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Technical Paper

An Investigation into the Disruption of Circadian Rhythms using Blue Light for Automotive Applications

2015-04-14
2015-01-1706
Melatonin, otherwise popularly known as the “sleep hormone” is known to govern the human circadian rhythms. Current studies indicate that the generation of melatonin is impacted by the ambient light. The natural sleep inducing behavior during night and in darkness, is also due to the same phenomenon. Studies have shown that light of particular wavelengths in the visible spectrum have a higher effect on the amount of melatonin secreted by the human body. Blue light in the wavelengths of around 468 nm is known to inhibit the melatonin secretion, the most. This branch of science known as photobiology is in its nascent stage and is a matter of research pursued by neurologists, endocrinologists and other lighting researchers. Photobiology has several potential applications in the automotive industry, the principal one being driver drowsiness prevention.
Technical Paper

Application of Reliability Technique for Developing a Test Methodology to Validate the Engine Mounted Components for Off-Road Applications under Vibration

2017-09-29
2017-01-7004
Vibrational fatigue is a metal fatigue caused by the forced vibrations which are purely random in nature. The phenomenon is predominantly important for the components/systems which are subjected to extreme vibration during its operation. In a vehicle, an engine is the main source of vibration. The vibrational fatigue, therefore, plays a key role in the deterioration of engine mounted components. Multiple test standards and methodologies are available for validating engine mounted parts of an automobile. These might not be appropriate in the case of an off- road vehicle as the vibrational exposure of engine mounted components of an off-road vehicle is entirely different. In the case of an off-road vehicle, the engine mounted components are subjected to a comparatively higher level of vibration for a longer duration of time as compared to the passenger cars.
Technical Paper

Comparative Analysis of Strain based Fatigue Life Obtained from Uni-Axial and Multi-Axial Loading of an Automotive Twist Beam

2017-01-10
2017-26-0312
Twist beam is a type of suspension system that is based on an H or C shaped member typically used as a rear suspension system in small and medium sized cars. The front of the H member is connected to the body through rubber bushings and the rear portion carries the stub axle assembly. Suspension systems are usually subjected to multi-axial loads in service viz. vertical, longitudinal and lateral in the descending order of magnitude. Lab tests primarily include the roll durability of the twist beam wherein both the trailing arms are in out of phase and a lateral load test. Other tests involve testing the twist beam at the vehicle level either in multi-channel road simulators or driving the vehicle on the test tracks. This is highly time consuming and requires a full vehicle and longer product development time. Limited information is available in the fatigue life comparison of multi-axial loading vs pure roll or lateral load tests.
Technical Paper

Development of Methodology to Determine Toe Geometry of any Vehicle at Its Early Design Stage for Optimum Tyre Life

2019-10-11
2019-28-0105
Toe setting is one of the major wheel alignment parameters which directly effects handling of a vehicle. Correct toe setting ensures desired dynamic behavior of an automobile like straight line stability, cornering behavior, handling and tire durability. Incorrect setting of toe during design stage significantly deteriorates tire durability and leads to uneven tire wear. In the present scenario of automotive industry, toe setting is majorly an iterative or a trial and error process which is both time consuming and involves higher development cost as there may be instances where 2 to 3 sets of iterations are needed before specification is finalized for production. Therefore, determining optimum toe setting at an early stage of a product development will not only save significant development time but it will also benefit in reducing product validation time and cost.
Technical Paper

Durability Analysis Methodology of Tractor Hydraulic Bell Crank Assembly for Various Agricultural Operations

2017-01-10
2017-26-0235
A tractor is vehicle specifically designed to deliver a high tractive effort at slow speeds for carrying out various agriculture operations like ploughing, rotavation etc. using implement. Hydraulic system is a key feature which connects these implements with the tractor. It controls the position and draft of the implement depending upon the type of crop, farming stage, implement type and soil conditions. These variations induces extreme range of load on the hydraulic system, thus making it challenging to design these components. Bell crank assembly is one of the main components of hydraulic system which controls the draft (thus, the loads experienced by tractor) through load sensing mechanism. Often bell crank assembly failures are reported from field due to uneven soil hardness and presence of rocks. This paper studies one of such bell crank assembly failures in the field. The failure was reported after half life cycle of usage during agriculture Operation.
Technical Paper

