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Technical Paper

A Diesel-Engine-Management with a New Housing Technology

For a new generation of vehicles we developed a new engine management system. The main goals were cost, system flexibility and reliability. Using Planar technology in a fuel cooled housing, we were able to achieve our target.
Technical Paper

A Flexible Reference Model for the Test System Development

In this article, a reference model of the motor vehicle will be introduced with which new test systems for the increasing electronics proportion can be developed and validated simultaneously without having a preproduction vehicle available. The basic idea is to simulate the vehicle not yet in existence on the interface to the electronic systems in real time. The hybrid model of the motor vehicle developed in this way has reference character for the test system development.
Technical Paper

A New Design of Monolithic Particle Filters with Transverse Isotropic Property for Diesel Motors

The monolithic DPF made of cordierite ceramic has unsatisfactory on his fatigue or long-term strength. A new design of configuration of plugs combined with the hexagonal channels shows a transversally isotropic property, and can remove the anisotropy of monoliths with square channels. This anisotropy is assumed to be one of main reasons for the failure of monoliths with square channels regarding the experimental results. Considering the honeycomb structure as a homogeneous material based on the Boltzmann continuum can't give the correct behaviour of this structure in a FEM simulation. Another homogenization procedure using the Cosserat theory has been discussed. The FEM stress analyses with structural detail-models show that the maximal tensile stresses in the monolith with square channels exist in the diagonal (i.e. 45°-) direction, or on the edges of channels. This feature is identical with what the theory has predicted and the experimental results have shown.
Technical Paper

A Quasi-Dimensional SI Burn Rate Model for Predicting the Effects of Changing Fuel, Air-Fuel-Ratio, EGR and Water Injection

As a result of the R&D focus being shifted from internal combustion engines to electrified powertrains, resources for the development of internal combustion engines are restricted more and more. With that, the importance of highly efficient engine development tools is increased. In this context, 0D/1D engine simulation offers the advantage of low computational effort and fast engine model set-up. To ensure a high predictive ability of the engine simulation, a reliable burn rate model is needed. Considering the increasing interest in alternative fuels, the aspect of predicting the fuel influence on combustion is of special importance. To reach these targets, the change of engine combustion characteristics with changing fuels and changing air-fuel-ratios were investigated systematically in a first step. For this purpose, engine test bed data were compared with expected fuel-dependent flame wrinkling trends based on Markstein/Lewis number theory.
Technical Paper

An Overview of Electronic Intelligence in Future Commercial Vehicle Generations

The consequent means towards improved enhancement of the safety of commercial vehicles will in future times require more and more electronic intelligence, in case a distinct optimization of the systems will not be possible with conventional means. In forefront, endeavours are aimed at the improvements of the functions of the system in regard to driving safety, as well as driver stress relief at lowest possible costs, in order to increase the total cost effectiveness of commercial vehicles. Starting with currently implemented electronic systems up to systems now under development, a continuous development of standalone electronics up to integrated electronic compounding is the current trend. This trend shows advantages of reduced wiring and the number of sensors while it increases the function at the same time.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Intelligent Suspension Systems for Commercial Vehicles

Economical and technical aspects justify intelligent suspension systems in commercial vehicles. The tasks of suspensions of vehicles are contradictionary and the prevailing problems cannot be readily solved with conventional suspension systems in a satisfying manner. However, advantages are acquired by the use of adaptive suspension systems. Varying the properties and characteristics of suspension systems in respect to the different loads transported by a commercial vehicle, to vehicle speeds and to dynamic maneuvers, nearly present as good results as closed loop controlled adaptive suspension systems do. For economical reasons fully active suspension systems are only installed in commercial vehicles performing special tasks and services. Partially active suspension systems reduce power consumption and demonstrate satisfactory efficiency.
Technical Paper

Analysis of a Direct Injected Gasoline Engine

The principle strategy, the development emphasis, and the investigation parameters of a DI gasoline engine are discussed. Several different combustion systems are briefly described and one system where the spark plug is located near the fuel injector is investigated. In addition, the influence of different operating parameters are studied. Some reasons for the improvement in the efficiency of a DI gasoline engine are shown with the help of thermodynamic analysis and simulation calculations. These show that at a constant operating point (engine speed = 2000 rpm, bmep = 2 bar) there is a reduction of the fuel consumption of 23% at unthrottled conditions in comparison to the homogeneous stoichiometric operation. In particular, the reduction of the pumping and heat losses and the reduction of the exhaust gas energy are responsible for this fuel consumption reduction.
Technical Paper

Analysis of the Optimal Operating Strategy of a P24-Hybrid for Different Electric Power Distributions in Charge-Depleting and Charge-Sustaining Operation

In order to adhere with future automotive legislation and incentives, the electric range of plug-in hybrids has steadily increased. At the same time, the installed electric power has risen as well leading to future hybrid vehicles with an electric power share of more than half of overall system power and hybrid configurations with at least two electrical machines come into focus. The concept of adding a separate electrical axle to a P2-hybrid - a so called P24-hybrid, is of special interest. The system complexity of a such a system increases significantly as the number of possible system states increases. Thus, this paper analyzes the efficiencies and benefits of the different system states within the fuel-optimal operating strategy derived by global optimization. By varying the electrical power distribution between the two axles, the impact on fuel efficiency and the changes within the operating strategy are investigated.
Technical Paper

