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Technical Paper

A Durability Analysis Case Study of SUV and MUV Using Measured Proving Ground Road Profiles

With an increasing demand to reduce the product development time cycle from concept-to-vehicle, weight saving effort and less prototype initiative, CAE evaluation technique in the vehicle durability development must allow the computer simulation to reproduce the actual driving condition over a proving ground. This paper describes the case study to predict the durability performance of full vehicle using vehicle FE parts in ADAMS model. The objective is to carry out full vehicle simulation in actual road load condition using reduced full vehicle FE model, condensed with the ADAMS model. The measured acceleration is applied to the vehicle FE model and dynamic loads converted to equivalent static loads. The FE model solved in MSC.Nastran® with number of static load subcases converted from the measured proving ground road data. It also verifies the validity of the evaluation methodologies by simulation-to-experiment comparisons.
Technical Paper

A Test Methodology for Vehicle Wind Noise Reduction and Acoustic Quality Improvement

Aeroacoustics of vehicles is becoming an important design criterion as it directly affects passenger’s comfort. The wind noise at highway speeds (>80 KMPH) is a critical quality concern under normal and crosswind conditions and dominant factor in assessing acoustic comfort of the vehicle. Wind noise is caused by the vortex air flow around a vehicle body and air leakage through the sealing gaps of attached parts. This majorly contributes to high frequency noise (>250 Hz). Accurate identification and control of noise sources and leakage paths result in improved acoustic comfort of the vehicle. In this paper, aero-acoustic quality characteristics of validation prototype vehicle are studied. The major wind noise sources and leakage paths in the vehicle are identified through in-house blower set up in the semi anechoic room. The overall wind noise level and articulation index of vehicle at various speeds are determined through on- road measurements.
Journal Article

An Experimental Study of Turbocharged Hydrogen Fuelled Internal Combustion Engine

Hydrogen is considered as one of the potential alternate fuel and when compared to other alternate fuels like CNG, LPG, Ethanol etc., it has unique properties due to absence of carbon. In the current work, Hydrogen engine of 2.5 L, four cylinder, spark ignited Turbocharged-Intercooled engine is developed for Mini Bus application. Multi-point fuel injection system is used for injecting the hydrogen in the intake manifold. Initially, boost simulation is performed to select the optimum compression ratio and turbocharger. The literature review has shown that in-order to get the minimum NOx emissions Hydrogen engines must be operated between equivalence ratios ranging from 0.5 to 0.6. In the present study, full throttle performance is conducted mainly with the above equivalence ratio range with minimum advance for Maximum Brake Torque (MBT) ignition timing. At each operating point, the performance, emissions and combustion parameters are recorded and analyzed in detail.
Technical Paper

Automotive Synchronizer with Asymetric Toothing

In automotive Transmission especially in Manual shift Transmission, a mechanism is provided for smooth and quick shifting of gears known as Synchronizer. A synchronizer mechanism having a Sliding shift sleeve, synchronizer ring, clutch body and clutch body ring as the main components to shift the gears smoothly. A synchronizer ring and Clutch body ring having outer tooth with inclined faces i.e. chamfer on their end facing towards gear shift sleeve, having inclination faces to mesh with the same inclined faces of blocker ring and clutch body ring for smooth shifting with less effort. Generally in cold environment certain forces are acting inside the Transmission to reduce the speed of rotating elements, these force are called drag forces. Mostly these drag force are generated due to high viscosity of transmission oil and large Inertia of masses of rotating elements, bearings and oil seals friction etc..
Technical Paper

DMADV Approach for Engineering Optimization and Quality - Application and Adaptability in Indian Automobile Industry

Indian Automobile Industry has started using Six Sigma for Vehicle Design and process improvement to compete with Global competition. This Paper describes how the Tools of Six Sigma shall be used as an Effective Tool for both redefining the Design and the Process Improvement. This Paper talks on the evolution of DMADV approach in Indian Automobile Industry compared to the related Trends in Other Manufacturing Sectors. The Author describes how the warranty failures in Commercial Segment Vehicle Category which was the selling talk for the Competition was addressed in Leading Indian Automobile OEM. As this Failure was adversely impacting customer satisfaction and no solution seemed forthcoming, top Management indicated to use a radically different approach to solve the problem within a years’ time.
Technical Paper

Diagnosis and Elimination of Disc Brake Groan in a Utility Vehicle

Brake groan noise is resolved without any major change in the design of brake system and vehicle sub-system components in the development phase of a utility vehicle. The groan noise is observed during the end of the stopping of the vehicle under moderate braking. The concerned NVH issue is perceived as unacceptable noise in the passenger compartment. Groan induced vibration is subjectively felt on steering and seat frame. A typical process is established to successfully reproduce the groan which helped in precisely evaluating the effect of modifications proposed. The temperature range of the disc which has the highest probability to produce the groan noise is found out experimentally. The transfer path analysis is carried out to find the path contributions from suspension. Acoustic transfer functions from considered paths are measured with the suspension removed from vehicle.
Technical Paper

