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Technical Paper

A 0-D Calculation Template to Define Crush Space Requirement and Body Front End Force Level Requirement in Concept Stage

2017-01-10
2017-26-0009
Today’s automotive world has moved towards an age where safety of a vehicle is given the topmost priority. Many stringent crash norms and testing methodology has been defined in order to evaluate the safety of a vehicle prior to its launch in a particular market. If the vehicle fails to meet any of these criteria then it is debarred from that particular market. With such stringent norms and regulations in place it becomes quite important on the engineer’s part to define the structural requirements and protect the space to meet the same. If the concept level platform definition is done properly it becomes very easy to achieve the crash targets with less cost and weight impact.
Technical Paper

A Study on Door Clips and Their Influence on BSR Performance

2019-06-05
2019-01-1468
Squeak and rattle concerns account for approximately 10% of overall vehicle Things Gone Wrong (TGW) and are major quality concern for automotive OEM’s. Objectionable door noises are one of the top 10 IQS concerns under any OEM nameplate. Door trim significantly contributes to overall BSR quality perception. Door trim is mounted on door in white using small plastic clips with variable properties that can significantly influence BSR performance. In this paper, the performance of various door clips is evaluated through objective parameters like interface dynamic stiffness and system damping. The methodology involves a simple dynamic system for the evaluation of the performance of a clip design. Transmissibility is calculated from the dynamic response of a mass supported by clip. Parameters such as interface stiffness and system damping are extracted for each clip design. Variation of inner panel thickness is also considered when comparing clip performance.
Technical Paper

A Systematic Approach for Weight Reduction of BIW Panels through Optimization

2010-04-12
2010-01-0389
This paper describes application of Design of Experiments (DOE) technique and optimization for mass reduction of a Sports utility vehicle (SUV) body in white (BIW). Thickness of the body panels is taken as design variable for the study. The BIW global torsion, bending and front end modes are key indicators of the stiffness and mass of the structure. By considering the global modes the structural strength of the vehicle also gets accounted, since the vehicle is subjected to bending and twisting moments during proving ground test. The DOE is setup in a virtual environment and the results for different configurations are obtained through simulations. The results obtained from the DOE exercise are used to check the sensitivity of the panels. The panels are selected for mass reduction based on the analysis of the results. This final configuration is further evaluated for determining the stiffness and strength of the BIW.
Technical Paper

C-Shaped Synchronizer Spring-theoretical Analysis and Validation

2012-09-24
2012-01-2002
This paper presents the analysis and experimental validation of c-spring and its stiffness properties in the gear shift synchronizer system. A synchronizer assembly for a transmission comprises of a synchronizer hub carried by a torque delivery shaft and a cone clutch member carried by a gear and a synchronizer blocking ring. The gear shift sleeve is meshing over the teeth of the clutch hub. The c-spring is positioned in the inner circumference of the rim position of the clutch hub and strut keys will be positioned at the slots on the clutch hub, which are usually 120 degree apart. As the sleeve moves while gear shifting, it pushes down the strut keys which compress the C-spring radially inward; this gives the strut load. The strut keys, which are pushed down by the sleeve, will apply force on the c-spring from radial directions. Since the c-spring is in the shape of an arc it is assumed as a curved beam for the analysis.
Technical Paper

Case Study: An Accelerated Methodology for Simulating Thermal Stress in Automotive Headlamps

2017-01-10
2017-26-0322
In any industry, early detection and mitigation of a failure in component is vital for feasible design changes or development iterations or saving money. So it becomes pivotal to capture the failure mode in an accelerated way. This theory poses many challenges in devising the methodology to validate the failure mode. In real world, vehicle head lamp is exposed to all possible kinds of harsh environments such as variable daily ambient, rain, dust and engine compartment temperature …etc. This brings rapid thermal stress onto headlamp resulting into warpage cracks. At vehicle level on particular model, this failure is typically observed after 20,000-25,000 kms in a span of 3-4 months of running. Any corrective action to revalidate the design change or improvement will need similar timelines in regular way to test, which is quite high in product development cycle.
Technical Paper

