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Technical Paper

Methodology for Combustion Analysis of a Spark Ignition Engine Incorporating a Pre-Chamber Combustor

With an increasing global awareness of the need to conserve fuel resources and reduce carbon dioxide emissions, the automotive sector has been seeking gains in engine efficiency. One such method for achieving these gains on a spark ignition (SI) engine platform is through lean burn operation. Ultra-lean operation (λ>2) has demonstrated the ability to increase thermal efficiency and significantly reduce emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx) due primarily to lower mean gas temperatures. Turbulent Jet Ignition (TJI), a pre-chamber-based combustion system, is a technology that enables ultra-lean operation. TJI is also an effective knock mitigation system due to the distributed nature of main chamber ignition, resulting in rapid burn rates. Pre-chamber combustors such as that utilized in TJI have been studied extensively for decades, but the interaction of the combustion events between the two chambers is not well understood.
Technical Paper

Spark Ignition and Pre-Chamber Turbulent Jet Ignition Combustion Visualization

Natural gas is a promising alternative fuel as it is affordable, available worldwide, has high knock resistance and low carbon content. This study focuses on the combustion visualization of spark ignition combustion in an optical single cylinder engine using natural gas at several air to fuel ratios and speed-load operating points. In addition, Turbulent Jet Ignition optical images are compared to the baseline spark ignition images at the world-wide mapping point (1500 rev/min, 3.3 bar IMEPn) in order to provide insight into the relatively unknown phenomenon of Turbulent Jet Ignition combustion. Turbulent Jet Ignition is an advanced spark initiated pre-chamber combustion system for otherwise standard spark ignition engines found in current passenger vehicles. This next generation pre-chamber design simply replaces the spark plug in a conventional spark ignition engine.
Technical Paper

Sub-200 g/kWh BSFC on a Light Duty Gasoline Engine

Increasingly stringent global fuel economy and carbon dioxide (CO2) legislation for light duty passenger cars has created an interest in unconventional operating modes. One such mode in spark ignition (SI) gasoline engines is lean combustion. While lean operation in SI engines has previously demonstrated the ability to reduce fuel consumption, the degree of enleanment capability of the system is limited by increasingly unstable combustion in the lean region, particularly for homogeneous lean approaches. MAHLE Jet Ignition® (MJI) is a pre-chamber-based combustion system that extends this lean limit beyond the capabilities of modern SI engines by increasing the ignition energy present in the system. This allows the engine to exploit the benefits of homogeneous ultra-lean (λ > ∼1.6) combustion, namely reduced fuel consumption and reduced emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx). Pre-chamber combustors such as that utilized in MJI have been studied extensively for decades.
Journal Article

The Effects of Charge Homogeneity and Repeatability on Particulates Using the PLIF Technique in an Optical DISI Engine

The work was concerned with visualisation of the charge homogeneity and cyclic variations within the planar fuel field near the spark plug in an optical spark ignition engine fitted with an outwardly opening central direct fuel injector. Specifically, the project examined the effects of fuel type and injection settings, with the overall view to understanding some of the key mechanisms previously identified as leading to particulate formation in such engines. The three fuels studied included a baseline iso-octane, which was directly compared to two gasoline fuels containing 10% and 85% volume of ethanol respectively. The engine was a bespoke single cylinder with Bowditch style optical access through a flat piston crown. Charge stratification was studied over a wide spectrum of injection timings using the Planar Laser Induced Fluorescence (PLIF) technique, with additional variation in charge temperature due to injection also estimated when viable using a two-line PLIF approach.
Technical Paper

The Effects of Turbulent Jet Characteristics on Engine Performance Using a Pre-Chamber Combustor

Increasingly stringent US fuel economy regulation has emphasized the need for automotive engines to achieve greater levels of efficiency. Lean operation in spark ignition engines has demonstrated the ability to increase thermal efficiency, but this is typically accompanied by increased nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions. Ultra-lean operation (λ > 2), however, has demonstrated increased thermal efficiency and the potential for significant reductions in NOx. Turbulent Jet Ignition (TJI) enables ultra-lean operation by utilizing radical turbulent jets emerging from a pre-chamber combustor as the ignition source for main chamber combustion in a spark ignition engine. This study seeks to better understand the interaction between the pre-chamber and main chamber combustion events, specifically the effect that particular TJI design parameters have on this interaction.
Technical Paper

The Impact of Engine Displacement on Efficiency Loss Pathways in a Highly Dilute Jet Ignition Engine

Internal combustion engines currently face increasing regulatory reform which has motivated investigation of alternative combustion modes, particularly for spark ignition engines. Fuel economy regulations, among others, are presently driving the need for technological advances in the automotive sector. Stationary power generation is facing emissions standards that will be increasingly difficult to achieve with combustion-based current practices, particularly in the case of nitrogen oxides (NOx). Ultra-lean (λ > ~1.6; air-fuel ratio > 23:1) combustion via air dilution is one such combustion mode that provides the benefits of reduced fuel consumption and reduced NOx emissions. Jet ignition is a pre-chamber-based combustion system that enables enleanment beyond what is achievable with traditional spark ignition engines. Previous studies of MAHLE’s Jet Ignition® concept have primarily focused on light-duty gasoline engines.