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Technical Paper

A Physical Two-Zone NOx Model Intended for Embedded Implementation

This paper offers a two-zone NOx model suitable for vehicle on-board, on-line implementation. Similar NOx modeling attempts have previously been undertaken. The hereby suggested method does however offer clear and important benefits over the previously methods, utilizing a significantly different method to handle temperature calculations within the (two) different zones avoiding iterative computation. The new method significantly improves calculation speed and, most important of all, reduces implementation complexity while still maintaining reasonable accuracy and the physical interpretation of earlier suggested methods. The equations commonly used to compute NOx emissions is also rewritten in order to suit a two-zone NOx model. An algorithm which can be used to compute NOx emissions is presented and the intended contribution of the paper is a NOx model, implementation feasible for an embedded system, e.g. embedded processor or embedded electronic hardware (FPGA).
Technical Paper

An Experimental Investigation of a Multi-Cylinder Engine with Gasoline-Like Fuel towards a High Engine Efficiency

Partially Premixed Combustion (PPC) is a promising combustion concept with high thermodynamic efficiency and low emission level, and also with minimal modification of standard engine hardware. To use PPC in a production oriented engine, the optimal intake charge conditions for PPC should be included in the analysis. The experiments in this paper investigated and confirmed that the optimal intake conditions of net indicated efficiency for PPC are EGR between 50% and 55% as possible and the lambda close to 1.4. Heat-transfer energy and exhaust gas waste-energy contribute to the majority of the energy loss in the engine. The low EGR region has high heat-transfer and low exhaust gas enthalpy-waste, while the high EGR region has low heat-transfer and high exhaust gas waste-enthalpy. The optimal EGR condition is around 50% where the smallest energy loss is found as a trade-off between heat transfer and exhaust-gas enthalpy-waste.
Journal Article

Analysis of the Correlation Between Engine-Out Particulates and Local Φ in the Lift-Off Region of a Heavy Duty Diesel Engine Using Raman Spectroscopy

The local equivalence ratio, Φ, was measured in fuel jets using laser-induced spontaneous Raman scattering in an optical heavy duty diesel engine. The measurements were performed at 1200 rpm and quarter load (6 bar IMEP). The objective was to study factors influencing soot formation, such as gas entrainment and lift-off position, and to find correlations with engine-out particulate matter (PM) levels. The effects of nozzle hole size, injection pressure, inlet oxygen concentration, and ambient density at TDC were studied. The position of the lift–off region was determined from OH chemiluminescence images of the flame. The liquid penetration length was measured with Mie scattering to ensure that the Raman measurement was performed in the gaseous part of the spray. The local Φ value was successfully measured inside a fuel jet. A surprisingly low correlation coefficient between engine-out PM and the local Φ in the reaction zone were observed.
Technical Paper

CFD Simulations of Pre-Chamber Jets' Mixing Characteristics in a Heavy Duty Natural Gas Engine

The effect of pre-chamber volume and nozzle diameter on performance of pre-chamber ignition device in a heavy duty natural gas engine has previously been studied by the authors. From the analysis of recorded pre- and main chamber pressure traces, it was observed that a pre-chamber with a larger volume reduced flame development angle and combustion duration while at a given pre-chamber volume, smaller nozzle diameters provided better ignition in the main chamber. The structure of pre-chamber jet and its mixing characteristics with the main chamber charge are believed to play a vital role, and hence CFD simulations are performed to study the fluid dynamic aspects of interaction between the pre-chamber jet and main chamber charge during the period of flame development angle, i.e. before main chamber ignition. It has been observed that jets from a larger pre-chamber penetrates through the main chamber faster due to higher momentum and generates turbulence in the main chamber earlier.
Technical Paper

CFD Study of Low Soot Spray Combustionin a Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine

