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Technical Paper

Combustion Characteristics of PRF and TSF Ethanol Blends with RON 98 in an Instrumented CFR Engine

The CFR F1 engine is the standard testing apparatus used for rating the research octane number (RON) of gasoline fuels. Unlike the motor octane number (MON) method, where the intake port temperature after the carburetor is controlled by an electric heater, the mixture temperature can vary during the RON test due to the heat of vaporization (HoV) of the fuel. Ethanol is receiving increasing attention as a high octane and high HoV fuel component. This work presents an analysis of the combustion characteristics during the RON rating of ethanol fuel blends according to the standard ASTM D2699 method, highlighting the effects of ethanol concentration and base fuel composition. All fuels were blended to a constant RON of 98. Ethanol levels varied from 0 to 50 vol% and the base fuels were surrogate blends composed of primary reference fuels (PRF), toluene standardization fuels (TSF), and a four component gasoline surrogate.
Technical Paper

Development and Validation of a Three Pressure Analysis (TPA) GT-Power Model of the CFR F1/F2 Engine for Estimating Cylinder Conditions

The CFR engine is the widely accepted platform to test standard Research Octane Number (RON) and Motored Octane Number (MON) for determining anti-knock characteristics of motor fuels. With increasing interest in engine downsizing, up-torquing, and alternative fuels for modern spark ignition (SI) engines, there is a need to better understand the conditions that fuels are subjected to in the CFR engine during octane rating. To take into account fuel properties, such as fuel heat of vaporization, laminar flame speed and auto-ignition chemistry; and understand their impacts on combustion knock, it is essential to estimate accurate cylinder conditions. In this study, the CFR F1/F2 engine was modeled using GT-Power with the Three Pressure Analysis (TPA) and the model was validated for different fuels and engine conditions.
Journal Article

Effects of Fuel Laminar Flame Speed Compared to Engine Tumble Ratio, Ignition Energy, and Injection Strategy on Lean and EGR Dilute Spark Ignition Combustion

Previous studies have shown that fuels with higher laminar flame speed also have increased tolerance to EGR dilution. In this work, the effects of fuel laminar flame speed on both lean and EGR dilute spark ignition combustion stability were examined. Fuels blends of pure components (iso-octane, n-heptane, toluene, ethanol, and methanol) were derived at two levels of laminar flame speed. Each fuel blend was tested in a single-cylinder spark-ignition engine under both lean-out and EGR dilution sweeps until the coefficient of variance of indicated mean effective pressure increased above thresholds of 3% and 5%. The relative importance of fuel laminar flame speed to changes to engine design parameters (spark ignition energy, tumble ratio, and port vs. direct injection) was also assessed.
Journal Article

Effects of Lambda on Knocking Characteristics and RON Rating

The knock resistance of fuels has been historically measured using the ASTM RON and MON methods. However, significant discrepancies between the fuel octane number and knock-limited performance in modern spark-ignited (SI) engines have been well-documented. Differences between the operating conditions of the Cooperative Fuels Research (CFR) engine during RON rating and those attained in modern SI engines have been highlighted in the literature. While octane ratings are performed for each fuel on the CFR engine at the lambda that provides the highest knockmeter reading, modern SI engines are generally operated at stoichiometry and knock intensity is based on the high frequency cylinder pressure oscillations associated with knocking combustion. In the present work, an instrumented CFR engine was used to analyze lambda effects on both the conventional knockmeter RON rating method and cylinder pressure transducer based knock intensity.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of Ignition Timing Predictions Using Control-Oriented Models in Kinetically-Modulated Combustion Regimes

Knock integrals and corresponding ignition delay (τ) correlations are often used in model-based control algorithms in order to predict ignition timing for kinetically modulated combustion regimes such as HCCI and PCCI. They can also be used to estimate knock-inception during conventional SI operation. The purpose of this study is to investigate the performance of various τ correlations proposed in the literature, including those developed based on fundamental data from shock tubes and rapid compression machines, those based on predictions from isochoric simulations using detailed chemical kinetic mechanisms, and those deduced from data of operating engines. A 0D engine simulation framework is used to compare the correlation performance where evaluations are based on the temperatures required at intake valve closure (TIVC) in order to achieve a fixed CA50 point over a range of conditions.
Journal Article

Insights into Engine Knock: Comparison of Knock Metrics across Ranges of Intake Temperature and Pressure in the CFR Engine

Of late there has been a resurgence in studies investigating parameters that quantify combustion knock in both standardized platforms and modern spark-ignition engines. However, it is still unclear how metrics such as knock (octane) rating, knock onset, and knock intensity are related and how fuels behave according to these metrics across a range of conditions. As part of an ongoing study, the air supply system of a standard Cooperative Fuel Research (CFR) F1/F2 engine was modified to allow mild levels of intake air boosting while staying true to its intended purpose of being the standard device for American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM)-specified knock rating or octane number tests. For instance, the carburation system and intake air heating manifold are not altered, but the engine was equipped with cylinder pressure transducers to enable both logging of the standard knockmeter readout and state-of-the-art indicated data.
Technical Paper

Quantifying Uncertainty in Predictions of Kinetically Modulated Combustion: Application to HCCI Using a Detailed Transportation Fuel Model

Simulation of chemical kinetic processes in combustion engine environments has become ubiquitous towards the understanding of combustion phenomenology, the evaluation of controlling parameters, and the design of configurations and/or control strategies. Such calculations are not free from error however, and the interpretation of simulation results must be considered within the context of uncertainties in the chemical kinetic model. Uncertainties arise due to structural issues (e.g., included/missing reaction pathways), as well as inaccurate descriptions of kinetic rate parameters and thermochemistry. In fundamental apparatuses like rapid compression machines and shock tubes, computed constant-volume ignition delay times for simple, single-component fuels can have variations on the order of factors of 2-4.