Duty Cycle Fatigue Simulation for Differential Casing

2012-04-16
2012-01-0813
In the current scenario of growing demand for lightweight designs for improving fuel economy and reduced cost, the focus is on optimum design solutions. This calls for improved and accurate prediction capabilities in terms of life or cycles the design can sustain in real world usage profile. Conventionally, the differential casings are simulated and designed for worst loads experienced and the approach used is infinite life design for these loads. But, this would lead to overdesign and increase weight. To counter this problem the methodology for fatigue analysis for the derived duty cycle of differential casing is developed. The critical regions can be identified based on life and the solutions can be worked out without major design changes. This paper briefs the nonlinear static load cases required for deriving the block cycle loading and incorporating these as a duty cycle in fatigue solver.
Technical Paper

Effect of Aluminum on Mechanical and Tribological Properties of Automotive Grade Gray Cast Iron

2015-01-14
2015-26-0066
Mechanical and wear properties of Al alloyed gray cast iron (0.5% and 1.0%) were compared with that of Mo (1.0%) and Cu (0.77%) alloyed gray cast iron in this investigation. All the alloys showed pearlitic microstructure. The graphite morphology varied due to varying chemistry. The fracture surface showed “cabbage” like dimpled morphology indicating the predominant ductile fracture. It was found that the Mo containing cast iron show 25 to 30% higher strength and 6 to 7 times better wear resistance compared to Al containing cast irons. The worn surface showed oxide formation during sliding.
Technical Paper

Infrastructure Development and its Management for Future Sustainable Mobility

2016-02-01
2016-28-0252
This article delineates the importance of infrastructure and its related aspects on sustainability of transportation on global and local context. Almost 7% of the GDP in India is spent on transportation and 6% of the CO2 emissions in the world is due to transportation. In countries like India, the road transport has significantly grown over other forms of mobility. This articles introduces different forms of transportations that exists today and the importance of sustainability in transportation sector. Sustainable transportation depends on development of infrastructure to enable smart transport solutions involving intelligent transport system, electric mobility, information management, vehicle health monitoring, advanced traffic management system and driver assistance system in a vehicle. The challenges includes existing transport operations, environmental impact and complexity of existing transport network.
Technical Paper

Investigation on microstructure, mechanical and wear properties of alloyed gray cast iron for brake applications

2013-11-27
2013-01-2881
The strength and wear resistance of four alloyed cast irons with elements like Ni. Mo, Cu, Cr and Al have been compared and analyzed. The increased hardness is reducing the wear resistance of the alloy due to graphite flakes. Higher carbon produces more graphite flakes which act as weak points for reducing strength and wear resistance. The wear rate increases for harder cast iron sample with more graphite flakes. Wear rate drastically increases with increase in carbon equivalent. Strength was found to decrease for samples with higher graphite flakes. The wear debris consisted of graphite flakes in platelet like morphology along with iron particles from the matrix. The presence of carbon at the sliding interface also sometimes decreases wear rate.
Technical Paper

Monocoque Vehicle Body-In-White Life Evaluation Using Torsion Endurance Test on Rig

2016-04-05
2016-01-0276
In an automotive product development environment, identifying the premature structural failures is one of the important tasks for Body-In-White (BIW), sub-assemblies and components. The integrated car body structure i.e. monocoque structure, is widely used in passenger cars and SUVs. This structure is subjected to bending and torsional vibrations, due to dynamic loads. Normally the stresses due to bending are relatively small compared to stresses due to torsion in Body-In-White under actual road conditions [1]. This paper focuses on evaluating the life of Body-In-White structures subjected to torsional loading. An accelerated test method was evolved for identifying failure modes of monocoque BIW by applying torsion fatigue. The observation of the crack generation and propagation was made with respect to a number of torsion fatigue cycles.
Technical Paper

