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Journal Article

A Comparison of Cold-Start Behavior and its Impact on Fuel Economy for Advanced Technology Vehicles

Vehicle operation during cold-start powertrain conditions can have a significant impact on drivability, fuel economy and tailpipe emissions in modern passenger vehicles. As efforts continue to maximize fuel economy in passenger vehicles, considerable engineering resources are being spent in order to reduce the consumption penalties incurred shortly after engine start and during powertrain warmup while maintaining suitably low levels of tailpipe emissions. Engine downsizing, advanced transmissions and hybrid-electric architecture can each have an appreciable effect on cold-start strategy and its impact on fuel economy. This work seeks to explore the cold-start strategy of several passenger vehicles with different powertrain architectures and to understand the resulting fuel economy impact relative to warm powertrain operation. To this end, four vehicles were chosen with different powertrain architectures.
Technical Paper

A Computational Investigation of Hydrotreated Vegetable Oil Sprays Using RANS and a Modified Version of the RNG k - ε Model in OpenFOAM

Hydrotreated vegetable oil (HVO) is a high-cetane number alternative fuel with the potential of drastic emissions reductions in high-pressure diesel engines. In this study the behavior of HVO sprays is investigated computationally and compared with conventional diesel fuel sprays. The simulations are performed with a modified version of the C++ open source code OpenFOAM using Reynolds-averaged conservation equations for mass, species, momentum and energy. The turbulence has been modeled with a modified version of the RNG k-ε model. In particular, the turbulence interaction between the droplets and the gas has been accounted for by introducing appropriate source terms in the turbulence model equations. The spray simulations reflect the setup of the constant-volume combustion cell from which the experimental data were obtained.
Technical Paper

A Computational Model Describing the Performance of a Ceramic Diesel Particulate Trap in Steady-State Operation and Over a Transient Cycle

A model for calculating the trap pressure drop, various particulate properties, filtration characteristics and trap temperatures was developed during the steady-state and transient cycles using the theory originated by Opris and Johnson, 1998. This model was validated with the data obtained from the steady-state cycles run with an IBIDEN SiC diesel particulate filter. To evaluate the trap experimental filtration efficiency, raw exhaust samples were taken upstream and downstream of the trap. A trap scaling and equivalent comparison model was developed for comparing different traps at the same volume and same filtration area. Using the model, the trap pressure drop data obtained from different traps were compared equivalently at the same trap volume and same filtration area. The pressure drop performance of the IBIDEN SiC trap compared favorably to the previously tested NoTox SiC and the Cordierite traps.
Technical Paper

A Computer Simulation of the Turbocharged Diesel Engine as an Enhancement of the Vehicle Engine Cooling System Simulation

A computer simulation of the turbocharged direct- injection diesel engine was developed to enhance the capabilities of the Vehicle Engine Cooling System Simulation (VECSS) developed at Michigan Technological University. The engine model was extensively validated against Detroit Diesel Corporation's (DDC) Series 60 engine data. In addition to the new engine model a charge-air-cooler model was developed and incorporated into the VECSS. A Freightliner truck with a Detroit Diesel's Series 60 engine, Behr McCord radiator, AlliedSignal/Garrett Automotive charge air cooler, Kysor DST variable speed fan clutch and other cooling system components was used for the study. The data were collected using the Detroit Diesel Electronic Controls (DDEC)-Electronic Control Module (ECM) and Hewlett Packard data acquisition system. The enhanced model's results were compared to the steady state TTD (top tank differential) data.
Technical Paper

A Dynamic Computer-Aided Engineering Model for Automobile Climate Control System Simulation and Application Part I: A/C Component Simulations and Integration

This paper details the computer algorithm which was developed to determine the A/C refrigeration circuit balance point under the system transient operating conditions. The A/C circuit model consisting of major component submodels, such as the evaporator, compressor, condenser, orifice, air handling system, and connecting hoses, are included in the study. Pressure drop and thermal capacity for the evaporator, condenser, and connecting ducts/hoses are also considered in the simulation. The results obtained from the simulation model are in good agreement with the experimental data. Users can take advantage of this CAE tool to optimize the A/C system design and to minimize the development process with time-saving and cost-effective perspectives.
Technical Paper