Analytical Methodology to Derive a Rule-Based Energy Management System Enabling Fuel-Optimal Operation for a P24-Hybrid

The electric range of plug-in hybrids as well as the installed electric power has steadily increased. With an electric power share of more than half of the overall system power, concepts of hybrid electric vehicles with at least two electric machines come into focus. Especially the concept of adding an individual electric axle to a state-of-the-art parallel hybrid, such as a P2-hybrid, is promising. However, the system complexity of a so-called P24-hybird increases significantly because the number of possible system states rises. This leads to an increased development and calibration effort for an online energy management. Especially a transfer from an optimized operating strategy to a rule-based energy management is challenging. Thus, a development framework for the calibration of an online energy management system (EMS) which is as fuel efficient as possible is needed.
Technical Paper

Analytical Methodology to Derive a Rule-Based Energy Management System Enabling Fuel-Optimal Operation for a Series Hybrid

Due to the continuous electrification of vehicles, the variety of different hybrid topologies is expected to increase in the future. As the calibration of real-time capable energy management systems (EMS) is still challenging, a development framework for the EMS that is independent of the hybrid topology would simplify the overall development process of hybrid vehicles. In this paper an analytical methodology, which is used to derive a fuel-optimal, rule-based EMS for parallel hybrids, is transferred to a series topology. It is shown that the fundamental correlations can be applied universally to both parallel and series configurations. This enables the possibility to develop a real-time capable, rule-based controller for a series HEV based on maps that ensures a fuel-optimal operation. These maps provide the optimal power threshold for the activation of the auxiliary power unit and the optimal power output dependent on the driver’s power request.
Technical Paper

Application of the Injury Cost Scale (ICS) to Mercedes-Benz Accident Data

As a supplement to officially published government accident statistics since 1969 Mercedes-Benz has been systematically investigating automobile accidents involving injured occupants in Mercedes-Benz cars. Typically our accident data has been analysed using the Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS). This paper will describe the first application of the new Injury Cost Scale (ICS), published at the AAAM-conference 1989, to our real world accident data. A comparison for the handling of multiple injuries will be provided taking into account on the one hand only the most expensive injury and on the other hand each injury. The first experiences in the application of the ICS will be discussed. The ICS is intended as supplemental to the AIS.
Technical Paper

Commercial Vehicles with Intelligent Rear Axle Steering Systems

Rear axle steering systems electronically controlled and hydraulically actuated are discussed for commercial vehicles. With these steered axles, the major objective is to improve the manoeuvrability of these vehicles. With the aid of the steering strategy “Rear end Swing-out Compensation” it will be assured, that in two-axle, all-wheel steering trucks dangerous rear end swing-out effects, occuring primarily in low speed ranges, will not take place. In addition, it is possible to enhance the dynamic stability of two-axle trucks while braking on split adhesion road surfaces with the aid of specific control algorithms. Furthermore, the application of a rear axle steering system can suppress dangerous lateral oscillations of centre-axle trailers.
Technical Paper

Concepts for Ultra Low Emission Vehicles

To achieve low emission levels, the handicap of the TWC is its light-off characteristic. It achieves a maximum hot efficiency of nearly 100 %, but this requires a temperature in the range of 300 to 450 °C. To improve this time lag after cold start, the TWC needs additional help to reach the targets of future low (LEV) or ultra low emission (ULEV) levels. This paper describes the work on additional devices to reach the ULEV-levels such as: Electrical Heated Catalyst (EHC). Burner Heated Catalyst (BHC) Hydrocarbon Trap (HCT) as external device. Adsorber Coated Substrate (ACS) in the usual converter box. The comparison of these systems was done with a concept car. The low mileage exhaust results demonstrated the principal suitability of all these devices, but there is still much work to be done to meet the ULEV levels with the guaranted durability. The advantages and disadvantages of the systems are discussed, including estimated weight and cost.
Technical Paper

Contribution to the Force Transmission Behavior of Commercial Vehicle Tires

Tires of modern commercial vehicles must meet a specific requirement profile, containing the economic aspects, ride comfort and driving safety, as well. These three primary criteria are discussed in this paper, whereby emphasis is placed on the force transmission behavior of commercial vehicle tires regarded as a variable directly associated to driving safety. At the same time, the influence of distinct parameters such as wheel load, road speed, tire inflation pressure, tread depth and coefficient of adhesion between tire and road on the lateral and braking force behavior is illustrated using steady state and dynamic measurements. They were carried out on real roads using a specially prepared mobile tire dynamometer, but on an indoor drum-type tire test stand, as well. In addition to the above mentioned parameter variations the differences of the results on account of the test method are analysed.
Technical Paper

Design and Mechanics of the Four-Cylinder Engines with 2.0 and 2.2 Litres Displacement

