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Technical Paper

A Secondary De-Aeration Circuit for an Engine Cooling System with Atmospheric Recovery Bottle to Improve De-Aeration

2014-09-30
2014-01-2342
In any engine cooling system, de-aeration capability of the system plays a very critical role to avoid over heating of an engine. In general, with recovery bottle engine cooling system there is one vent hose from radiator pressure cap to the recovery bottle and coolant in the bottle is exposed to atmospheric pressure. From this vent hose air bubbles will move to recovery bottle from the engine and radiator when pressure in the system exceeds pressure cap setting. With this arrangement, de-aeration from the engine will happen when thermostat opens only and till that time air bubbles will be in the engine only and in this time there will be chance of overheating at some critical conditions because of air pockets in to the engine water jacket and the entrained air in the cooling circuit. Also, secondly 100 % initial filling cannot be achieved.
Technical Paper

A Study on Door Clips and Their Influence on BSR Performance

2019-06-05
2019-01-1468
Squeak and rattle concerns account for approximately 10% of overall vehicle Things Gone Wrong (TGW) and are major quality concern for automotive OEM’s. Objectionable door noises are one of the top 10 IQS concerns under any OEM nameplate. Door trim significantly contributes to overall BSR quality perception. Door trim is mounted on door in white using small plastic clips with variable properties that can significantly influence BSR performance. In this paper, the performance of various door clips is evaluated through objective parameters like interface dynamic stiffness and system damping. The methodology involves a simple dynamic system for the evaluation of the performance of a clip design. Transmissibility is calculated from the dynamic response of a mass supported by clip. Parameters such as interface stiffness and system damping are extracted for each clip design. Variation of inner panel thickness is also considered when comparing clip performance.
Technical Paper

Acoustic Analysis of a Tractor Muffler

2017-06-05
2017-01-1791
Parametric model of a production hybrid (made up of reactive and dissipative elements) muffler for tractor engine is developed to compute the acoustic Transmission Loss (TL). The objective is to simplify complex muffler acoustic simulations without any loss of accuracy, robustness and usability so that it is accessible to all product development engineers and designers. The parametric model is a 3D Finite Element Method (FEM) based built in COMSOL model builder which is then converted into a user-friendly application (App) using COMSOL App builder. The uniqueness of the App lies in its ability to handle not only wide range of parametric variations but also variations in the physics and boundary conditions. This enables designers to explore various design options in the early design phase without the need to have deep expertise in a specific simulation tool nor in numerical acoustic modeling.
Technical Paper

Alternate Manufacturing Process for Automotive Input Shafts

2017-10-13
2017-01-5013
The input shafts are conventionally developed through Hot forging route. Considering upcoming new technologies the same part was developed through cold forging route which resulting in better Mechanical properties than existing hot forging process. It has added benefit of cost as well as environmental friendly. Generally, the part like Input shaft which having gear teeth, splines etc., will be manufactured through Hot forging process due to degree of deformation, availability of press capacity, diameter variations etc., This process consumes more energy in terms of electricity for heating the bar and also creates pollution to the atmosphere. Automotive input shaft design modified to accommodate cold forging process route to develop the shaft with press capacity of 2500T which gives considerable benefit in terms of mechanical and metallurgical Properties, close dimensional tolerances, less machining time, higher material yield when compared to hot forging and metal cutting operation.
Technical Paper

An Investigation into the Disruption of Circadian Rhythms using Blue Light for Automotive Applications

2015-04-14
2015-01-1706
Melatonin, otherwise popularly known as the “sleep hormone” is known to govern the human circadian rhythms. Current studies indicate that the generation of melatonin is impacted by the ambient light. The natural sleep inducing behavior during night and in darkness, is also due to the same phenomenon. Studies have shown that light of particular wavelengths in the visible spectrum have a higher effect on the amount of melatonin secreted by the human body. Blue light in the wavelengths of around 468 nm is known to inhibit the melatonin secretion, the most. This branch of science known as photobiology is in its nascent stage and is a matter of research pursued by neurologists, endocrinologists and other lighting researchers. Photobiology has several potential applications in the automotive industry, the principal one being driver drowsiness prevention.
Technical Paper

