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Technical Paper

An Experimental and Computational Investigation of Gasoline Compression Ignition Using Conventional and Higher Reactivity Gasolines in a Multi-Cylinder Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine

2018-04-03
2018-01-0226
This research investigates the potential of gasoline compression ignition (GCI) to achieve low engine-out NOx emissions with high fuel efficiency in a heavy-duty diesel engine. The experimental work was conducted in a model year (MY) 2013 Cummins ISX15 heavy-duty diesel engine, covering a load range of 5 to 15 bar BMEP at 1375 rpm. The engine compression ratio (CR) was reduced from the production level of 18.9 to 15.7 without altering the combustion bowl design. In this work, four gasolines with research octane number (RON) ranging from 58 to 93 were studied. Overall, GCI operation resulted in enhanced premixed combustion, improved NOx-soot tradeoffs, and similar or moderately improved fuel efficiency compared to diesel combustion. A split fuel injection strategy was employed for the two lower reactivity gasolines (RON80 and RON93), while the RON60 and RON70 gasolines used a single fuel injection strategy.
Journal Article

CFD-Guided Combustion System Optimization of a Gasoline Range Fuel in a Heavy-Duty Compression Ignition Engine Using Automatic Piston Geometry Generation and a Supercomputer

2019-01-15
2019-01-0001
A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) guided combustion system optimization was conducted for a heavy-duty diesel engine running with a gasoline fuel that has a research octane number (RON) of 80. The goal was to optimize the gasoline compression ignition (GCI) combustion recipe (piston bowl geometry, injector spray pattern, in-cylinder swirl motion, and thermal boundary conditions) for improved fuel efficiency while maintaining engine-out NOx within a 1-1.5 g/kW-hr window. The numerical model was developed using the multi-dimensional CFD software CONVERGE. A two-stage design of experiments (DoE) approach was employed with the first stage focusing on the piston bowl shape optimization and the second addressing refinement of the combustion recipe. For optimizing the piston bowl geometry, a software tool, CAESES, was utilized to automatically perturb key bowl design parameters. This led to the generation of 256 combustion chamber designs evaluated at several engine operating conditions.
Journal Article

CFD-Guided Heavy Duty Mixing-Controlled Combustion System Optimization with a Gasoline-Like Fuel

2017-03-28
2017-01-0550
A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) guided combustion system optimization was conducted for a heavy-duty compression-ignition engine with a gasoline-like fuel that has an anti-knock index (AKI) of 58. The primary goal was to design an optimized combustion system utilizing the high volatility and low sooting tendency of the fuel for improved fuel efficiency with minimal hardware modifications to the engine. The CFD model predictions were first validated against experimental results generated using the stock engine hardware. A comprehensive design of experiments (DoE) study was performed at different operating conditions on a world-leading supercomputer, MIRA at Argonne National Laboratory, to accelerate the development of an optimized fuel-efficiency focused design while maintaining the engine-out NOx and soot emissions levels of the baseline production engine.
Technical Paper

Characterization of Particulate Matter Emissions from Heavy-Duty Partially Premixed Compression Ignition with Gasoline-Range Fuels

2019-04-02
2019-01-1185
In this study, the compression ratio of a commercial 15L heavy-duty diesel engine was lowered and a split injection strategy was developed to promote partially premixed compression ignition (PPCI) combustion. Various low reactivity gasoline-range fuels were compared with ultra-low-sulfur diesel fuel (ULSD) for steady-state engine performance and emissions. Specially, particulate matter (PM) emissions were examined for their mass, size and number concentrations, and further characterized by organic/elemental carbon analysis, chemical speciation and thermogravimetric analysis. As more fuel-efficient PPCI combustion was promoted, a slight reduction in fuel consumption was observed for all gasoline-range fuels, which also had higher heating values than ULSD. Since mixing-controlled combustion dominated the latter part of the combustion process, hydrocarbon (HC) and carbon monoxide (CO) emissions were only slightly increased with the gasoline-range fuels.
Technical Paper

Development of a Transient Spray Cone Angle Correlation for CFD Simulations at Diesel Engine Conditions

2018-04-03
2018-01-0304
The accurate modeling of fuel spray behavior under diesel engine conditions requires well-characterized boundary conditions. Among those conditions, the spray cone angle is important due to its impact on the spray mixing process, flame lift-off locations and subsequent soot formation. The spray cone angle is a highly dynamic variable, but existing correlations have been developed mainly for diesel fuels at quasi-steady state and relatively low injection pressures. The objective of this study was to develop spray cone angle correlations for both diesel and a light-end gasoline fuel over a wide range of diesel-engine operating conditions that are capable of capturing both the transient and quasi-steady state processes. Two important macroscopic characteristics of solid cone sprays, the spray cone angle and spray penetration, were measured using a single-hole heavy-duty injector using two fuels at diesel engine conditions in an optical constant volume vessel.
Technical Paper