Polypropylene Copolymer Automotive Canopy Plastic Structure Application

2018-04-03
2018-01-0157
This paper describes modified polypropylene copolymer (PPCP) material for canopy plastic structure in a modular commercial passenger vehicle. This compounded PPCP material has optimized flow behavior, tensile strength, modulus, impact strength, and thermal properties to meet the functional requirements. Material described in this paper is a PPCP compound reinforced with glass fiber and mica filler. The application described in this paper is a canopy plastic structure, which is a structural exterior plastic part. Canopy plastic structure acts as a structural frame to hold vinyl canopy in both sides and tail gate of vehicle. In this paper, PPCP has been explored for canopy plastic structure part against conventional polyamides. Structural durability of the design was validated by virtual engineering. Part design and material combinations with better tooling design iterations were analyzed by using mold flow analysis.
Technical Paper

Polypropylene Copolymer Material for Automotive Thin Wall Front Bumper with Integrated Grill Application

2018-04-03
2018-01-0153
This paper describes modified polypropylene copolymer (PPCP) material for thin wall front bumper development (2.5 mm) with integrated grill in automotive application. This compounded PPCP material has optimized flow behavior, tensile strength, modulus, impact strength, and thermal properties to meet the functional requirements. This is a ready to mold material used in injection molding process. Front bumper and grill are functional components with slow speed impact requirement to absorb impact in real world. These parts have precise fitment requirement under sun load condition. Front bumper is also having other critical criteria with respect to vehicle variants such as aesthetic mold-in-color finish as well as painted finish. Grill has air entry performance criteria to ensure cooling efficiency in intercooler compartment.
Technical Paper

SMART HONKING

2019-11-21
2019-28-2463
Smart Honking Keywords-Safety, Connectivity, GPS M. Priyanka, Mahindra&Mahindra, India Sai Himaja Nadimpalli, Mahindra&Mahindra,India Keywords-Honking , Infotainment , GPS Research and/or Engineering Questions/Objective: In India unnecessary vehicular honking is the main reason for noise pollution. The problem is worst at traffic signals where drivers start honking without waiting for the signal to turn green or for traffic to move. Drivers show no respect to the law that prohibits the use of horn at traffic signals and other silent zones such as areas near hospitals, schools, religious places and residential areas. Vehicular honking in cities has reached at an alarming level and contributes approximately 70% of the noise pollution in our environment.The unwanted sound can affect human health and behavior, causing annoyance, depression, hypertension, stress, hearing loss, memory loss and panic attacks.
Technical Paper

Servomotor Controlled Standard Automated Manual Transmission for Rapid Smooth Shifts

2012-09-24
2012-01-1989
Present day AMT unit uses two high pressure hydraulically operated pistons for select & shift operations which make the unit weigh around 8kg. Besides this it also makes the unit more complex & unreliable with a lot of torque interruption. The use of electrical servo motors steps in here as a better alternative as it provides a more precise and smoother shift. To test this we used a 5 Gear-Manual Transmission. For the selection, a precise 14.5 degree of twisting was required which was easily achieved by the servo motor. Further, shift of 10.5mm could be made possible by using the motor to shift the rack using a pinion on the shaft. This system then essentially eliminates the whole hydraulic circuit, the housing of actuator pack & power pack making it a simpler unit all together. A Motor is attached to the output shaft of the Transmission which drives in power while the AMT unit is making transition from one gear to another.
Technical Paper

Servomotor Controlled Standard Automated Manual Transmission for Rapid Smooth Shifts