Analytical Design and Development for Automobile Powertrain Mounts Using Low Fidelity Calculators

2016-02-01
2016-28-0185
The excitation to a vehicle is from two sources, road excitation and powertrain excitation. Vehicle Suspension is designed to isolate the road excitation coming to passenger cabin. Powertrain mounts play a vital role in isolating the engine excitation. The current study focuses on developing an analytical approach using Low-Fidelity computer programs to design the Powertrain Mount layout and stiffness during the initial stage of product development. Three programs have been developed as a part of this study that satisfy the packaging needs, NVH requirements and static load bearing requirements. The applications are capable of providing the Kinetic Energy Distribution and Static Analysis (Powertrain Enveloping and Mount Durability) for 3-point and 4-point mounting systems and the ideal mount positions and stiffness for 3-point mounting systems.
Technical Paper

Case Study: An Accelerated Methodology for Simulating Thermal Stress in Automotive Headlamps

2017-01-10
2017-26-0322
In any industry, early detection and mitigation of a failure in component is vital for feasible design changes or development iterations or saving money. So it becomes pivotal to capture the failure mode in an accelerated way. This theory poses many challenges in devising the methodology to validate the failure mode. In real world, vehicle head lamp is exposed to all possible kinds of harsh environments such as variable daily ambient, rain, dust and engine compartment temperature …etc. This brings rapid thermal stress onto headlamp resulting into warpage cracks. At vehicle level on particular model, this failure is typically observed after 20,000-25,000 kms in a span of 3-4 months of running. Any corrective action to revalidate the design change or improvement will need similar timelines in regular way to test, which is quite high in product development cycle.
Technical Paper

Comparative Analysis of Strain based Fatigue Life Obtained from Uni-Axial and Multi-Axial Loading of an Automotive Twist Beam

2017-01-10
2017-26-0312
Twist beam is a type of suspension system that is based on an H or C shaped member typically used as a rear suspension system in small and medium sized cars. The front of the H member is connected to the body through rubber bushings and the rear portion carries the stub axle assembly. Suspension systems are usually subjected to multi-axial loads in service viz. vertical, longitudinal and lateral in the descending order of magnitude. Lab tests primarily include the roll durability of the twist beam wherein both the trailing arms are in out of phase and a lateral load test. Other tests involve testing the twist beam at the vehicle level either in multi-channel road simulators or driving the vehicle on the test tracks. This is highly time consuming and requires a full vehicle and longer product development time. Limited information is available in the fatigue life comparison of multi-axial loading vs pure roll or lateral load tests.
Journal Article

Comparing Various Multi-Disciplinary Optimization Approaches for Performance Enhancement and Weight Reduction of a Vehicle Chassis Frame

2016-04-05
2016-01-0305
Designing a vehicle chassis involves meeting numerous performance requirements related to various domains such as Durability, Crashworthiness and Noise-Vibration-Harshness (NVH) as well as reducing the overall weight of chassis. In conventional Computer Aided Engineering (CAE) process, experts from each domain work independently to improve the design based on their own domain knowledge which may result in sub-optimal or even non-acceptable designs for other domains. In addition, this may lead to increase in weight of chassis and also result in stretching the overall product development time and cost. Use of Multi-Disciplinary Optimization (MDO) approach to tackle these kind of problems is well documented in industry. However, how to effectively formulate an MDO study and how different MDO formulations affect results has not been touched upon in depth.
Technical Paper

Cost Efficient Bharat (Trem) Stage IV Solutionsfor TractorEngines

2015-01-14
2015-26-0092
India's high Air Pollution level is the focus of discussions as we grow. Plans to combat this menace and implement the latest Technologies are gathering pace. The increasingly stringent emission legislations provide a continuous challenge for the non-road market. Tractor manufacturers are evaluating the need for cost-effective technology to meet upcoming stringent emissions targets. Simply following global approach may not work for Indian market considering the customer usage pattern & perceptions. With an anticipation of upcoming emission norms being based on US-EPA TIER-4 final up to 75 Hp, major technology up gradation is expected for farm equipment sold in India. The enormous diversification of engines within the different power classes as well as the operation specific requirements regarding various duty cycles, robustness and durability, requires specific solutions to meet these legal limits.
Technical Paper