Low Rolling Resistance Tires and Their Impact on Electric Vehicles

This paper details the methodology used to show the importance of Low rolling resistance tires in Electric Vehicles. Fuel efficiency and range is paramount with most of the electric vehicle buyers. Although many people are now becoming aware of low rolling resistance tires but its development started way back in 1990’s. It is always challenging to achieve low rolling resistance in smaller tires of size 12 inch or 13 inch along meeting the other critical vehicle parameters such as ride and handling, NVH, durability and many more. The reduction in rolling resistance can also affect the traction properties of tires. In case of very low rolling resistance tires the traction will be very less but it can badly affect the other vehicle parameters. Selection of tires further depend upon the RWUP (Real World Usage Profile). It means the vehicle is targeted for which region and what is the condition of roads there.
Technical Paper

Positive Difflock Stopper for Off Road Vehicles

The purpose of a differential is to allow the wheels of an automobile to turn at different speeds so that it does not skid during turning. However when a vehicle runs on a slick or muddy surface (especially in Agricultural and constructional Field applications) that same feature causes the wheel with less traction to spin freely as this unit transmits power to the tire with least amount of traction. The function of a difflock is to lock the differential gears, by locking the differential, both the axles receive equal power and hence equal traction is available at both the tires. This Paper describes the positive locking of a differential by stopper, and also in detail the problems associated with its engagement and disengagement in tractors and construction equipment's. Additionally a concept for a difflock stopper which has been experimentally proven for tractors and construction equipment's is also discussed.
Technical Paper

Sealing Prediction and Improvement at Cylinder Head & Block Interface under Thermo-Mechanical Loading involving Multi- Layer Steel Gasket

An inadequate sealing of the combustion chamber gasket interface may have severe consequences on both the performance & emission of an engine. In this investigation, both the distribution of the contact pressure on the gasket and the stresses of the cylinder head at different loading conditions are explored and improved by modifying the design. A single cylinder gasoline engine cylinder head assembly has been analyzed by means of an uncoupled FEM simulation to find the sealing pressure of the multi-layer steel (MLS) gasket, strength & deformation of the components involved. The thermal loads are computed separately from CFD simulations of cylinder head assembly. The cylinder head assembly consisting of head, blocks, liner, cam shaft holder, bolts, gaskets, valve guides & valve seats, is one of the most complicated sub-assembly of an IC engine.
Technical Paper

Slinger Design in Live 4WD Axle for Tractor

Proper lubrication is essential for any gear box & axle to get optimized performance. For getting desired life of gear train, we have to maintain minimum oil level inside the gear box or axle, whereas in case of rotating parts such as bearings and shafts, we have to provide sealing such as o rings & oil seals to stop oil coming out from the housing. But, if sealing is not proper seepage & leakage start and reduce the oil level inside the gear box. Oil deficiency leads to scuffing failure in gears and later occurrence of gear & bearing seizure ultimately fails the system. To sustain proper lubrication, we must seal the interfaces appropriately. There are different types of sealing available. Sealing is also depended on application and its location. To protect seal from external environment, we adopt a unique arrangement called slinger which enhances the life of seal.
Technical Paper

Systematic Approach to Design Hand Controlled Parking Brake System for Passenger Car

This paper is an attempt to compile a systematic approach which can be easily incorporated in the product development system used in the design and development of parking brake systems for passenger cars having rear drum brakes, which in turn can effectively reduce the lead time and give improved performance. The vehicle GVW, percentage gradient and maximum effort limits (as per IS 11852 - Part 3), tire and drum brake specifications were taken as front loading. This data is used for target setting of functional and engineering parameters, such as lever pull effort, lever ratio and angular travel of lever. Design calculations were performed to obtain theoretical values of critical parameters like lever effort and travel. The comparison between target and theoretical values give the initial confidence to the system engineer. Further, the outcome was taken to conceptualize the hard points of lever on vehicle for ergonomics.
Technical Paper

Thermal Signature Investigation of an Electric Tractor for Military Applications

Technology is one of the key determinants of the outcome in today's wars. Many targeting systems today use infra-red imaging as a means of acquiring targets when ambient light is insufficient for optical systems. Reducing thermal signatures offers an obvious tactical advantage in such a scenario. One way to reduce thermal emission of combat vehicles is to adopt highly efficient electrical power trains instead of internal combustion engines that tend to reject a sizeable amount of the input energy as heat. The tractor is one of the most versatile vehicles that are used in the theatre of combat for various operations such as haulage, clearing terrain, deploying bridges, digging trenches etc due to its excellent abilities in handling difficult terrain. A tractor powered by an all-electric power train was developed for civilian applications. The traction characteristics are identical to that of a conventional diesel powered tractor of comparable size.