Emission Performance of Low Cetane Naphtha as Drop-In Fuel on a Multi-Cylinder Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine and Aftertreatment System

2017-03-28
2017-01-1000
Greenhouse gas regulations and global economic growth are expected to drive a future demand shift towards diesel fuel in the transportation sector. This may create a market opportunity for cost-effective fuels in the light distillate range if they can be burned as efficiently and cleanly as diesel fuel. In this study, the emission performance of a low cetane number, low research octane number naphtha (CN 34, RON 56) was examined on a production 6-cylinder heavy-duty on-highway truck engine and aftertreatment system. Using only production hardware, both the engine-out and tailpipe emissions were examined during the heavy-duty emission testing cycles using naphtha and ultra-low-sulfur diesel (ULSD) fuels. Without any modifications to the hardware and software, the tailpipe emissions were comparable when using either naphtha or ULSD on the heavy duty test cycles.
Technical Paper

Mixing-Controlled Combustion of Conventional and Higher Reactivity Gasolines in a Multi-Cylinder Heavy-Duty Compression Ignition Engine

2017-03-28
2017-01-0696
This research investigates the combustion characteristics and engine performance of a conventional non-ethanol gasoline with a research octane number of 91(RON 91) and a higher reactivity RON80 gasoline under mixing-controlled combustion. The work was conducted in a model year 2013 Cummins ISX15 heavy-duty diesel engine. A split fuel injection strategy was developed to address the long ignition delay and high maximum pressure rise rate for the two gasoline fuels. Using the split fuel injection strategy, steady-state NOx sweeps were conducted at 1375 rpm with a load sweep from 5 to 15 bar BMEP. At 5 and 10 bar BMEP, both gasolines consistently exhibited lower soot levels than ULSD with the reduction more pronounced at 5 bar BMEP. 3-D CFD combustion simulation suggested that the higher volatility and lower viscosity of gasoline fuels can help improve the in-cylinder air utilization and therefore reduce the presence of fuel-rich regions in the combustion chamber.
Journal Article

Numerical Investigation of a Gasoline-Like Fuel in a Heavy-Duty Compression Ignition Engine Using Global Sensitivity Analysis

2017-03-28
2017-01-0578
Fuels in the gasoline auto-ignition range (Research Octane Number (RON) > 60) have been demonstrated to be effective alternatives to diesel fuel in compression ignition engines. Such fuels allow more time for mixing with oxygen before combustion starts, owing to longer ignition delay. Moreover, by controlling fuel injection timing, it can be ensured that the in-cylinder mixture is “premixed enough” before combustion occurs to prevent soot formation while remaining “sufficiently inhomogeneous” in order to avoid excessive heat release rates. Gasoline compression ignition (GCI) has the potential to offer diesel-like efficiency at a lower cost and can be achieved with fuels such as low-octane straight run gasoline which require significantly less processing in the refinery compared to today’s fuels.
Technical Paper

Simulation-Guided Air System Design for a Low Reactivity Gasoline-Like Fuel under Partially-Premixed Combustion in a Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine

2017-03-28
2017-01-0751
In this study a detailed 1-D engine system model coupled with 3-D computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis was used to investigate the air system design requirements for a heavy duty diesel engine operating with low reactivity gasoline-like fuel (RON70) under partially premixed combustion (PPC) conditions. The production engine used as the baseline has a geometric compression ratio (CR) of 17.3 and the air system hardware consists of a 1-stage variable geometry turbine (VGT) with a high pressure exhaust gas recirculation (HP-EGR) loop. The analysis was conducted at six engine operating points selected from the heavy-duty supplemental emissions test (SET) cycle, i.e., A75, A100, B25, B50, B75, and C100. The engine-out NOx target was set at 1 g/hp-hr (1.34 g/kWh) to address a future hypothetical tailpipe NOx limit of 0.02 g/hp-hr (0.027 g/kWh) while an engine-out particulate matter (PM) target of 0.01 g/hp-hr (0.013 g/kWh) was selected to comply with existing EPA 2010 regulations.
Technical Paper

System Level 1-D Analysis of an Air-System for a Heavy-Duty Gasoline Compression Ignition Engine

2019-04-02
2019-01-0240
A detailed study of various air system configurations has been conducted for a prototype gasoline compression ignition (GCI) engine using a Cummins MY2013 ISX15 heavy-duty diesel engine as the base platform. The study evaluated the configurations with the assumption that RON80 gasoline would be used as the fuel and the combustion chamber would have a geometric compression ratio (CR) of 16.5. Using 3-D computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations, a high efficiency & low engine-out NOx GCI combustion recipe was developed across the five engine operating points from the heavy-duty Supplemental Emissions Test (SET) cycle: A100, B25, B50, B75, and C100. The CFD generated air-thermal boundary conditions and the combustion burn-rate & injector rate-of-injection profiles were imported into a calibrated 1-D engine model for the air-handling systems analysis.
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