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Journal Article

A Comparative Assessment of Electric Propulsion Systems in the 2030 US Light-Duty Vehicle Fleet

This paper quantifies the potential of electric propulsion systems to reduce petroleum use and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the 2030 U.S. light-duty vehicle fleet. The propulsion systems under consideration include gasoline hybrid-electric vehicles (HEVs), plug-in hybrid vehicles (PHEVs), fuel-cell hybrid vehicles (FCVs), and battery-electric vehicles (BEVs). The performance and cost of key enabling technologies were extrapolated over a 25-30 year time horizon. These results were integrated with software simulations to model vehicle performance and tank-to-wheel energy consumption. Well-to-wheel energy and GHG emissions of future vehicle technologies were estimated by integrating the vehicle technology evaluation with assessments of different fuel pathways. The results show that, if vehicle size and performance remain constant at present-day levels, these electric propulsion systems can reduce or eliminate the transport sector's reliance on petroleum.
Technical Paper

A Framework for Robust Driver Gaze Classification

The challenge of developing a robust, real-time driver gaze classification system is that it has to handle difficult edge cases that arise in real-world driving conditions: extreme lighting variations, eyeglass reflections, sunglasses and other occlusions. We propose a single-camera end-toend framework for classifying driver gaze into a discrete set of regions. This framework includes data collection, semi-automated annotation, offline classifier training, and an online real-time image processing pipeline that classifies the gaze region of the driver. We evaluate an implementation of each component on various subsets of a large onroad dataset. The key insight of our work is that robust driver gaze classification in real-world conditions is best approached by leveraging the power of supervised learning to generalize over the edge cases present in large annotated on-road datasets.
Technical Paper

A Graphical Workstation Based Part-Task Flight Simulator for Preliminary Rapid Evaluation of Advanced Displays

Advances in avionics and display technology are significantly changing the cockpit environment in current transport aircraft. The MIT Aeronautical Systems Lab (ASL) has developed a part-task flight simulator specifically to study the effects of these new technologies on flight crew situational awareness and performance. The simulator is based on a commercially-available graphics workstation, and can be rapidly reconfigured to meet the varying demands of experimental studies. The simulator has been successfully used to evaluate graphical microburst alerting displays, electronic instrument approach plates, terrain awareness and alerting displays, and ATC routing amendment delivery through digital datalinks.
Technical Paper

A Model for Flame Initiation and Early Development in SI Engine and its Application to Cycle-to-Cycle Variations

This paper uses a model which calculates the flame kernel formation and its early development in spark ignition engines to examine the causes of cycle-to-cycle combustion variations. The model takes into account the primary physical factors influencing flame development. The spark-generated flame kernel size and temperature required to initialize the computation are completely determined by the breakdown energy and the heat conduction from burned region to unburned region. In order to verify the model, the computation results are compared with high-speed Schlieren photography flame development data from an operating spark-ignition engine; they match remarkably well with each other at all test conditions. For the application of this model to the study of cycle-to-cycle variation of the early stage of combustion, additional input is required.
Technical Paper

A Model for Predicting Residual Gas Fraction in Spark-Ignition Engines

A model for calculating the residual gas fraction in spark ignition engines has been formulated. The model accounts explicitly for the contribution due to the back flow of exhaust gas to the cylinder during the valve overlap period. The model has been calibrated with in-cylinder hydrocarbon measurements at different values of intake pressure, engine speed, and valve overlap timings.
Technical Paper

A Modeling Investigation into the Optimal Intake and Exhaust Valve Event Duration and Timing for a Homogenous Charge Compression Ignition Engine

Homogenous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) engine operation has been demonstrated using both residual trapping and residual re-induction. A number of production valve train technologies can accomplish either of these HCCI modes of operation. Wide-scale testing of the many valve timing and duration options for an HCCI engine is both time and cost prohibitive, thus a modeling study was pursued to investigate optimal HCCI valve-train designs using the geometry of a conventional gasoline Port-Fuel-Injected (PFI) Spark-Ignition (SI) engine. A commercially available engine simulation program (WAVE), as well as chemical kinetic combustion modeling tools were used to predict the best approaches to achieving combustion across a wide variety of valve event durations and timings. The results of this study are consistent with experimental results reported in the literature: both residual trapping and residual re-induction are possible strategies for HCCI combustion.
Technical Paper

A Novel Strategy for Fast Catalyst Light-Off without the Use of an Air Pump

A novel engine management strategy for achieving fast catalyst light-off without the use of an exhaust air pump in a port-fuel-injected, spark ignition engine was developed. A conventional 4-cylinder engine was operated with three cylinders running rich and the fourth one as an air pump to supply air to the exhaust manifold. Under steady-state cold coolant conditions, this strategy achieved near total oxidation of CO and HC with sufficiently retarded spark timing, resulting in a 400% increase in feedgas enthalpy flow and a 90% reduction in feedgas HC emissions compared to conventional operation. The strategy was also evaluated for crank starts. Using the existing engine hardware, implementing the strategy resulted in a reduction in catalyst light-off time from 28.0 seconds under conventional operation to 9.1 seconds.
Technical Paper