The objective was to develop a modem engine to succeed the M 102; 2.6 million of these units were made between 1979 and today making it the most successful Mercedes-Benz four-cylinder petrol engine to date. The new M 111 coordinated production set-up together with the familiar M 104 six-cylinder four-valve engines and the 600 diesel series. Emphasis has been deliberately given to improved torque rather than very high volumetric efficiency. This has made it possible to apply four-valve technology, which was originally only to be found in motor racing, in such a way that ordinary customers can benefit form advantages such as high torque and raised power output, as well as reduced fuel consumption and emissions. Extensive noise-reducing measures in the engine ensure that, despite the higher power output and lower engine weight, noise levels have also been improved.
Technical Paper

Development Stages for Reducing Noise Emissions of the New OM 904 LA Commerical Vehicle Diesel Engine

In January 1996 Mercedes-Benz has introduced a new 4-cylinder engine OM 904 LA of the new engine family for light commercial vehicles. The power range of the OM 904 LA comprises ratings from 90 kW up to 125 kW at 2300 rpm. From the beginning of the design of this engine, a noise emission output as low as possible was strived for, aside from the high targets as far as durability, maintenace and fuel consumption are concerned. The basis is the development of noise regulations for commercial vehicles. The noise reduction measures have to be concentrated on the engine since up to now it still is one of the main noise emission sources at the vehicle. Already at the lay-out of the engine the prerequisits for a low-noise engine behaviour have been taken into consideration. The engine is equipped with a fuel injection system featuring particular unit injector pumps for each cylinder which is superior to the conventional in-line injection pump as far as acoustics are concerned.
Technical Paper

Development of a Single Run Method for the Determination of Individual Hydrocarbons (C2-C12) in Automotive Exhaust by Capillary Gas Chromatography

The California Air Resources Board (CARB) has proposed procedures for the analysis of non-methane organic gases (NMOG) to determine the ozone forming potential (OFP) of automotive exhaust. For realization of these methods two differently configured GC systems are necessary. In order to reduce the efforts concerning costs, maintenance and quality control of two analytical instruments, a single run method is developed for routine analysis. This method allows identification and quantification of individual hydrocarbons (IHC) in the range of carbon numbers C2 to C12. Analytical problems arising from high contents of water and carbon dioxide in exhaust samples are discussed. Water reduction is obtained by a Nafion® Dryer by means of membrane diffusion of polar compounds. Contamination as well as memory effects due to this sample work up are described. Sample pre-concentration of 50-200 mL diluted automotive exhaust is performed using a triple phase “mixed bed” adsorption tube at O°C.
Technical Paper

Driving Performance of a Commercial Vehicle With Adaptive Suspensions

The settings of adaptive suspension elements may be switched from a comfortable “soft” characteristic to a safe and “firm” characteristic. Thus the possibility is given to not only improve the ride comfort, but the dynamic driving behavior as well, since no compromise must be made between these two criteria when tuning the suspensions. Such systems seem to be very promising for commercial vehicles, as - because of their changing loading conditions - it is very difficult to design an optimal suspension system using conventional springs and dampers. This paper describes the influence of shock absorbers and air springs with variable characteristics on the ride comfort and the dynamic behavior of a 15-t-truck by investigations done with a simulation system. A series production vehicle without adaptive suspension elements serves as basis. At first the results of measurements and simulations are compared and show a very good concurrence.
Technical Paper

Engine Braking Systems and Retarders - An Overview from an European Standpoint

In particular on heavy duty commercial vehicles, the continuous braking systems “engine braking system” and “retarder”, which are independent of the service braking system, are installed to handle the continuous braking load on downhill stretches. These systems are also used to reduce lining wear and thermal loads of the service braking system. Exhaust braking systems are the most widely used form of engine braking systems. The current state-of-the-art in retarders is represented by two basic concepts, the electrodynamic retarder and the hydrodynamic retarder. A performance comparison of the different systems shows that low mountain descending speeds are the domain of engine braking systems, whereas retarders are more effective for medium and high descending speeds. The electrodynamic retarder is more favourable for lower road speeds, while the hydrodynamic retarder develops its effectiveness during higher downhill speeds.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of NOx Storage Catalysts for Lean Burn Gasoline Fueled Passenger Cars

Engine and laboratory tests were carried out to examine the performance of NOx adsorption catalysts for gasoline lean burn engines in fresh and aged condition. The results show that fresh NOx adsorption catalysts have the potential to meet EURO III emission standards. However, to accomplish these the fuel must contain a low sulfur concentration and the engine must be tuned to optimize the efficiency of the catalyst. After engine or furnace aging upto 750°C the catalyst shows some loss of NOx adsorption efficiency. This deterioration can be offset somewhat by increasing the frequency of lean/rich switching of the engine. Temperatures higher than 750°C may cause an irreversible destruction of the NOx, storage features while the three-way activity of the catalyst remains intact or even may improve. With reference to several physicochemical investigations it is believed that the detrimental effect of catalyst aging is attributed to two different deactivation modes.