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Technical Paper

Collection and Characterization of Particulate and Gaseous-Phase Hydrocarbons in Diesel Exhaust Modified by Ceramic Particulate Traps

1987-02-01
870254
Protocols for sampling and analysis of particulate and gaseous-phase diesel emissions were developed to characterize the chemical and biological effects of using ceramic traps as particulate control devices. A stainless-steel sampler was designed, constructed, and tested with XAD-2 sorbent for the collection of volatile organic compounds (VOC). Raw exhaust levels of TPM and SOF and mutagenicity of the SOF and VOC were all reduced when the traps were used. Hydrocarbon mass balances indicated that some hydrocarbons were not collected by the sampling system and that the proportions of collected SOF and VOC were altered by the use of the traps. SOF hydrocarbons appeared to be derived mainly from engine lubricating oil; VOC hydrocarbons were apparently fuel-derived. There was no apparent effect on SOF mutagenicity due to either sampling time or reexposure of particulate to exhaust gases.
Technical Paper

Friction between Piston and Cylinder of an IC Engine: a Review

2011-04-12
2011-01-1405
Engine friction serves as an important domain for study and research in the field of internal combustion engines. Research shows that friction between the piston and cylinder accounts for almost 20% of the losses in an engine and therefore any effort to minimize friction losses will have an immediate impact on engine efficiency and thus vehicle fuel economy. The two most common methods to experimentally measure engine friction are the floating liner method and the instantaneous indicated mean effective pressure (IMEP) method. This paper provides a detailed review of the IMEP method, presents major findings, and discusses sources of error. Although the instantaneous IMEP method is relatively new compared to the floating liner method, it has been used by many scientists and engineers for calculating piston ring assembly friction with consistent results.
Technical Paper

The Development and Application of Ferrography to the Study of Diesel Engine Wear

1978-02-01
780181
This paper covers the development of Ferrographic oil analysis techniques for the study of diesel engine wear. A brief overview of the various wear analysis techniques now commonly used in laboratory and field engine wear studies is discussed. Also included in this paper is an in depth description of the Ferrographic oil analysis techniques and the various applications of the techniques to the study of engine wear. A comparison of the commonly used wear measurement methods, Ferrography, spectroscopy and the radioactive tracer methods, and their abilities to measure wear is also discussed. A direct injection, 4-cycle, turbocharged diesel engine was used in the testing and data are presented indicating the abilities of the Ferrographic oil analysis techniques to detect changes in wear rates. The effects of operating time on engine oil and the effects of the variation of oil and coolant temperatures on engine wear is presented.
Technical Paper

The Study of the Effect of Exhaust Gas Recirculation on Engine Wear in a Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine Using Analytical Ferrography

1986-03-01
860378
A study was undertaken to investigate the affect of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) on engine wear and lubricating oil degradation in a heavy duty diesel engine using a newly developed methodology that uses analytical ferrography in conjunction with short term tests. Laboratory engine testing was carried out on a Cummins NTC-300 Big Cam II diesel engine at rated speed (1800 RPM) and 75% rated load with EGR rates of 0, 5, and 15% using a SAE 15W40 CD/SF/EO-K oil. Dynamometer engine testing involved collecting oil samples from the engine sump at specified time intervals through each engine test. These oil samples were analyzed using a number of different oil analysis techniques that provide information on the metal wear debris and also on the lubricating oil properties. The results from these oil analysis techniques are the basis of determining the effect of EGR on engine wear and lubricating oil degradation, rather than an actual engine tear down between engine tests.
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