Derivation of Extreme Static Durability Load Cases for FEA Based Vehicle Strength Evaluation

2011-09-13
2011-01-2174
Validation of vehicle structure by use of finite element analysis is at the core of reduction of product development time. In the early phase of validation it is required to evaluate the strength of the vehicle structure to account for the loading during physical validation and service loading. In service the vehicle is subjected to variable loads. These act upon the components that originate from road roughness, maneuvers and power train loads. All systems in the vehicle represent more or less complicated elastic structures subjected to time varying loads. A time domain dynamic assessment of the vehicle structure is time consuming and expensive. Also in the early phase of design wherein several design iterations need to be carried out for design validation, it is practically impossible to conduct a dynamic analysis and fatigue life assessment. Extreme static load cases are traditionally being used for this process.
Technical Paper

Development of Methodology to Determine Toe Geometry of any Vehicle at Its Early Design Stage for Optimum Tyre Life

2019-10-11
2019-28-0105
Toe setting is one of the major wheel alignment parameters which directly effects handling of a vehicle. Correct toe setting ensures desired dynamic behavior of an automobile like straight line stability, cornering behavior, handling and tire durability. Incorrect setting of toe during design stage significantly deteriorates tire durability and leads to uneven tire wear. In the present scenario of automotive industry, toe setting is majorly an iterative or a trial and error process which is both time consuming and involves higher development cost as there may be instances where 2 to 3 sets of iterations are needed before specification is finalized for production. Therefore, determining optimum toe setting at an early stage of a product development will not only save significant development time but it will also benefit in reducing product validation time and cost.
Technical Paper

Development of a Graphical User Interface (GUI) Based Tool for Vehicle Dynamics Evaluation

2019-11-21
2019-28-2397
Title Development of a Graphical User Interface (GUI) Based Tool for Vehicle Dynamics Evaluation Authors Mr. Shubham Kedia, Dr. Divyanshu Joshi, Dr. Muthiah Saravanan Mahindra Research Valley, Mahindra & Mahindra, Chennai Objective Objective metrics for evaluation of major vehicle dynamics performance attributes i.e. ride, handling and steering are required to compare, validate and optimize dynamic behavior of vehicles. Some of these objective metrics are recommended and defined by ISO and SAE, which involve data processing, statistical analysis and complex mathematical operations on acquired data, through simulations or experimental testing. Due to the complexity of operations and volume of data, evaluation is often time consuming and tedious. Process automation using existing tools such as MS Excel, nCode, Siemens LMS, etc. includes several limitations and challenges, which make it cumbersome to implement.
Technical Paper

Driveline Boom Noise Reduction through Simplified FEM Approach

2017-01-10
2017-26-0215
In today's competitive automobile marketplace with reduced vehicle development time and fewer prototypes/tests, CAE is playing very crucial role in vehicle development. Automobile environment demands ever improving levels of vehicle refinement. Performance and refinement are the key factors which can influence the market acceptance of vehicle. Driveline is one of the key systems whose refinement plays critical role in improved customer satisfaction. Because of the virtue of the driveline functionality, driveline induced noise and vibration are the most common issues in the AWD vehicle development programs. Refinement of the drive line needs complicated nonlinear full vehicle CAE MBD models for the evaluation of driveline induced noise and vibration responses at different operating conditions [1]. In this paper a simplified approach is adapted for solving the Noise & Vibration issue which has been identified at the prototype testing level of an AWD vehicle development.
Technical Paper

Driveshaft Maximum Torque Estimation via Linear Model, Failure Analysis and Bench Test Simulation, an Alternative Approach

2016-02-01
2016-28-0171
Primary function of a drive half shaft is to transfer torque from transaxle to the wheels in East West configuration powertrain vehicles. Conventional practice is to consider either 1st gear max torque or the Wheel slip torque, whichever being the maximum as design torque. However vehicle dynamics and Powertrain characteristics have a major influence on the Driveshaft torque and the torques experienced can thus go beyond the design torque. This questions the design endurance limit for the driveshaft based on conventional design. One such situation is the torque experienced by the driveshaft during vehicle coasting condition with gear downshift. The torque experienced in such a scenario can go beyond the maximum design torque leading to failure as was observed in Vehicle level validation test.
Technical Paper

