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Technical Paper

3-D LDV Measurement of In-Cylinder Air Flow in a 3.5L Four-Valve SI Engine

In-cylinder flows in a motored four-valve SI engine were examined by simultaneous three-component LDV measurement. The purpose of this study was to develop better physical understanding of in-cylinder flows and quantitative methods which correlate in-cylinder flows to engine performance. This study is believed to be the first simultaneous three-component LDV measurement of the air flow over a planar section of a four-valve piston-cylinder assembly. Special attention is paid to the tumble formation process, three-dimensional turbulent kinetic energy, and measurement of the tumble ratio. The influence of the induction system and the piston geometry are believed to have a significant effect on the in-cylinder flow characteristics. Using LDV measurement, the flows in two different piston top geometries were examined. One axial plane was selected to observe the effect of piston top geometries on the flow field in the combustion chamber.
Technical Paper

A Review of Pre-Chamber Initiated Jet Ignition Combustion Systems

This paper reviews progress on turbulent jet ignition systems for otherwise standard spark ignition engines, with focus on small prechamber systems (≺3% of clearance volume) with auxiliary pre-chamber fueling. The review covers a range of systems including early designs such as those by Gussak and Oppenheim and more recent designs proposed by General Motors Corporation, FEV, Bosch and MAHLE Powertrain. A major advantage of jet ignition systems is that they enable very fast burn rates due to the ignition system producing multiple, distributed ignition sites, which consume the main charge rapidly and with minimal combustion variability. The locally distributed ignition sites allow for increased levels of dilution (lean burn/EGR) when compared to conventional spark ignition combustion. Dilution levels are comparable to those reported in recent homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) systems.
Technical Paper

An Evaluation of Turbulent Kinetic Energy for the In-Cylinder Flow of a Four-Valve 3.5L SI Engine Using 3-D LDV Measurements

A better understanding of turbulent kinetic energy is important for improvement of fuel-air mixing, which can lead to lower emissions and reduced fuel consumption. An in-cylinder flow study was conducted using 1548 Laser Doppler Velocimetry (LDV) measurements inside one cylinder of a 3.5L four-valve engine. The measurement method, which simultaneously collects three-dimensional velocity data through a quartz cylinder, allowed a volumetric evaluation of turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) inside an automotive engine. The results were animated on a UNIX workstation, using a 3D wireframe model. The data visualization software allowed the computation of TKE isosurfaces, and identified regions of higher turbulence within the cylinder. The mean velocity fields created complex flow patterns with symmetries about the center plane between the two intake valves. High levels of TKE were found in regions of high shear flow, attributed to the collisions of intake flows.
Technical Paper

An Experimental Study of In-Cylinder Air Flow in a 3.5L Four-Valve SI Engine by High Speed Flow Visualization and Two-Component LDV Measurement

In-cylinder flows in four-valve SI engines were examined by high frame rate flow visualization and two-component LDV measurement. It is believed that the tumble and swirl motion generated during intake breaks down into small-scale turbulence later in the cycle. The exact nature of this relationship is not well known. However, control of the turbulence offers control of the combustion process. To develop a better physical understanding of the in-cylinder flow, the effects of the cylinder head intake port configuration and the piston geometry were examined. For the present study, a 3.5L, four-valve engine was modified to be mounted on an AVL single cylinder research engine type 520. A quartz cylinder was fabricated for optical access to the in-cylinder flow. Piston rings were replaced by Rulon-LD rings. A Rulon-LD ring is advantageous for the optical access as it requires no lubrication.
Technical Paper

Effects of Ambient Conditions on the Emissions of a Small Carbureted Four-Stroke Engine

The exhaust-gas emissions of a small four-stroke, carbureted, single-cylinder spark-ignition engine have been studied as functions of ambient conditions, using gasoline as the fuel. In steady-state dynamometer tests at fixed engine speeds/loads, carried out under different climatic conditions, the concentrations of exhaust-gas components have been measured. Their dependence on ambient conditions has been analyzed principally in terms of the influence of ambient temperature, pressure, and humidity on the air-fuel ratio metered by the carburetor. While the air-fuel ratio of carbureted utility engines at fixed loads varies by only a small percentage during modest changes in ambient air conditions, these changes can correspond to significant changes in the production of regulated pollutants. Using a correction for air mass flow and fuel density at wide open throttle, the scatter in observed air-fuel ratio and % CO data could be reduced by about one third.
Journal Article

High-Speed Flow and Combustion Visualization to Study the Effects of Charge Motion Control on Fuel Spray Development and Combustion Inside a Direct-Injection Spark-Ignition Engine

An experimental study is performed to investigate the effects of charge motion control on in-cylinder fuel-air mixture preparation and combustion inside a direct-injection spark-ignition engine with optical access to the cylinder. High-pressure production injector is used with fuel pressures of 5 and 10 MPa. Three different geometries of charge motion control (CMC) device are considered; two are expected to enhance the swirl motion inside the engine cylinder whereas the third one is expected to enhance the tumble motion. Experiments are performed at 1500 rpm engine speed with the variation in fuel injection timing, fuel pressure and the number of injections. It is found that swirl-type CMC devices significantly enhance the fuel-air mixing inside the engine cylinder with slower spray tip penetration than that of the baseline case without CMC device. Combustion images show that the flame growth is faster with CMC device compared to the similar case without CMC device.
Technical Paper

Quantification of volumetric in-cylinder flow of SI engine usign 3D laser doppler velocimetry

The flow inside of an internal combustion engine is highly complex and varies greatly among different engine types. For a long time IC engine researchers have tried to classify the major mean flow patterns and turbulence characteristics using different measurement techniques. During the last three decades tumble and swirl numbers have gained increasing popularity in mean flow quantification while turbulent kinetic energy has been used for the measurement of turbulence in the cylinder. In this paper, simultaneous 3-D LDV measurements of the in-cylinder flows of the three different engines are summarized for the quantification of the flow characteristics. The ensemble averaged velocity, tumble and swirl motions, and turbulence kinetic energy during the intake and compression strokes were examined from the measured velocity data (approximately 2,000 points for each case) by the 3-D LDV system.
Technical Paper

Tumble and Swirl Quantification within a Motored Four-Valve SI Engine Cylinder Based on 3-D LDV Measurements

The flow field contained within ten planes inside a cylinder of a 3.5 liter, 24-valve, V-6 engine was mapped using a three-dimensional Laser Doppler Velocimetry (3-D LDV) system. A total of 1,548 LDV measurement locations were used to construct the time history of the in-cylinder flow fields during the intake and compression strokes. The measurements began during the intake stroke at a crank angle of 60° ATDC and continued until approximately 280° ATDC. The ensemble averaged LDV measurements allowed for a quantitative analysis of the dynamic in-cylinder flow process in terms of tumble and swirl motions. Both of these quantities were calculated at every 1.8 crank degrees during the described measurement interval. Tumble calculations were performed about axes in multiple planes in both the Cartesian directions perpendicular to the plane of the piston top. Swirl calculations were also accomplished in multiple planes that lie parallel to the plane of the piston top.