A Numerical Model of Piston Secondary Motion and Piston Slap in Partially Flooded Elastohydrodynamic Skirt Lubrication

This paper presents a numerical model of the rotational and lateral dynamics of the piston (secondary motion) and piston slap in mixed lubrication. Piston dynamic behavior, frictional and impact forces are predicted as functions of crank angle. The model considers piston skirt surface waviness, roughness, skirt profile, thermal and mechanical deformations. The model considers partially-flooded skirt and calculates the pressure distributions and friction in the piston skirt region for both hydrodynamic and boundary lubrication. Model predictions are compared with measurements of piston position using gap sensors in a single-cylinder engine and the comparison between theory and measurement shows remarkable agreement.
Technical Paper

A Study of Cycle-to-Cycle Variations in SI Engines Using a Modified Quasi-Dimensional Model

This paper describes the use of a modified quasi-dimensional spark-ignition engine simulation code to predict the extent of cycle-to-cycle variations in combustion. The modifications primarily relate to the combustion model and include the following: 1. A flame kernel model was developed and implemented to avoid choosing the initial flame size and temperature arbitrarily. 2. Instead of the usual assumption of the flame being spherical, ellipsoidal flame shapes are permitted in the model when the gas velocity in the vicinity of the spark plug during kernel development is high. Changes in flame shape influence the flame front area and the interaction of the enflamed volume with the combustion chamber walls. 3. The flame center shifts due to convection by the gas flow in the cylinder. This influences the flame front area through the interaction between the enflamed volume and the combustion chamber walls. 4. Turbulence intensity is not uniform in cylinder, and varies cycle-to-cycle.
Technical Paper

Air-Fuel Ratio Measurement Diagnostics During Cranking and Startup in a Port-Fuel-Injected Spark-Ignition Engine

Cranking and startup fuel control has become increasingly important due to ever tightening emission requirements. Additionally, engine-off strategies during idle will require substantially more engine startup events with the associated need for very clean starts. Thus, knowledge of an engine's Air-Fuel Ratio (AFR) during its early cycles is necessary in order to optimize cranking and startup fueling. This paper examines and compares two methods of measuring an engine's AFR during engine startup (approximately the first second of operation); an in-cylinder technique using a Fast Flame Ionization Detector (FFID) and the conventional exhaust based Universal Exhaust Gas Oxygen (UEGO) sensor method. Engine starts using a Ford Zetec engine were performed at three different temperatures (0, 20 and 90 C) as well as different initial engine starting positions.
Technical Paper

Alcohol Fueled Heavy Duty Vehicles Using Clean, High Efficiency Engines

Non-petroleum based liquid fuels are essential for reducing oil dependence and greenhouse gas generation. Increased substitution of alcohol fuel for petroleum based fuels could be achieved by 1) use in high efficiency spark ignition engines that are employed for heavy duty as well as light duty operation and 2) use of methanol as well as ethanol. Methanol is the liquid fuel that is most efficiently produced from thermo-chemical gasification of coal, natural gas, waste or biomass. Ethanol can also be produced by this process but at lower efficiency and higher cost. Coal derived methanol is in limited initial use as a transportation fuel in China. Methanol could potentially be produced from natural gas at an economically competitive fuel costs, and with essentially the same greenhouse gas impact as gasoline. Waste derived methanol could also be an affordable low carbon fuel.
Technical Paper

Alternative Tooling Technologies for Low Volume Stamping

Low volume manufacturing has become increasingly important for the automotive industry. Globalization trends have led automakers and their suppliers to operate in developing regions where minimum efficient scales can not always be achieved. With proper maintenance, standard cast iron stamping tools can be used to produce millions of parts, but require large investments. Thus at high production volumes, the impact of the tooling investment on individual piece costs is minimized. However, at low volumes there is a substantial cost penalty. In light of the trends towards localized manufacturing and relatively low demands in some developing markets, low cost stamping tools are needed. Several alternate tooling technologies exist, each of which require significantly lower initial investments, but suffer from greatly reduced tool lives. However, the use of these technologies at intermediate to high volumes requires multiple tool sets thus eliminating their cost advantage.
Technical Paper

An Adaptive Air/Fuel Ratio Controller for SI Engine Throttle Transients

An adaptive air/fuel ratio controller for SI engine throttle transient was developed. The scheme is based on an event- based, single- parameter fuel dynamics model. A least- square- error algorithm with an active forgetting factor was used for parameter identifications. A one- step- look- ahead controller was designed to maintain the desired air/fuel ratio by canceling the fuel dynamics with the controller setting updated adaptively according to the identified parameters. When implemented on a Ford Ztech engine and tested under a set of throttle- transient operations, the adaptive controller learned quickly and performed well.
Journal Article

An Assessment of the Rare Earth Element Content of Conventional and Electric Vehicles

