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Technical Paper

A Diesel-Engine-Management with a New Housing Technology

For a new generation of vehicles we developed a new engine management system. The main goals were cost, system flexibility and reliability. Using Planar technology in a fuel cooled housing, we were able to achieve our target.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Intelligent Suspension Systems for Commercial Vehicles

Economical and technical aspects justify intelligent suspension systems in commercial vehicles. The tasks of suspensions of vehicles are contradictionary and the prevailing problems cannot be readily solved with conventional suspension systems in a satisfying manner. However, advantages are acquired by the use of adaptive suspension systems. Varying the properties and characteristics of suspension systems in respect to the different loads transported by a commercial vehicle, to vehicle speeds and to dynamic maneuvers, nearly present as good results as closed loop controlled adaptive suspension systems do. For economical reasons fully active suspension systems are only installed in commercial vehicles performing special tasks and services. Partially active suspension systems reduce power consumption and demonstrate satisfactory efficiency.
Technical Paper

Commercial Vehicles with Intelligent Rear Axle Steering Systems

Rear axle steering systems electronically controlled and hydraulically actuated are discussed for commercial vehicles. With these steered axles, the major objective is to improve the manoeuvrability of these vehicles. With the aid of the steering strategy “Rear end Swing-out Compensation” it will be assured, that in two-axle, all-wheel steering trucks dangerous rear end swing-out effects, occuring primarily in low speed ranges, will not take place. In addition, it is possible to enhance the dynamic stability of two-axle trucks while braking on split adhesion road surfaces with the aid of specific control algorithms. Furthermore, the application of a rear axle steering system can suppress dangerous lateral oscillations of centre-axle trailers.
Technical Paper

Contribution to the Force Transmission Behavior of Commercial Vehicle Tires

Tires of modern commercial vehicles must meet a specific requirement profile, containing the economic aspects, ride comfort and driving safety, as well. These three primary criteria are discussed in this paper, whereby emphasis is placed on the force transmission behavior of commercial vehicle tires regarded as a variable directly associated to driving safety. At the same time, the influence of distinct parameters such as wheel load, road speed, tire inflation pressure, tread depth and coefficient of adhesion between tire and road on the lateral and braking force behavior is illustrated using steady state and dynamic measurements. They were carried out on real roads using a specially prepared mobile tire dynamometer, but on an indoor drum-type tire test stand, as well. In addition to the above mentioned parameter variations the differences of the results on account of the test method are analysed.
Technical Paper

Development of a Single Run Method for the Determination of Individual Hydrocarbons (C2-C12) in Automotive Exhaust by Capillary Gas Chromatography

The California Air Resources Board (CARB) has proposed procedures for the analysis of non-methane organic gases (NMOG) to determine the ozone forming potential (OFP) of automotive exhaust. For realization of these methods two differently configured GC systems are necessary. In order to reduce the efforts concerning costs, maintenance and quality control of two analytical instruments, a single run method is developed for routine analysis. This method allows identification and quantification of individual hydrocarbons (IHC) in the range of carbon numbers C2 to C12. Analytical problems arising from high contents of water and carbon dioxide in exhaust samples are discussed. Water reduction is obtained by a Nafion® Dryer by means of membrane diffusion of polar compounds. Contamination as well as memory effects due to this sample work up are described. Sample pre-concentration of 50-200 mL diluted automotive exhaust is performed using a triple phase “mixed bed” adsorption tube at O°C.
Technical Paper

Driving Performance of a Commercial Vehicle With Adaptive Suspensions

The settings of adaptive suspension elements may be switched from a comfortable “soft” characteristic to a safe and “firm” characteristic. Thus the possibility is given to not only improve the ride comfort, but the dynamic driving behavior as well, since no compromise must be made between these two criteria when tuning the suspensions. Such systems seem to be very promising for commercial vehicles, as - because of their changing loading conditions - it is very difficult to design an optimal suspension system using conventional springs and dampers. This paper describes the influence of shock absorbers and air springs with variable characteristics on the ride comfort and the dynamic behavior of a 15-t-truck by investigations done with a simulation system. A series production vehicle without adaptive suspension elements serves as basis. At first the results of measurements and simulations are compared and show a very good concurrence.
Technical Paper

Engine Braking Systems and Retarders - An Overview from an European Standpoint

In particular on heavy duty commercial vehicles, the continuous braking systems “engine braking system” and “retarder”, which are independent of the service braking system, are installed to handle the continuous braking load on downhill stretches. These systems are also used to reduce lining wear and thermal loads of the service braking system. Exhaust braking systems are the most widely used form of engine braking systems. The current state-of-the-art in retarders is represented by two basic concepts, the electrodynamic retarder and the hydrodynamic retarder. A performance comparison of the different systems shows that low mountain descending speeds are the domain of engine braking systems, whereas retarders are more effective for medium and high descending speeds. The electrodynamic retarder is more favourable for lower road speeds, while the hydrodynamic retarder develops its effectiveness during higher downhill speeds.
Technical Paper

Extended Oil Drain Intervals: Conservation of Resources or Reduction of Engine Life

