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Technical Paper

Design and Mechanics of the Four-Cylinder Engines with 2.0 and 2.2 Litres Displacement

The objective was to develop a modem engine to succeed the M 102; 2.6 million of these units were made between 1979 and today making it the most successful Mercedes-Benz four-cylinder petrol engine to date. The new M 111 coordinated production set-up together with the familiar M 104 six-cylinder four-valve engines and the 600 diesel series. Emphasis has been deliberately given to improved torque rather than very high volumetric efficiency. This has made it possible to apply four-valve technology, which was originally only to be found in motor racing, in such a way that ordinary customers can benefit form advantages such as high torque and raised power output, as well as reduced fuel consumption and emissions. Extensive noise-reducing measures in the engine ensure that, despite the higher power output and lower engine weight, noise levels have also been improved.
Technical Paper

Experimental and Numerical Analysis of Sunroof Buffeting of a Simplified Mercedes-Benz S-Class

Sunroof buffeting is examined experimentally and numerically in this paper. Despite the fact that some consider the simulation process for sunroof buffeting to be mature, there remain substantial uncertainties even in recently published methodologies. Capturing the frequencies and especially the sound pressure levels correctly is essential if CFD simulations are intended to be used during early stages of a car development process. Numerous experimental results of sunroof buffeting and the interior low-frequency characteristics of a 2013 Mercedes-Benz S-Class have been used to develop a simplified car model: a full-size S-Class model with slightly simplified geometries in the interior as well as at the exterior. To avoid the effects of numerous different materials in the interior, it is solely made from polyurethane and aluminum and built to maximize its structural rigidity and air-tightness.
Technical Paper

On-Line Analysis of Individual Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Automotive Exhaust:Dealkylation of the Aromatic Hydrocarbons in the Catalytic Converter

The real-time concentrations of benzene, toluene, xylene, trimethyl-benzene and naphthalene in vehicle exhaust have been monitored during the FTP-cycle with a time-resolution of 20 ms and a sensitivity of 50 ppb. Using a laser mass spectrometer, the aromatic hydrocarbons in unconditioned exhaust gas at sampling positions behind the exhaust valve, before and behind the catalytic converter have been analyzed. The comparison of the emissions sampled before and behind the catalytic converter reveals the effect of dealkylation of the aromatic hydrocarbons in the catalytic converter. Whereas most of the aromatic hydrocarbons are burned in the hot catalytic converter, however, bursts of aromatic hydrocarbons are released at transient motor operation. In these moments, which can be attributed to phases of closed throttle valve and very low engine load at gear changes, a significant part of the C1-, C2- and C3- benzenes has been converted into benzene.
Technical Paper

Secondary Air Injection with a New Developed Electrical Blower for Reduced Exhaust Emissions

Secondary air injection after cold start gives two effects for reduced exhaust emissions: An exothermic reaction at the hot exhaust valves occurs, which increases the temperature of the exhaust gas. It gives sufficient air to the catalyst during the cold start fuel enrichment that is necessary to prevent driveability problems. Handicaps for the wide use of air injection include space constraints, weight and price. An electrical air blower was choosen to best satisfy all these requirements. The development steps are described. The result is a three stage radialblower with extremly high revolutions of about 18000 rpm. The system configuration and the outcome are demonstrated on the new C-Class of Mercedes-Benz. The results show emission reductions higher than 50 %, while also satisfying the development goals of noise, volume, weight and cost requirements.
Technical Paper

The New 4-Valve 6 Cylinder 3,0 Liter Mercedes-Benz Diesel Engine for the Executive Class Passenger Vehicle

After the introduction of four-valve technology for gasoline powered passenger cars, Mercedes-Benz consistently developed this technology also for Diesel engines. Based on the proven success of the prechamber combustion system, this new Diesel engine generation, which includes 4, 5 and 6-cylinder naturally-aspirated engines, will be the first four-valve Diesel engines to be installed in passenger cars. The naturally aspirated 3.0 liter 6-cylinder in-line engine which represents the high end of this generation will be offered for sale in all 50 states of the USA in the Executive Class models starting on January 1, 1994. Four-valve technology allows the prechamber to be located centrally between the intake and exhaust valves which results in a major improvement of the combustion process. In addition, this 6-cylinder engine has a resonance intake system controlled by two butterfly valves to maximize the volumetric efficiency of the engine.
Technical Paper

Time Domain Full Vehicle Interior Noise Calculation from Component Level Data by Machine Learning

Computational models directly derived from data gained increased interest in recent years. Data-driven approaches have brought breakthroughs in different research areas such as image-, video- and audio-processing. Often denoted as Machine Learning (ML), today these approaches are not widely applied in the field of vehicle Noise, Vibration and Harshness (NVH). Works combining ML and NVH mainly discuss the topic with respect to psychoacoustics, traffic noise, structural health monitoring and as improvement to existing numerical simulation methods. Vehicle interior noise is a major quality criterion for today’s automotive customers. To estimate noise levels early in the development process, deterministic system descriptions are created by utilizing time-consuming measurement techniques. This paper examines whether pattern-recognizing algorithms are suitable to conduct the prediction process for a steering system.
Technical Paper

Variable Valve Timing in the new Mercedes-Benz Four-Valve Engines

The valve timing of internal-combustion engines usually represents a compromise with regard to the requirements placed on power output and torque. This paper describes the development of a system for variable valve timing, taking the new Mercedes-Benz 4-valve engines as an example. Gas exchange calculation and tests carried out on a modified 4-cylinder engine have demonstrated that with two intake valve times and one specified exhaust valve time virtually the best possible torque characteristics combined with high power output can be achieved. Intake valve timing is adjusted dependent on load and engine speed by turning the intake chamshaft using a hydraulic-mechanically acting camshaft adjuster, whose functional principles are described in detail.