2013-10-14
2013-01-2605
Present day AMT unit uses two high pressure hydraulically operated pistons for select & shift operations which make the unit weigh around 8kg. Besides this it also makes the unit more complex & unreliable with a lot of torque interruption. The use of electrical servo motors steps in here as a better alternative as it provides a more precise and smoother shift. To test this we used a 5-MT Transmission. For the selection, a precise 14.5 degree of twisting was required which was easily achieved by the servo motor. Further, shift of 10.5mm could be made possible by using the motor to shift the rack using a pinion on the shaft. This system then essentially eliminates the whole hydraulic circuit, the housing of actuator pack & power pack making it a simpler unit all together. Thus, it offers an uninterrupted torque path from the engine to vehicle which allows for a seamless gearshift. This seminal paper provides an introduction to the technology together.
Technical Paper

Suspension Strain Correlation Using Flex Bodies in MBD

2014-04-01
2014-01-0763
Automotive Suspension is one of the critical system in load transfer from road to Chassis or BIW. Using flex bodies in Multi body simulations helps to extract dynamic strain variation. This paper highlights how the MBD and FE integration helped for accurate strain prediction on suspension components. Overall method was validated through testing. Good strain correlation was observed in dynamic strains of constant amplitude in different loading conditions. Combination of different direction loading was also tested and correlated. Method developed can be used in the initial phase of the vehicle development program for suspension strength evaluation. Suspension is one of the important system in vehicle which is subjected to very high loading in all the directions. To predict the dynamic stresses coming on the suspension system due to transient loads, faster and accurate method is required. To accelerate the suspension design process it become necessary to get good accuracy in the results.
Technical Paper

Sustainable Polyurethane Composite with Coconut Fiber for NVH Applications

2016-02-01
2016-28-0143
With increasing growth of vehicular population, there is an increasing demand for raw materials. This has added strain to the available resources, which is becoming more and more unsustainable. As a result, search for sustainable materials are continuously happening in our industry and there is a strong focus from everyone to incorporate more and such materials. One way of doing so, is by blending naturally available materials like fibers, with polymers. In this study, naturally available Coconut fibers have been blended successfully with Polyurethane foam, thereby improving the green footprint of the vehicle. Coconut fibers are naturally occurring fiber extracted from the husk of the coconut. Polyurethane foam is the most versatile polymeric foam used in several places of automobile for reducing the Noise, Vibration & Harshness. The composite was manufactured using reaction injection molding technique by reacting polyol with iso-cyanide.
Technical Paper

Systematic Work Flow for Fatigue Life Prediction of Automotive Components

2019-10-11
2019-28-0021
Fatigue life estimation of automotive components is a critical requirement for product design and development. Automotive companies are under tremendous pressure to launch new vehicles within short duration because of customer’s changing preferences. There is a necessity to have a comprehensive virtual simulation and robust validation process to evaluate durability of vehicle as per customer usage. Test track and field test are two of the most time-consuming activities, so there is a need of simulation process to substitute these requirements. This paper summarizes the overall process of Accelerated Durability Test with measured road loads. Based on category of vehicle, type road profiles and the customer usage pattern, the wheel forces, strains and acceleration are measured which is used to derive the equivalent duty cycles on proving ground. The wheel force transducers (WFT) are used to derive loads for fatigue life estimation.
Technical Paper

Understanding the Stick Slip Behavior of Plastics and Target Setting: An OEM Perspective

2019-06-05
2019-01-1465
Automotive OEMs are aggressively using different materials for interiors due to value proposition and variety of options available for customers in market. Excessive usage of different grade plastics with zero gap philosophy can cause stick slip effect leading to squeak noise. Even though systems and subsystems are designed using best practices of structural design and manufacturing tolerances, extreme environmental conditions can induce contacts leading to squeak noise. Appropriate selection of interface material pairs can minimize the possibilities of squeak conditions. Stick-slip behavior of different plastics is discussed in the present study, along with critical parameters during material compatibility testing in a tribological test stand. Friction coefficient of different material pairs for a defined normal load and sliding velocity are analyzed for patterns to recognize squeaks versus time.
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