This CFD study focuses on the influence of the nozzle diameter on the mixing process and the soot formation and oxidation process in a heavy-duty diesel engine. The CFD simulation is based on the Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes approach. The engine set-up is similar to an experimental case that showed rather low soot emission. The aim of the paper is to improve the understanding of the physics of the mixing process in a real engine environment with the attention to scrutinize its effect of fuel injection on combustion and soot emission. Two non-reacting cases with different injector nozzle diameters but constant injection pressure and their corresponding reacting cases are simulated with dynamic mesh motion and fuel spray modeling. The influence of injections on the mixing, combustion and emissions is analyzed and the simulation results are compared with the measurement data.
Journal Article

Comparison of Negative Valve Overlap (NVO) and Rebreathing Valve Strategies on a Gasoline PPC Engine at Low Load and Idle Operating Conditions

Gasoline partially premixed combustion (PPC) has the potential of high efficiency and simultaneous low soot and NOx emissions. Running the engine in PPC mode with high octane number fuels has the advantage of a longer premix period of fuel and air which reduces soot emissions. The problem is the ignitability at low load and idle operating conditions. In a previous study it was shown that it is possible to use NVO to improve combustion stability and combustion efficiency at operating conditions where available boosted air is assumed to be limited. NVO has the disadvantage of low net indicated efficiency due to heat losses from recompressions of the hot residual gases. An alternative to NVO is the rebreathing valve strategy where the exhaust valves are reopened during the intake stroke. The net indicated efficiency is expected to be higher with the rebreathing strategy but the question is if similar improvements in combustion stability can be achieved with rebreathing as with NVO.
Technical Paper

Digital Human Models' Appearance Impact on Observers' Ergonomic Assessment

The objective of this paper is to investigate whether different appearance modes of the digital human models (DHM or manikins) affect the observers when judging a working posture. A case where the manikin is manually assembling a battery in the boot with help of a lifting device is used in the experiment. 16 different pictures were created and presented for the subjects. All pictures have the same background, but include a unique posture and manikin appearance combination. Four postures and four manikin appearances were used. The subjects were asked to rank the pictures after ergonomic assessment based on posture of the manikin. Subjects taking part in the study were either manufacturing engineering managers, simulation engineers or ergonomists. Results show that the different appearance modes affect the ergonomic judgment. A more realistic looking manikin is rated higher than the very same posture visualized with a less natural appearance.
Journal Article

Double Compression Expansion Engine Concepts: A Path to High Efficiency

Internal combustion engine (ICE) fuel efficiency is a balance between good indicated efficiency and mechanical efficiency. High indicated efficiency is reached with a very diluted air/fuel-mixture and high load resulting in high peak cylinder pressure (PCP). On the other hand, high mechanical efficiency is obtained with very low peak cylinder pressure as the piston rings and bearings can be made with less friction. This paper presents studies of a combustion engine which consists of a two stage compression and expansion cycle. By splitting the engine into two different cycles, high-pressure (HP) and low-pressure (LP) cycles respectively, it is possible to reach high levels of both indicated and mechanical efficiency simultaneously. The HP cycle is designed similar to today's turbo-charged diesel engine but with an even higher boost pressure, resulting in high PCP. To cope with high PCP, the engine needs to be rigid.
Technical Paper

Effect of Jet-Jet Interactions on the Liquid Fuel Penetration in an Optical Heavy-Duty DI Diesel Engine

The liquid phase penetration of diesel sprays under reacting conditions is measured in an optical heavy-duty Direct Injection (DI) diesel engine. Hot gas reservoirs along the diffusion flames have previously been shown to affect the liftoff length on multi hole nozzles. The aim of this study is to see if they also affect the liquid length. The inter-jet spacing is varied together with the Top Dead Center density and the inlet temperature. To avoid unwanted interferences from the natural flame luminosity the illumination wavelength is blue shifted from the black body radiation spectrum and set to 448 nm. Filtered Mie scattered light from the fuel droplets is recorded with a high speed camera. The liquid fuel penetration is evaluated from the start of injection to the quasi steady phase of the jets. Knowledge of jet-jet interaction effects is of interest for transferring fundamental understanding from combustion vessels to practical engine applications.
Technical Paper