A Dynamic Computer-Aided Engineering Model for Automobile Climate Control System Simulation and Application Part II: Passenger Compartment Simulation and Applications

A Computer-Aided Engineering (CAE) model for automobile climate control system is presented to provide engineers with an cost effective analysis tool for designing, developing, and optimizing the vehicle interior climate. It is the objective of this paper to develop a mathematical model which predicts the lumped temperature and lumped humidity variations inside the passenger compartment under design and operating conditions. The transient nature of the passenger cabin temperature, average interior mass temperature, and humidity are modeled using three coupled non-linear ordinary differential equations based on mass and energy balances. These equations are then solved by a fourth-order Runge-Kutta method with adaptive step size control.
Technical Paper

A Methodology for Rapid Calculation of Computational Thermal Models

Too often many heat management problems are not solved with thermal analysis because of excessive complexity, time, and cost. A method for quickly solving a sophisticated thermal/fluid system with minimal user interaction and with common desktop computer resources is presented. A desktop (Microsoft Windows™) thermal analysis package, WinTherm, consists of the Generic Processor (pre-processing software), the 3-D Thermal Model (a finite difference nodal network solver), and an Image Viewer (wireframe and animated thermal display). The theoretical basis for this thermal analysis toolkit will be discussed as well as examples of its implementation.
Journal Article

A Novel Singular Perturbation Technique for Model-Based Control of Cold Start Hydrocarbon Emission

High hydrocarbon (HC) emission during a cold start still remains one of the major emission control challenges for spark ignition (SI) engines in spite of about three decades of research in this area. This paper proposes a cold start HC emission control strategy based on a reduced order modeling technique. A novel singular perturbation approximation (SPA) technique, based on the balanced realization principle, is developed for a nonlinear experimentally validated cold start emission model. The SPA reduced model is then utilized in the design of a model-based sliding mode controller (SMC). The controller targets to reduce cumulative tailpipe HC emission using a combination of fuel injection, spark timing, and air throttle / idle speed controls. The results from the designed multi-input multi-output (MIMO) reduced order SMC are compared with those from a full order SMC. The results show the reduced SMC outperforms the full order SMC by reducing both engine-out and tailpipe HC emission.
Technical Paper

A Photographic Study of the Combustion of Low Cetane Fuels in a Diesel Engine Aided with Spark Assist

An experimental investigation of the ignition and combustion characteristics of two low cetane fuels in a spark assisted Diesel engine is described. A three cylinder Diesel engine was modified for single cylinder operation and fitted with a spark plug located in the periphery of the spray plume. Optical observations of ignition and combustion were obtained with high speed photography. Optical access was provided by a quartz piston crown and extended head arrangement. The low cetane fuels, a light end, low viscosity fuel and a heavy end, high viscosity fuel which were blended to bracket No. 2 Diesel fuel on the distillation curve, demonstrated extended operation in the modified Diesel engine. Qualitative and quantitative experimental observations of ignition delay, pressure rise, heat release, spray penetration and geometery were compared and evaluated against theoretical predictions.
Technical Paper

A Proposed LCA Model of Environmental Effects With Markovian Decision Making

As the pool of existing non-renewable natural resources continues to shrink, it will be necessary for government and industrial leaders to achieve a workable strategy for the intelligent allocation of scarce resources. In this paper, a method of quantifying the environmental and resource impacts of product redesign is proposed. This new method utilizes Input Output Analysis coupled with the Markovian decision making into a single matrix-based tool. The benefit of a fully developed tool would be the ability to make informed pre-production decisions leading to optimum product and process designs with minimal environmental impact. This paper illustrates this technique with an example based upon real industry data and extrapolated effects.
Technical Paper

A Review of Diesel Particulate Control Technology and Emissions Effects - 1992 Horning Memorial Award Lecture

Studies have been conducted at Michigan Technological University (MTU) for over twenty years on methods for characterizing and controlling particulate emissions from heavy-duty diesel engines and the resulting effects on regulated and unregulated emissions. During that time, control technologies have developed in response to more stringent EPA standards for diesel emissions. This paper is a review of: 1) modern emission control technologies, 2) emissions sampling and chemical, physical and biological characterization methods and 3) summary results from recent studies conducted at MTU on heavy-duty diesel engines with a trap and an oxidation catalytic converter (OCC) operated on three different fuels. Control technology developments discussed are particulate traps, catalysts, advances in engine design, the application of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR), and modifications of fuel formulations.
Technical Paper