Comparative Analysis of Strain based Fatigue Life Obtained from Uni-Axial and Multi-Axial Loading of an Automotive Twist Beam

2017-01-10
2017-26-0312
Twist beam is a type of suspension system that is based on an H or C shaped member typically used as a rear suspension system in small and medium sized cars. The front of the H member is connected to the body through rubber bushings and the rear portion carries the stub axle assembly. Suspension systems are usually subjected to multi-axial loads in service viz. vertical, longitudinal and lateral in the descending order of magnitude. Lab tests primarily include the roll durability of the twist beam wherein both the trailing arms are in out of phase and a lateral load test. Other tests involve testing the twist beam at the vehicle level either in multi-channel road simulators or driving the vehicle on the test tracks. This is highly time consuming and requires a full vehicle and longer product development time. Limited information is available in the fatigue life comparison of multi-axial loading vs pure roll or lateral load tests.
Technical Paper

Correlation of Test with CAE of Dynamic Strains on Transmission Housing for 4WD Automotive Powertrain

2010-04-12
2010-01-0497
Reducing the vibrations in the powertrain is one of the prime necessities in today's automobiles from NVH and strength perspectives. The necessity of 4×4 powertrain is increasing for better control on normal road and off-road vehicles. This leads to bulky powertrains. The vehicle speeds are increasing, that requires engines to run at higher speeds. Also to save on material costs and improve on fuel economy there is a need for optimizing the mass of the engine/vehicle. The reduced stiffness and higher speeds lead to increased noise and vibrations. One more challenge a powertrain design engineer has to face during design of its transmission housings is the bending / torsional mode vibrations of powertrain assembly. This aggravates other concerns such as shift lever vibrations, shift lever rattle, rise in in-cab noise, generation of boom noise at certain speeds, etc. Hence, reducing vibrations becomes an important and difficult aspect in design of an automobile.
Technical Paper

Design Strategies for Meeting ECE R14 Safety Test for Light Commercial Vehicle

2010-10-05
2010-01-2017
The ECE R-14, AIS015 safety standard specifies the requirements of the safety belt anchorages namely, minimum numbers, their locations, static strength to reduce the possibility of their failure during accidental crashes for effective occupant restraint and the test procedures. This standard applies to the anchorages of safety belts for adult occupants of forward facing or rearward facing seats in vehicles of categories M and N. ECE R14 ensures the passenger safety during sudden acceleration/retardation and accidents. Early simulations revealed some structural short falls that demanded cabin improvements in order to fulfill regulation requirements for the seal belt anchorage test. This paper describes the innovative design modifications done to meet the seat belt anchorage test. Good correlation with the test is achieved in terms of deformations. These simulation methods helped in reducing the number of intermediate physical tests during the design process.
Journal Article

Design and Development of Electro Hydraulics Hitch Control for Agricultural Tractor

2017-01-10
2017-26-0227
Tractor hitch control system is used for attaching and operating various Agricultural Implements and for operating tipping trailer. The system has also got provision to attach additional Aux valves for rear and front mounted attachments. The rear mounted implements are coupled to the tractor using Three Point Linkage (3PL) System. The hitch hydraulics system consists of hydraulic pump, filter, piping’s, fittings and hydraulics lift unit. Hydraulics lift unit consists of a proportional control valve, cylinder, piston and power linkages. Conventional control valve is hydro mechanical part operated by mechanical linkages. The control valve and linkages plays major role in performance of hydraulics system. Hydraulics is required to operate in extreme conditions of soils such as very soft like sand to very hard like black cotton sand.
Technical Paper

Design of Energy Absorbing Plastic Brackets to Meet Rear Crash Regulation ECE R42

2019-10-11
2019-28-0041
Vehicle safety and adherence to rules and regulation is of utmost requirement for any OEM. ECE R42 is one of the most important test criteria for a vehicle to get launched. To prove this, we shall discuss the case of Low speed impact structure construction. In this paper, we are going to demonstrate the novel design of Polymer energy absorption structure to meet the rear bumper low speed impact test and ensure proper absorption of impact energy and avoid any damage to rear lamp of the vehicle. This paper shows a perfect example of sustainability with the help of complete modular construction of the frame structure. The proposed design uses a cost-effective way of assembling the physical part by comparing with benchmarking and within the Mahindra part library. The low speed impact structure is mounted directly to BIW panels without any extra foams. These frame structure are simple in design and rigid in construction by comparing with other OEM products and within all Mahindra vehicles.
Technical Paper