FPGA Implementation of In-Cycle Closed-Loop Combustion Control Methods

This paper investigates the FPGA resources for the implementation of in-cycle closed-loop combustion control algorithms. Closed-loop combustion control obtains feedback from fast in-cylinder pressure measurements for accurate and reliable information about the combustion progress, synchronized with the flywheel encoder. In-cycle combustion control requires accurate and fast computations for their real-time execution. A compromise between accuracy and computation complexity must be selected for an effective combustion control. The requirements on the signal processing (evaluation rate and digital resolution) are investigated. A common practice for the combustion supervision is to monitor the heat release rate. For its calculation, different methods for the computation of the cylinder volume and heat capacity ratio are compared. Combustion feedback requires of virtual sensors for the misfire detection, burnt fuel mass and pressure prediction.
Technical Paper

Force Controlled Assembly of a Compliant Rib

Automation in aerospace industry is often in the form of dedicated solutions and focused on processes like drilling, riveting etc. The common industrial robot has due to limitations in positional accuracy and stiffness often been unsuitable for aerospace manufacturing. One major cost driver in aircraft manufacturing is manual assembly and the bespoke tooling needed. Assembly tasks frequently involve setting relations between parts rather than a global need for accuracy. This makes assembly a suitable process for the use of force control. With force control a robot equipped with needed software and hardware, searches for desired force rather than for a position. To test the usefulness of force control for aircraft assembly an experimental case aligning a compliant rib to multiple surfaces was designed and executed. The system used consisted of a standard ABB robot and an open controller and the assembly sequence was made up of several steps in order to achieve final position.
Technical Paper

Force Feedback for Assembly of Aircraft Structures

Variability in composite manufacture and the limitations in positional accuracy of common industrial robots have hampered automation of assembly tasks within aircraft manufacturing. One way to handle geometry variations and robot compliancy is to use force control. Force control technology utilizes a sensor mounted on the robot to feedback force data to the controller system so instead of being position driven, i.e. programmed to achieve a certain position with the tool, the robot can be programmed to achieve a certain force. This paper presents an experimental case where a compliant rib is aligned to multiple surfaces using force feedback and an industrial robot system from ABB. Two types of ribs where used, one full size carbon fiber rib, and one smaller metal replica for evaluation purposes. The alignment sequence consisted of several iterative steps and a search procedure was implemented within the robot control system.
Technical Paper

Injection of Fuel at High Pressure Conditions: LES Study

This paper presents a large eddy simulation study of the liquid spray mixing with hot ambient gas in a constant volume vessel under engine-like conditions with the injection pressure of 1500 bar, ambient density 22.8 kg/m₃, ambient temperature of 900 K and an injector nozzle of 0.09 mm. The simulation results are compared with the experiments carried out by Pickett et al., under similar conditions. Under modern direct injection diesel engine conditions, it has been argued that the liquid core region is small and the droplets after atomization are fine so that the process of spray evaporation and mixing with the air is controlled by the heat and mass transfer between the ambient hot gas and central fuel flow. To examine this hypothesis a simple spray breakup model is tested in the present LES simulation. The simulations are performed using an open source compressible flow solver, in OpenFOAM.
Journal Article

Investigation of Different Valve Geometries and Vavle Timing Strategies and their Effect on Regenerative Efficiency for a Pneumatic Hybrid with Variable Valve Actuation

