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Technical Paper

Alternate Manufacturing Process for Automotive Input Shafts

The input shafts are conventionally developed through Hot forging route. Considering upcoming new technologies the same part was developed through cold forging route which resulting in better Mechanical properties than existing hot forging process. It has added benefit of cost as well as environmental friendly. Generally, the part like Input shaft which having gear teeth, splines etc., will be manufactured through Hot forging process due to degree of deformation, availability of press capacity, diameter variations etc., This process consumes more energy in terms of electricity for heating the bar and also creates pollution to the atmosphere. Automotive input shaft design modified to accommodate cold forging process route to develop the shaft with press capacity of 2500T which gives considerable benefit in terms of mechanical and metallurgical Properties, close dimensional tolerances, less machining time, higher material yield when compared to hot forging and metal cutting operation.
Technical Paper

Analytical Method to Determine Press-fit Tolerance between Torque Carrying Members

This paper deals with an analytical method to calculate the press-fit tolerance and fits between gears and shaft for automotive applications. The relative interferences increase sharply in the small diameter range, therefore one must be especially careful when designing small diameter joints. The strength of press-fit depends on the amount of relative interference; extreme interference leads to excessive contact stresses between the gear and shaft eventually leading to failure. Too little interference leads to slippage of gear on the shaft. In the press fit connection a shaft's spline rolling operation and gear internal broaching is eliminated. It is more economical than a conventional spline connection. Press fit connections are used in various transmission between a shaft and a gear. They are used in 6 speed transmission to 9-speed transmission for (German based Vehicle Manufacturer) heavy and light commercial vehicle company.
Technical Paper

Characterization and Durability of Mold-In-Color Engineering Plastics

Plastics are prone to photo oxidative and thermal oxidative degradation under usage conditions due to their chemical nature. From sustainability and cost standpoint, there is an increasing focus on Mold-In-Color (MIC) plastic materials. Simultaneously customer’s expectations on the perceived quality of these MIC parts has been increasing with attractive color and glossy appearance. A study was conducted to analyze the product quality and durability aspects over a prolonged exposure to accelerated weathering condition. Material selected for this study were injection molded specimens of ABS and PC/ABS used in automotive passenger vehicles.
Technical Paper

Design for Adaptive Rear Floor Carpet for Changing Shapes and Complex Architecture

With increasing road traffic and pollution, it becomes responsibility for all OEM to increase fuel efficiency and reduce carbon footprint. Most effective way to do so is to reduce weight of the vehicle and more use of ecofriendly recyclable material. With this objective we have come up with Light weight, cost effective sustainable design solution for Injection moulded RQT (Rear quarter trim). It is an interior plastic component mounted in the III row of the vehicle. This is required to ensure inside enhanced aesthetic look of the vehicle and comfort for 3rd row passengers. Conventionally RQT of vehicle with 3rd row seating is made using plastic material (PP TD 20). With the use of plastic moulded RQT there is a significant weight addition of around 6 kg per vehicle along with reduced cabin space, huge investment and development time impact.
Technical Paper

Design of Light Weight Footstep Using Continuous Glass Fiber Reinforced Plastics

Utility or Off-road vehicles are characterized with their higher ground clearances. Higher ground clearance of vehicle requires the vehicle to have footsteps for easy entry and exit of passengers from the vehicle. A typical foot step construction consists of structural steel brackets with an Aluminum or plastic top panel. Conventional steel construction is heavier to meet weight bearing capacity and durability requirements. Our objective of this work is to explore lightweight materials which can meet these performance requirements with a lighter construction. We chose to study the continuous glass fiber reinforced plastic as an alternative to the metal construction.
Technical Paper

Effect of Aluminum on Mechanical and Tribological Properties of Automotive Grade Gray Cast Iron

Mechanical and wear properties of Al alloyed gray cast iron (0.5% and 1.0%) were compared with that of Mo (1.0%) and Cu (0.77%) alloyed gray cast iron in this investigation. All the alloys showed pearlitic microstructure. The graphite morphology varied due to varying chemistry. The fracture surface showed “cabbage” like dimpled morphology indicating the predominant ductile fracture. It was found that the Mo containing cast iron show 25 to 30% higher strength and 6 to 7 times better wear resistance compared to Al containing cast irons. The worn surface showed oxide formation during sliding.
Technical Paper

Investigation on microstructure, mechanical and wear properties of alloyed gray cast iron for brake applications

The strength and wear resistance of four alloyed cast irons with elements like Ni. Mo, Cu, Cr and Al have been compared and analyzed. The increased hardness is reducing the wear resistance of the alloy due to graphite flakes. Higher carbon produces more graphite flakes which act as weak points for reducing strength and wear resistance. The wear rate increases for harder cast iron sample with more graphite flakes. Wear rate drastically increases with increase in carbon equivalent. Strength was found to decrease for samples with higher graphite flakes. The wear debris consisted of graphite flakes in platelet like morphology along with iron particles from the matrix. The presence of carbon at the sliding interface also sometimes decreases wear rate.
Technical Paper


TITLE: MITIGATION FOR EDGE CORROSION PROTECTION FOR AUTOMOTIVE BODIES. Keyword: Edge corrosion, Edge protection, Rust on edges, Corrosion mitigation. Objective: A major challenge to automotive industry is to protect the vehicle from corrosion in varying environment with respect to different service conditions. One of the main types of corrosion that affects aesthetic look is edge corrosion on sheet metal. Mostly edge is acting as starting point of corrosion due to unprotected metal exposed to environment. A special attention to be given to exposed edges to protect from rust formation. Methodology: To mitigate corrosion in visible area, various solution proposed in manufacturing process, material usage, sealer application, BIW design. Samples were prepared as per design of experiments with respect to manufacturing process condition and subjected for testing. Results: Proposed solutions were validated in manufacturing process line and reports are discussed.
Technical Paper