Design of Light Weight Hydraulic Connecting Rod for Agricultural Tractor

2019-10-11
2019-28-0016
Hydraulic power train assembly of an agricultural tractor is meant to controls the position and draft of the implement depending upon the type of crop, farming stage, implement type and soil conditions. These variations induce extreme range of loads on the hydraulic system, thus making it challenging to design these components. Hydraulic connecting rod is critical component of hydraulic power train assembly. Standards like IS12224, IS4468 governs the design of hydraulic power train components which regulates the test method for hydraulic power and lift capacity of the tractor. In this paper, a virtual simulation process has been established to design a hydraulic connecting rod to meet the requirements. The hydraulic connecting rod basically functions as a short load transferring link, which is subjected to the operating hydraulic pressure of the hydraulic lifting mechanism. The current circular connecting rod is higher in weight and cost.
Technical Paper

Design of Light Weight Spoiler for Efficient Aerodynamic Performance of a Vehicle

2019-10-11
2019-28-0003
The spoiler is functional as well as aesthetic part fitted on the vehicles to improve the vehicle aerodynamic performance and better aesthetic appeal. The improvement of aerodynamics performance of the vehicle at higher speeds is achieved by reducing the overall vehicle coefficient of drag. This helps in better handling and improved fuel efficiency of the vehicle thus contributing to development of greener vehicle. In this project, our main focus is to reduce overall vehicle coefficient of drag, Design a light weight spoiler and improve the vehicle aesthetic appearance.
Technical Paper

Design of Lightweight Composites for Vehicle Front End Energy Management of Bumper Beam

2019-10-11
2019-28-0085
Application of advance composites in place of the various conventional materials such as steel can give significant weight and performance advantages. The application of composites is now finding it’s way in the automotive industry due to the growing requirement of the lightweight solutions and high strength to weight ratio. However, their low mechanical properties have limited their application in automotive structural components. The study presented here is focused on the explicit dynamic analysis of a bumper beam and advance composites are used for the study. Different configurations and designs of the bumper are considered to be able to make a comparative study of the stress and deformation levels. The analysis was done in coherence to the Euro NCAP tests and the offset frontal impact analysis was done. The boundary conditions were aligned with the real time impact conditions for proper prediction of the results.
Technical Paper

Diagnosis and Elimination of Disc Brake Groan in a Utility Vehicle

2014-04-01
2014-01-0043
Brake groan noise is resolved without any major change in the design of brake system and vehicle sub-system components in the development phase of a utility vehicle. The groan noise is observed during the end of the stopping of the vehicle under moderate braking. The concerned NVH issue is perceived as unacceptable noise in the passenger compartment. Groan induced vibration is subjectively felt on steering and seat frame. A typical process is established to successfully reproduce the groan which helped in precisely evaluating the effect of modifications proposed. The temperature range of the disc which has the highest probability to produce the groan noise is found out experimentally. The transfer path analysis is carried out to find the path contributions from suspension. Acoustic transfer functions from considered paths are measured with the suspension removed from vehicle.
Technical Paper

Dynamic Correlation and Optimization of an SUV Rear Bumper Structure

2010-04-12
2010-01-0501
Structural durability of different components and systems for a Utility Vehicle is critical to design, due to severe customer usage in rural zones and off road driving conditions. Physical validation of new component designs is time consuming, costly and iterative. Also, this process does not ensure an optimized structure. Through virtual validation it is possible in the initial phase of design to validate the structure and optimize the design. The core of a virtual validation process is to obtain accurate correlation which can replace developmental laboratory testing. Hence, only a confirmatory test can be carried out. This enables design optimization based on simulations. This paper presents the systematic approach used for optimization of SUV rear bumper and bumper mounting structure. Dynamic correlation is obtained for bumper structure subjected to the vibration levels as mapped from the proving ground test. The objective of new bumper development is for value engineering.
Technical Paper