Durability Analysis Methodology of Tractor Hydraulic Bell Crank Assembly for Various Agricultural Operations

2017-01-10
2017-26-0235
A tractor is vehicle specifically designed to deliver a high tractive effort at slow speeds for carrying out various agriculture operations like ploughing, rotavation etc. using implement. Hydraulic system is a key feature which connects these implements with the tractor. It controls the position and draft of the implement depending upon the type of crop, farming stage, implement type and soil conditions. These variations induces extreme range of load on the hydraulic system, thus making it challenging to design these components. Bell crank assembly is one of the main components of hydraulic system which controls the draft (thus, the loads experienced by tractor) through load sensing mechanism. Often bell crank assembly failures are reported from field due to uneven soil hardness and presence of rocks. This paper studies one of such bell crank assembly failures in the field. The failure was reported after half life cycle of usage during agriculture Operation.
Technical Paper

Durability of Customer Perceived Quality of Molded-in-Color Car Bumper

2019-01-09
2019-26-0319
Customer perceived quality (CPQ) of the car is the impression of excellence that a customer experiences the brand through sight, sound, touch, and scent. Molded-in-color (MIC) bumper’s aesthetic appeal contributes significantly to the CPQ of the car. Typical parameters used to define CPQ are color, gloss, grain definition, grain depth, geometry and draft. In this work the durability of the color and gloss post ageing is understood by using analytical and characterization tools. Using the results of ageing characterization, an attempt has been made to understand the retained newness of MIC bumper.
Technical Paper

Dynamic Correlation and Optimization of an SUV Rear Bumper Structure

2010-04-12
2010-01-0501
Structural durability of different components and systems for a Utility Vehicle is critical to design, due to severe customer usage in rural zones and off road driving conditions. Physical validation of new component designs is time consuming, costly and iterative. Also, this process does not ensure an optimized structure. Through virtual validation it is possible in the initial phase of design to validate the structure and optimize the design. The core of a virtual validation process is to obtain accurate correlation which can replace developmental laboratory testing. Hence, only a confirmatory test can be carried out. This enables design optimization based on simulations. This paper presents the systematic approach used for optimization of SUV rear bumper and bumper mounting structure. Dynamic correlation is obtained for bumper structure subjected to the vibration levels as mapped from the proving ground test. The objective of new bumper development is for value engineering.
Technical Paper

Effect of Gasoline-Ethanol blends on GDI engine to reduce cost of vehicle ownership

2019-11-21
2019-28-2379
A major challenge for combustion development is to optimize the engine for improved fuel economy, reduce greenhouse gases. Stringent CAFÉ and emission norms require the customer to pay higher capital on vehicles. To offset the cost of ownership- cheaper and alternative energy sources are being explored. Ethanol blend with regular Gasoline and CNG are such alternative fuels. The study was carried on turbo-charged gasoline direct injection engine. The effect of ethanol on engine and vehicle performance is estimated and simulated numerically. The work is split into three stages: first the base 1D engine performance model was calibrated to match the experimental data. In parallel, vehicle level Simulink model was built and calibrated to match the NEDC cycle performance. Second, the thermal efficiency of the ethanol blend is calculated as a linear function of theoretical Otto cycle efficiency.
Technical Paper

Experimental Determination of Acoustic Cavity Resonances of Vehicle Sub-Systems

2014-04-01
2014-01-0015
The present quiet and comfortable automobiles are the result of years of research carried out by NVH engineers across the world. Extensive studies helped engineers to attenuate the noise generated by major sources such as engine, transmission, driveline and road excitations to a considerable extent, which made other noise sources such as intake, exhaust and tire perceivable inside. Many active and passive methods are available to reduce the effect of said noise sources, but enough care needs to be taken at the design level itself to eliminate the effect of cavity resonances. Experimental investigation of cavity resonances of real systems is necessary besides the FEA model based calculations. Acoustic cavity resonance of vehicle sub systems show their presence in the interior noise through structure borne and air borne excitations. Cavity resonances for some systems e.g. intake can only be suppressed through resonators.
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