In this paper, mold in color diamond white ASA material has been explored for front bumper grill, fender arch extension and hinge cover applications. Other than aesthetic requirements, these parts have precise fitment requirement under sun load condition in real world usage profile. Structural durability of the design was validated by virtual engineering. Part design and material combinations with better tooling design iterations were analysed by using mold flow analysis. Complete product performances were validated for predefined key test metrics such as structural durability, thermal aging, cold impact, scratch resistance, and weathering criteria. This part met required specification. This mold in color ASA material-based parts has various benefits such as environmentally friendly manufacturing by eliminating environmental issues of coating, easily recycled, and faster part production because intended color achieved in one step during molding.
Technical Paper

New Trends of Material & Heat Treatment in Automotive Transmission Shaft

This paper deals with new trends in materials & heat treatment in automotive transmission shafting. The material is S48C a low carbon alloy steel and material for automotive shaft special significance as it reduces overall cost in vehicle transmission shafts. Conventional method of shaft heat heat-treatment is case hardening for 20MnCr5. S48C is low-carbon alloy steel. This is an alternate proposal to 20MnCr5.There are lot of advantages in induction hardening over case hardening. Also induction hardening process with S48C material becomes cheaper than case-hardening with 20MnCr5.Strength and resistance to stress must therefore be carefully considered during the material selection and heat-treatment process. We have done Static torsion test for 20MnCr5 (case hardened steel) and S48C (induction hardened shaft). Test results were comparable with 20MnCr5 (case hardened steel). Also after test a metallurgical inspection was done on an S48C (induction hardened shaft).
Technical Paper

Optimization of Piston Skirt Profile Design to Eliminate Scuffing and Seizure in a Water Cooled Gasoline Engine

Piston is a critical component of the engine as it exposed to high inertial and thermal loads. With the advent of high performance engines, the requirement of the piston to perform in extreme conditions have become quintessential. Piston scuffing is a common engine problem where there is a significant material loss at the piston and the liner, which could drastically affect the performance and the longevity of the components. This detrimental phenomenon would occur if the piston is not properly designed taking into consideration the thermal and structural intricacies of the engine. A water-cooled gasoline engine which had significant wear pattern on its piston skirt and liner was considered for this study. The engine block was made of aluminum alloy with a cast iron sleeve acting as liner. The piston-liner system was simulated through a commercially available numerical code which could capture the piston's primary and secondary motion.
Technical Paper

Polypropylene Copolymer Automotive Canopy Plastic Structure Application

This paper describes modified polypropylene copolymer (PPCP) material for canopy plastic structure in a modular commercial passenger vehicle. This compounded PPCP material has optimized flow behavior, tensile strength, modulus, impact strength, and thermal properties to meet the functional requirements. Material described in this paper is a PPCP compound reinforced with glass fiber and mica filler. The application described in this paper is a canopy plastic structure, which is a structural exterior plastic part. Canopy plastic structure acts as a structural frame to hold vinyl canopy in both sides and tail gate of vehicle. In this paper, PPCP has been explored for canopy plastic structure part against conventional polyamides. Structural durability of the design was validated by virtual engineering. Part design and material combinations with better tooling design iterations were analyzed by using mold flow analysis.
Technical Paper

Polypropylene Copolymer Material for Automotive Thin Wall Front Bumper with Integrated Grill Application

This paper describes modified polypropylene copolymer (PPCP) material for thin wall front bumper development (2.5 mm) with integrated grill in automotive application. This compounded PPCP material has optimized flow behavior, tensile strength, modulus, impact strength, and thermal properties to meet the functional requirements. This is a ready to mold material used in injection molding process. Front bumper and grill are functional components with slow speed impact requirement to absorb impact in real world. These parts have precise fitment requirement under sun load condition. Front bumper is also having other critical criteria with respect to vehicle variants such as aesthetic mold-in-color finish as well as painted finish. Grill has air entry performance criteria to ensure cooling efficiency in intercooler compartment.
Technical Paper

Study of Optimal Magnification for Retained Austenite Evaluation in Low carbon Case Hardening steel Using Metallurgical Microscopy

This study on optimum magnification at which Retained austenite to be evaluated by comparing the difference in determining the retained austenite in low carbon carburizing alloy steel using the optical metallurgical micrographic method and X-ray diffraction method. The retained austenite phase will be in surface and color is white in nature also its presented in between the martensite needles. It can be distinguished as separate micro-constituents by using image analyzing software. In another method the RA measurements were carried out on the surface by PROTO iXRD Retained austenite measuring system using Cr K radiation. The (211) and (200) reflections of Martensite and (220) and (200) reflections of Austenite were made for this estimation. However, the calculated values of retained austenite by metallurgical microscope in different magnifications are not identical.
Technical Paper

Weight Reduction of Shifter Forks using Steel Inserts

Shift quality of a manual transmission is a critical characteristic that is requires utmost care by the designers while structuring the transmission. Shift quality is affected by many factors viz. synchronizer design, shift fork design, shifter design, gear design, transmission oil selection etc. Designers have realized that shift fork is critical element for improving shift feel of a transmission. This paper focuses upon the reduction in weight of the overall transmission shift system by using steel inserts in aluminum shifter forks. No compromise on the stiffness and strength of the shift fork of a manual transmission is done. Stiffness and strength of shifter fork is optimized using contact pattern analysis and stiffness analysis on MSC Nastran. All the subsystem (i.e. synchronizer and the shift system component) are constrained to optimize the shift fork stiffness. A 5-speed manual transmission is used as an example to illustrate the same.