A Simulation Study of a Computer Controlled Cooling System for a Diesel Powered Truck

A set of control functions have been investigated for a computer controlled diesel cooling system, using the vehicle engine cooling system code. Various engine operating conditions such as the engine load, engine speed, and ambient temperature are considered as the controlling variables in the control loops. The truck simulated in the study was an International Harvester COF-9670 cab over chassis heavy-duty vehicle equipped with a standard cab heater, a Cummins NTC-350 diesel engine with a McCord radiator and standard cooling system components and after-cooler. The vehicle also had a Kysor fan-clutch and shutter system. Comparison simulation tests between the conventional cooling system and the computer controlled cooling system using the Vehicle-Engine-Cooling Computer System model under different ambient and route conditions show that the computer controlled cooling system would offer the following benefits: 1.
Technical Paper

A Statistical Approach to Determining the Effects of Speed, Load, Oil and Coolant Temperature on Diesel Engine Specific Fuel Consumption

Experimental Brake Specific Fuel Consumption (BSFC) data are presented for two engines as a function of engine speed, load, outlet coolant temperature and inlet oil temperature. The engines used in the study were the Cummins VT-903 (turbocharged) and the Caterpillar 3208, both being direct-injection and four-cycle. The data were taken for the Cat 3208 engine using a fractional factorial statistical method which reduced the total test matrix from 256 to 64 data points. The experimental data are used in the development of BSFC regression equations as a function of load, speed, outlet coolant temperature and inlet oil temperatures. A mathematical parameter for expressing quantitatively the change of BSFC per 10°F change in coolant and oil temperature is presented. It was found that an increase in the coolant and/or oil temperatures had the effect of reducing BSFC in both engines.
Technical Paper

A Study of the Character and Deposition Rates of Sulfur Species in the EGR Cooling System of a Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine

Various measurement techniques were employed to quantify sulfuric acid deposition levels and concentration of sulfuric acid in the condensate from the recirculated exhaust gas heat exchanger of a 1995 Cummins M11 heavy-duty diesel engine. Methods employed included a modified version of the sulfur species sampling system developed by Kreso et al. (1)*, rinsing the heat exchanger, and experiments employing a condensate collection device (CCD). The modified sampling system was applied to the inlet and outlet of the heat exchanger in order to quantify the changes in various sulfur compounds. Doped sulfur fuel (3300 to 4000 ppm S) was used to increase the concentrations of the various oxides of sulfur (SOx). These tests were performed at mode 9 of the old EPA 13-mode test cycle (1800 RPM, 932N*m) with 17-20% exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) at two EGR outlet temperatures: 160°C and 103°C.
Technical Paper

A Study of the Dilution Effects on Particle Size Measurement from a Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine with EGR

A study of particle size distributions was conducted on a Cummins M11 1995 engine using the Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer (SMPS) instrument in the baseline and downstream of the Catalyzed Particulate Filter (CPF). Measurements were made in the dilution tunnel to investigate the effect of primary dilution ratio and mixture temperature on the nuclei and accumulation mode particle formation. Experiments were conducted at two different engine modes namely Mode 11 (25% load - 311 Nm, 1800 rpm) and Mode 9 (75% load - 932 Nm, 1800 rpm). The nanoparticle formation decreased with increasing dilution ratios for a constant mixture temperature in the baseline as well as downstream of the CPF II for Mode 11 condition. At Mode 9 condition in the baseline, the dilution ratio had a little effect on the nanoparticle formation, since the distribution was not bimodal and was dominated by accumulation mode particles.
Technical Paper

A Study of the Effect of a Catalyzed Particulate Filter on the Emissions from a Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine with EGR