Rare earths are a group of elements whose availability has been of concern due to monopolistic supply conditions and environmentally unsustainable mining practices. To evaluate the risks of rare earths availability to automakers, a first step is to determine raw material content and value in vehicles. This task is challenging because rare earth elements are used in small quantities, in a large number of components, and by suppliers far upstream in the supply chain. For this work, data on rare earth content reported by vehicle parts suppliers was assessed to estimate the rare earth usage of a typical conventional gasoline engine midsize sedan and a full hybrid sedan. Parts were selected from a large set of reported parts to build a hypothetical typical mid-size sedan. Estimates of rare earth content for vehicles with alternative powertrain and battery technologies were made based on the available parts' data.
Technical Paper

An EVA Mission Planning Tool based on Metabolic Cost Optimization

An extravehicular activity (EVA) path-planning and navigation tool, called the Mission Planner, has been developed to assist with pre-mission planning, scenario simulation, real-time navigation, and contingency replanning during astronaut EVAs, The Mission Planner calculates the most efficient path between user-specified waypoints. Efficiency is based on an exploration cost algorithm, which is a function of the estimated astronaut metabolic rate. Selection of waypoints and visualization of the generated path are realized within a 3D mapping interface through terrain elevation models. The Mission Planner is also capable of computing the most efficient path back home from any point along the path.
Technical Paper

An Overview of Hydrocarbon Emissions Mechanisms in Spark-Ignition Engines

This paper provides an overview of spark-ignition engine unburned hydrocarbon emissions mechanisms, and then uses this framework to relate measured engine-out hydrocarbon emission levels to the processes within the engine from which they result. Typically, spark-ignition engine-out HC levels are 1.5 to 2 percent of the gasoline fuel flow into the engine; about half this amount is unburned fuel and half is partially reacted fuel components. The different mechanisms by which hydrocarbons in the gasoline escape burning during the normal engine combustion process are described and approximately quantified. The in-cylinder oxidation of these HC during the expansion and exhaust processes, the fraction which exit the cylinder, and the fraction oxidized in the exhaust port and manifold are also estimated.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Fuel Behavior in the Spark-Ignition Engine Start-Up Process

An analysis method for characterizing fuel behavior during spark-ignition engine starting has been developed and applied to several sets of start-up data. The data sets were acquired from modern production vehicles during room temperature engine start-up. Two different engines, two control schemes, and two engine temperatures (cold and hot) were investigated. A cycle-by-cycle mass balance for the fuel was used to compare the amount of fuel injected with the amount burned or exhausted as unburned hydrocarbons. The difference was measured as “fuel unaccounted for”. The calculation for the amount of fuel burned used an energy release analysis of the cylinder pressure data. The results include an overview of starting behavior and a fuel accounting for each data set Overall, starting occurred quickly with combustion quality, manifold pressure, and engine speed beginning to stabilize by the seventh cycle, on average.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Hydrocarbon Emissions Mechanisms in a Direct Injection Spark-Ignition Engine

The direct injection spark-ignition engine is the only internal combustion engine with the potential to equal the efficiency of the diesel and to tolerate a wide range of fuel types and fuel qualities without deterioration of performance. However, this engine has low combustion efficiency and excessive hydrocarbon emissions when operating at light load. In this paper, potential sources of hydrocarbon emissions during light load operation are postulated and analyzed. The placement of fuel away from the primary combustion process in conjunction with a lack of secondary burnup are isolated as important hydrocarbon emissions mechanisms. Analyses show that increasing cylinder gas temperatures can improve secondary burnup of fuel which would reduce hydrocarbon emissions. Practical means to achieve this include higher compression ratio and use of ceramic parts in the combustion chamber.
Technical Paper

Application of a Lean Cellular Design Decomposition to Automotive Component Manufacturing System Design

A design framework based on the principles of lean manufacturing and axiomatic design was used as a guideline for designing an automotive component manufacturing system. A brief overview of this design decomposition is given to review its structure and usefulness. Examples are examined to demonstrate how this design framework was applied to the design of a gear manufacturing system. These examples demonstrate the impact that low-level design decisions can have on high-level system objectives and the need for a systems-thinking approach in manufacturing system design. Results are presented to show the estimated performance improvements resulting from the new system design.
Technical Paper

Assessing the Windage Tray Blockage Effect on Aeration in the Oil Sump

The windage tray effect on aeration in the engine sump was assessed by replacing much of the windage tray materials with wire meshes of various blockages. The mesh was to prevent direct impact of the oil drops spinning off the crank shaft onto the sump oil, and simultaneously, to provide sufficient drainage so that there was no significant build up of windage tray oil film that would interact with these droplets. Aeration at the oil pump inlet was measured by X-ray absorption in a production V-6 SI engine motoring at 2000 to 6000 rpm. Within experimental uncertainty, these windage tray changes had no effect on aeration. Thus activities in the sump such as the interaction of the oil drops spun from the crank shaft with the sump oil or with the windage tray, and the agitation of the sump oil by the crank case gas, were not major contributors to aeration at the pump inlet.