Experimental Approach to Eliminate Mirror Blur

2013-05-13
2013-01-1918
In today's automobile market, fuel economy is a powerful parameter which gives an edge over competition. Light weight materials play a major role in achieving this. Mirrors tend to underperform in terms of NVH when they are considered for weight optimization. Being light in weight mirrors get easily excited as the energy gets transferred through the structures causing vibration due to their poor damping characteristics. Mirror vibration is a grave concern which affects the vehicle safety. Blur is an effect of vibration which has higher energy levels in vertical and longitudinal direction. It resembles resonance, wherein the vision is zero at certain engine rpm. This paper depicts the approach for mirror blur elimination in the vehicle (prosper segment vehicles), which consider cost as the primary concern. Since the vehicle was nearing SOP design changes was not possible. Certain parameters were attempted without affecting the design as explained in this paper.
Technical Paper

Experimental Investigation of Effect of Driveline Torsional Fluctuations on Overall NVH Performance of the Vehicle

2015-06-15
2015-01-2192
Meeting various customer(s) requirements with the given automotive product portfolio within the stipulated time period is a challenge. Design of product configuration matrix is an intelligent task and it requires information about vehicle performance for different configurations which helps in deciding the level of new development. Most often the situation arises, particularly in the field of NVH, to strike the right balance between engine power and structural parameters of the body. The sensitivity of engine power on the overall NVH behavior is the key information necessary to take major business decisions. In this paper, the effect of change in torsional fluctuation of the engine on the NVH behavior of the rear wheel drive vehicle is experimentally studied. The torsional fluctuation of the driveline is given as an input with the help of an electric motor to the existing test vehicle at its differential end and the current NVH levels are measured.
Technical Paper

FE Driven Pedestrian Friendly Front End Design and Its Correlation with Physical Test

2015-01-14
2015-26-0212
In the current competitive automobile market, with growing knowledge and concern for occupant and vulnerable road user safety, design & engineering of passenger cars in stipulated time is a challenge. As front styling is a crucial factor, early involvement of Computer Aided Engineering (CAE) through front loading helps reduce the product development time considerably with a pedestrian friendly engineered design. The present paper explains how initial inputs are given to styling & engineering teams during early stages of product development where availability of Computer Aided Design (CAD) data is minimal. Critical load paths were identified and shape of the front end was modified accordingly. Various locations of hinge mechanism were evaluated to reduce the severity of injury in the head impact zone. Sufficient gaps between the exterior surfaces and interior hard points were worked upon to reduce the impact values.
Technical Paper

Implementation and Experimentation of Effective Clog Removal Method in Tractors for Enhanced Condenser Life and Air Conditioning Performance During Reaper Application

2019-10-11
2019-28-0015
Tractors in the field are exposed to adverse operating conditions and are surrounded by dust and dirt. The tiny, thin and sharp broken straw and husks surround the system in reaper operation. The tractors which are equipped with air conditioning system tend to show detrimental effects in cooling performance. The compressor trips frequently by excess pressure developed in the system due to condenser clogging and hence cooling performance is reduced considerably. The air conditioning performance reduces due to the clogged condenser located on the top roof compartment of operator’s cabin, which is better design than keeping in front of radiator where clogging happens every hour and customer need to stop the tractor to clean it with specific blower.
Technical Paper

Investigation on Wiping Noises and NVH Design Consideration in a Wiper System

2013-05-13
2013-01-1916
As automobiles become increasingly quieter, the wiper operation noise becomes more noticeable by the customer. This paper deals with the experimental approach and the methodology to investigate the Friction induced wiping noise. Role of design in a wiper system plays a very imperative task in meeting the performance of wipers but at the same time it does not cater to the NVH issues. Some of the important design parameters which affect the NVH properties of the wiper system are highlighted in this paper. For better understanding of the system some of the best in class vehicles for SUV category were tested and compared with our test vehicle. In this study more importance given to analytical part which is more important to investigate and in depth study of the friction induced noise. For analytical study some techniques such as time frequency domain i.e. Wavelet transforms, frequency domain and time domain where extensively used.
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