In the study presented in this paper a single-cylinder Scania D12 diesel engine has been converted to work as a pneumatic hybrid. During pneumatic hybrid operation the engine can be used as a 2-stroke compressor for generation of compressed air during vehicle deceleration and during vehicle acceleration the engine can be operated as an air-motor driven by the previously stored pressurized air. The compressed air is stored in a pressure tank connected to one of the inlet ports. One of the engine inlet valves has been modified to work as a tank valve in order to control the pressurized air flow to and from the pressure tank. In order to switch between different modes of engine operation there is a need for a VVT system and the engine used in this study is equipped with pneumatic valve actuators that uses compressed air in order to drive the valves and the motion of the valves are controlled by a combination of electronics and hydraulics.
Technical Paper

Loss Analysis of a HD-PPC Engine with Two-Stage Turbocharging Operating in the European Stationary Cycle

Partially Premixed Combustion (PPC) has demonstrated substantially higher efficiency compared to conventional diesel combustion (CDC) and gasoline engines (SI). By combining experiments and modeling the presented work investigates the underlying reasons for the improved efficiency, and quantifies the loss terms. The results indicate that it is possible to operate a HD-PPC engine with a production two-stage boost system over the European Stationary Cycle while likely meeting Euro VI and US10 emissions with a peak brake efficiency above 48%. A majority of the ESC can be operated with brake efficiency above 44%. The loss analysis reveals that low in-cylinder heat transfer losses are the most important reason for the high efficiencies of PPC. In-cylinder heat losses are basically halved in PPC compared to CDC, as a consequence of substantially reduced combustion temperature gradients, especially close to the combustion chamber walls.
Technical Paper

On the Use of Force Feedback for Cost Efficient Robotic Drilling

Drilling is one of the most costly and labour-intensive operations in aircraft assembly. Rather than automating with expensive fixtures and precise machinery, our approach is to make use of standard low-cost robot equipment in combination with sensor feedback. The focus is to eliminate the sliding movement of the end-effector during the clamp-up, called the skating effect, and to keep the end-effector orthogonal to the surface, thus avoiding holes that are not perpendicular. To that end, force feedback is used for building up pressure to clamp up an end-effector to the work-piece surface prior to drilling. The system, including the planning of force parameters for each hole to be drilled, was programmed in DELMIA. The drilling was accomplished with the aid of an extension to the ABB Rapid language called ExtRapid, which is an XML-like code that is interpreted by the force feedback controller downstream in the process.
Technical Paper

Scalability Aspects of Pre-Chamber Ignition in Heavy Duty Natural Gas Engines

This article presents a study related to application of pre-chamber ignition system in heavy duty natural gas engine which, as previously shown by the authors, can extend the limit of fuel-lean combustion and hence improve fuel efficiency and reduce emissions. A previous study about the effect of pre-chamber volume and nozzle diameter on a single cylinder 2 liter truck-size engine resulted in recommendations for optimal pre-chamber geometry settings. The current study is to determine the dependency of those settings on the engine size. For this study, experiments are performed on a single cylinder 9 liter large bore marine engine with similar pre-chamber geometry and a test matrix of similar and scaled pre-chamber volume and nozzle diameter settings. The effect of these variations on main chamber ignition and the following combustion is studied to understand the scalability aspects of pre-chamber ignition. Indicated efficiency and engine-out emission data is also presented.
Technical Paper

The Usefulness of Negative Valve Overlap for Gasoline Partially Premixed Combustion, PPC

Partially premixed combustion has the potential of high efficiency and simultaneous low soot and NOx emissions. Running the engine in PPC mode with high octane number fuels has the advantage of a longer premix period of fuel and air which reduces soot emissions, even at higher loads. The problem is the ignitability at low load and idle operating conditions. The objective is to investigate the usefulness of negative valve overlap on a light duty diesel engine running with gasoline partially premixed combustion at low load operating conditions. The idea is to use negative valve overlap to trap hot residual gases to elevate the global in-cylinder temperature to promote auto-ignition of the high octane number fuel. This is of practical interest at low engine speed and load operating conditions because it can be assumed that the available boost is limited. The problem with NVO at low load operating conditions is that the exhaust gas temperature is low.