV signal. Window staining in diesel engine is also a problem, since very high particle image quality is needed for velocity analysis. All measurements were made in an optical heavy-duty diesel engine. Optical design of engine was Bowditch type [1]. The engine was charged and equipped with exhaust gas recirculation (EGR). The exhaust gas level was monitored by oxygen concentration and the level was matched to former soot concentration measurements.
Technical Paper

Investigating Mode Switch from SI to HCCI using Early Intake Valve Closing and Negative Valve Overlap

This study investigates mode switching from spark ignited operation with early intake valve closing to residual gas enhanced HCCI using negative valve overlap on a port-fuel injected light-duty diesel engine. A mode switch is demonstrated at 3.5 bar IMEPnet and 1500 rpm. Valve timings and fuel amount have to be selected carefully prior to the mode switch. During mode transition, IMEPnet deviates by up to 0.5 bar from the set point. The time required to return to the set point as well as the transient behavior of the engine load varies depending on which control structure that is used. Both a model-based controller and a PI control approach were implemented and evaluated in experiments. The controllers were active in HCCI mode. The model-based controller achieved a smoother transition and while using it, the transition could be accomplished within three engine cycles.
Journal Article

Lift-Off Length in an Optical Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine

High-speed OH chemiluminescence imaging is used to measure the lift-off length of diesel sprays in an optical heavy-duty diesel engine of 2 L displacement operated at 1200 rpm and 5 bar IMEP. Stereoscopic images are acquired at two different wavelengths (310 and 330 nm). Subtraction of pairwise images helps reducing the background coming from natural soot incandescence in the OH chemiluminescence images. Intake air temperature (343 to 403 K), motored top dead center density (18 to 22 kg/m3), fuel injection pressure (150 to 250 MPa), intake oxygen concentration (17 to 21 %vol) and nozzle diameter (0.1 and 0.14 mm) are varied and a nonlinear regression model is derived from the experimental results to describe stabilized lift-off length as function of the experimental factors. The lift-off length follows the general trends that are known from spray vessel investigations, but the strength of the dependence on certain variables deviates strongly from those studies.
Journal Article

Lift-Off Length in an Optical Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine: Effects of Swirl and Jet-Jet Interactions

The influence of jet-flow and jet-jet interactions on the lift-off length of diesel jets are investigated in an optically accessible heavy-duty diesel engine. High-speed OH chemiluminescence imaging technique is employed to capture the transient evolution of the lift-off length up to its stabilization. The engine is operated at 1200 rpm and at a constant load of 5 bar IMEP. Decreasing the inter-jet spacing shortens the liftoff length of the jet. A strong interaction is also observed between the bulk in-cylinder gas temperature and the inter-jet spacing. The in-cylinder swirl level only has a limited influence on the final lift-off length position. Increasing the inter-jet spacing is found to reduce the magnitude of the cycle-to-cycle variations of the lift-off length.
Technical Paper

Mixing in Wall-Jets in a Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine: A LES Study

The paper presents a large eddy simulation investigation on the effect of fuel injection pressure on mixing, in an optical heavy-duty diesel engine. Recent investigation on impinging wall jets at constant-volume and quiescent conditions exhibited augmented air entrainment in wall jets with increasing injection pressure, when compared with a free jet. The increased mixing rates were explained as owing to enhanced turbulence and vortex formation in the jet-tip in the recirculation zone. A recent investigation carried out in an optical heavy-duty diesel engine indicated however a negligible effect of injection pressure on the mixing in the engine environment. The effect of enhanced turbulence and vortex formation of the jet-tip in the recirculation zone is believed weaker than the effect of engine confinement, due to the presence of fuel from adjacent jets limiting the mixing the fuel with the ambient gas.
Technical Paper

Model Predictive Control of a Combined EGR/SCR HD Diesel Engine

Achieving upcoming HD emissions legislation, Euro VI/EPA 10, is a challenge for all engine manufacturers. A likely solution to meet the NOx limit is to use a combination of EGR and SCR. Combining these two technologies poses new challenges and possibilities when it comes to optimization and calibration. Using a complete system approach, i.e., considering the engine and the aftertreatment system as a single unit, is important in order to achieve good performance. Optimizing the complete system is a tedious task; first there are a large number of variables which affect both emissions and fuel consumption (injection timing, EGR rate, urea dosing, injection pressure, pilot/post injections, for example). Secondly, the chemical reactions in the SCR catalyst are substantially slower than the dynamics of the diesel engine and the rest of the system, making the optimization problem time dependent.