Over the last 40 years it has been possible to lengthen recommended passenger car engine oil drain intervals by up to five times, despite the substantial increases in oil stress through continously rising demands on performance and environmental acceptability. Behind this considerable progress lie improvements in engine design and production technology and the development of suitable advanced engine oil formulations. With increasing oil drain intervals comes a growing uncertainty as to exactly when the oil change should best be made: a fixed mileage applicable to all vehicles is preferred for its practicality but the optimum depends on the driving history of individual vehicles. In Europe a 15000 km oil drain interval is now normal. A further extension based on a fixed interval would give an advantage to a minority of customers but could seriously compromise the durability of engines in the overall vehicle population.
Technical Paper

Results and Economical Aspects of Simulation Systems Evaluating the Braking and Steering Performance of Commercial Vehicles

The simulation of the driving performance of motor vehicles offers the possibility of analyzing the behavior of new commercial vehicles or new systems to be integrated into the vehicle, already before the stage of the first prototypes. Thus, simulation technology may contribute to shorten the time and costs needed for the development of new vehicles and new vehicle systems. As an example, this contribution describes the simulation of a commercial vehicle with adaptive suspension elements. The simulations were used to coarse-tune the suspension elements before installation and fine-tuning them in a prototype vehicle, and to define and optimize the control strategies of electronically controlled suspension systems. A comparison between the costs of the simulation and estimated costs of corresponding field tests substantiates the economical benefits of the simulation.
Technical Paper

Temperature Compensation with Thermovariable Rate Springs in Automatic Transmissions

The shifting comfort of automatic transmissions of diesel engines at low temperatures can be substantially improved by using springs with temperature dependent rates in the control valves. These springs utilize the shape memory effect of Ni-Ti alloys. They provide a simple and economic way to control both shifting pressure and shifting time. The Mercedes- Benz automatic transmission uses two different springs with thermovariable rate (TVR) in the shifting pressure system to adapt the pressure in the switching elements to the lower torque of cold diesel engines. One spring is used in the shifting pressure control valve and one in the accumulator system.
Technical Paper

The Impact of Different ABS-Philosophies on the Directional Behavior of Commercial Vehicles

During the most recent past, contributions to anti-lock systems have been continuously published reflecting on the multi-functional significance of these systems only in a limited way. It seems essential therefore, to compare the primary criteria of functionality to the costs precisely. The technical solutions carried into effect during the past and the present orientated towards variously different criteria of optimization. The paper illustrates the particularities of the different control systems, like 2-, 4-and 6-channel systems with Individual Control, Select-Low Control or Modified Individual Control. The impact of the various ABS-philosophies on the directional control of heavy commercial vehicles will be analyzed, using driving maneuvers like “straight-ahead braking” or “braking in a turn” on homogeneous and split adhesion road surfaces.
Technical Paper

The New Mercedes-Benz Engine Brake with Decompression Valve

During the past few years, economy of commercial vehicles has increased considerably due to higher engine outputs a+ lower engine speeds together with enhanced fuel economy. However, the average speed of commercial vehicles is not only determined by the speed attainable on level ground and on uphill gradients, but also to a large extent by the speed attainable on downhill gradients, with the latter depending on the available constant braking power. Since the displacement of commercial vehicle engines has not been increased or has even become smaller, their braking power has increased only slightly ot not at all. In order to enhance the overall economy of commercial vehicles, it was therefore necessary to increase the engine braking performance as well since the wheel brakes cannot be used for constant braking and additional systems for continuous operation are very complex.
Technical Paper

The New Mercedes-Benz Engine Brake with Pulsed Decompression Valve -Decompression Valve Engine Brake (DVB)

During recent years there has been a continuing increase in the demands for higher braking performance of commercial vehicle engines. Mercedes-Benz had introduced the engine brake with continuously open decompression valve (‘Konstantdrossel’) into series production in 1989 as an option (1). A further increase of braking power was to be achieved while retaining the additional decompression valve in the cylinder head. For this, the decompression valve was no longer kept open during the whole working cycle (continuously open decompression valve), but only for a short period from just before compression TDC to about 90...120° crank angle after compression TDC (pulsed decompression valve). The hydraulic actuating system which opens and closes the decompression valves was developed in cooperation with Mannesmann-Rexroth GmbH, Lohr, Germany. The engine braking performance attainable with this system is shown in comparison to other known engine braking systems.
Technical Paper

The Raisable Roll-Over Bar of the New Mercedes-Benz Roadster

The new SL from Mercedes-Benz was conceived as a pure-bred roadster, i.e. without a fixed roll-over bar which would mar the looks of this open sports car and moreover emphasize the added risk of injury in the event of a roll-over accident. At the same time, the aim was to further enhance occupant safety in the event of such a roll-over. These aims led to the designing of a completely new kind of passive protection system which comes into operation automatically if a roll-over is imminent. Between the rear seats and the soft-top recess, a roll-over bar was therefore integrated; this is mounted on a pivot system and does not affect the apearance of the car when lowered. A sensor system, which is also new, registers driving situations which could result in a roll-over. As a consequence of this, the roll-over bar is raised via a spring/damper mechanism and locked into position.