The effects of a catalyzed particulate filter (CPF) and Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) on heavy-duty diesel engine emissions were studied in this research. EGR is used to reduce the NOx emissions but at the same time it can increase total particulate matter (TPM) emissions. CPF is technology available for retrofitting existing vehicles in the field to reduce the TPM emissions. A conventional low sulfur fuel (371 ppm S) was used in all the engine runs. Steady-state loading and regeneration experiments were performed with CPF I to determine its performance with respect to pressure drop and particulate mass characteristics at different engine operating conditions. From the dilution tunnel emission characterization results for CPF II, at Mode 11 condition (25% load - 311 Nm, 1800 rpm), the TPM, HC and vapor phase emissions (XOC) were decreased by 70%, 62% and 62% respectively downstream of the CPF II.
Technical Paper

A Study of the Effects of Exhaust Gas Recirculation on Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine Emissions

The effects of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) on heavy-duty diesel emissions were studied at two EPA steady-state operating conditions, old EPA mode 9* (1800 RPM, 75% Load) and old EPA mode 11 (1800 RPM, 25% Load). Data were collected at the baseline, 10% and 16% EGR rates for both EPA modes. The study was conducted using a 1995 Cummins M11-330E heavy-duty diesel engine and compared to the baseline emissions from the Cummins 1988 and 1991 L10 engines. The baseline gas-, vapor- and particle-phase emissions were measured together with the particle size distributions at all modes of operation. The total particulate matter (TPM) and vapor phase (XOC) samples were analyzed for physical, chemical and biological properties. The results showed that newer engines with electronic engine controls and higher injector pressures produce TPM decreases from the 1988 to 1991 to 1995 engines with the solids decreasing more than the soluble organic fraction (SOF) of TPM.
Technical Paper

A Study of the Regeneration Characteristics of Silicon Carbide and Cordierite Diesel Particulate Filters Using a Copper Fuel Additive

The purpose of this research was to study the pressure drop profiles and regeneration temperature characteristics of Silicon Carbide (SiC) filters with and without a copper-based additive in the fuel, and also to compare their performance with two cordierite traps designated as EX-47 and EX-80. The collection of the particulate matter inside the trap imposes a backpressure on the engine which requires a periodic oxidation or regeneration of the particulate matter. The presence of copper additive in the fuel reduces the particulate ignition temperature from approximately 500 to 375°C. Two SiC systems were tested during this research. The first system consisted of one 14 L SiC trap, while the second system, the dual trap system (DTS), consisted of two 12 L SiC traps mounted in parallel. The test matrix included two types of regeneration tests, controlled and uncontrolled and three levels of Cu fuel additive (0, 30, and 60 ppm).
Technical Paper

A Study of the Regeneration Process in Diesel Particulate Traps Using a Copper Fuel Additive

The goals of this research are to understand the regeneration process in ceramic (Cordierite) monolith traps using a copper fuel additive and to investigate the various conditions that lead to trap regeneration failure. The copper additive lowers the trap regeneration temperature from approximately 500 °C to 375 °C and decreases the time necessary for regeneration. Because of these characteristics, it is important to understand the effect of the additive on regeneration when excessive particulate matter accumulation occurs in the trap. The effects of particulate mass loading on regeneration temperatures and regeneration time were studied for both the controlled (engine operated at full load rated speed) and uncontrolled (trap regeneration initiated at full load rated speed after which the engine was cut to idle) conditions. The trap peak temperatures were higher for the uncontrolled than the controlled regeneration.
Technical Paper

A Theoretical and Experimental Study of the Regeneration Process in a Silicon Carbide Particulate Trap Using a Copper Fuel Additive

The purpose of this study was to investigate the pressure drop and regeneration characteristics of a silicon carbide (SiC) wall-flow diesel particulate filter. The performance of a 25 μm mean pore size SiC dual trap system (DTS) consisting of two 12 liter traps connected in parallel in conjunction with a copper (Cu) fuel additive was evaluated. A comparison between the 25 μm DTS and a 15 μm DTS was performed, in order to show the effect of trap material mean pore size on trap loading and regeneration behavior. A 1988 Cummins LTA 10-300 diesel engine was used to evaluate the performance of the 15 and 25 μm DTS. A mathematical model was developed to better understand the thermal and catalytic oxidation of the particulate matter. For all the trap steady-state loading tests, the engine was run at EPA mode 11 for 10 hours. Raw exhaust samples were taken upstream and downstream of the trap system in order to determine the DTS filtration efficiency.