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Technical Paper

A Control Strategy to Reduce Steering Torque for Stationary Vehicles Equipped with EPS

This paper proposes a new Electric Power Steering (EPS) control strategy that enables remarkable progress on steering maneuverability for stationary vehicles. Using a conventional controller, undesirable steering vibration prevented us from reducing steering torque. To eliminate this vibration, we developed a new control strategy based on damping for specified frequency using a motor angular-velocity estimator. We experimented with this proposed control algorithm using a test vehicle and confirmed that it enables reduced steering torque without any perceived vibration for drivers. Concerning the gradient of the assist-map, the proposed control strategy enabled more than three times higher compared with that of the same type vehicles on the market as the test vehicle. This proposed control strategy requires only the torque sensor signal, supply voltage and current to the motor, which are used in the conventional EPS systems, so no supplemental sensors are required.
Technical Paper

A New EPS Control Strategy to Improve Steering Wheel Returnability

This paper proposes a new Electric Power Steering (EPS) control strategy that enables improvement to steering-wheel returnability. Using a conventional EPS controller, frictional loss torque in the steering mechanism reduces steering-wheel returnability, which drivers occasionally perceive as unpleasant. This phenomena occurs in any EPS system regardless of motor type or mounting location. To improve steering-wheel returnability for EPS-equipped vehicles, we developed a new control strategy based on estimation of alignment torque generated by tires and road surfaces. This proposed control strategy requires no supplemental sensors like steering-wheel angle or motor-angle sensors. We experimented with this proposed control algorithm using a test vehicle and confirmed that it enables improved steering wheel returnability and also better on-center feeling.
Technical Paper

A New Electric Current Control Strategy for EPS Motors

This paper presents a new motor current control strategy for Electric Power Steering (EPS) to reduce current fluctuation. Such current fluctuation may cause undesirable steering torque ripple and acoustic noise, if an inexpensive microprocessor is used. Using a DC-motor, current fluctuation associated with change in the battery voltage, etc., may occur. We have developed a new current control strategy which effectively alleviates current fluctuations of the motor without using higher performance microprocessors. The new controller is based on the estimation of disturbance voltage and compensation for this disturbance voltage. We have bench-tested the performance of this control strategy and confirmed that current fluctuation is reduced below that using conventional PI controller. The PI gain for the proposed controller is the same as that for the conventional controller.
Technical Paper

A Robust Cruise Control System Using the Disturbance Observer

A robust cruise control system using a disturbance observer is proposed. A control design method based on the two-degree-of-freedom (2-DOF) control including a disturbance observer is introduced. The proposed controller provides that: (1) input command responses are not affected by driving condition, such as vehicle speed, and road gradient (2) input command response and disturbance suppression performance can be designed independently (3) choice of an appropriate parameter value in the disturbance observer depending on the throttle opening gives a proper trade-off between the robust performance and the robust stability over a wide driving range. Simulation and experimental results show that the proposed system is robust against both parameter variations and disturbances.
Technical Paper

A Study of an Electronically Controlled CVT with Electromagnetic-Clutch for Starting the Vehicle

In this paper, an application of variable structure systems (VSS)(1) to electromagnetic-clutch (EMC) control for starting vehicles is studied. Using a conventional open-loop controller, there is the case that changes in EMC dynamics lead to undesirable vehicle vibration though it may be rare. First, to overcome the above problem, we developed a control strategy based on VSS. The VSS control is robust with respect to changes in EMC dynamics. Second, we discussed the chattering problem of this controller in application to actual vehicle control. Finally, we confirmed the validity of the proposed control strategy and the appropriateness of the conditions for reduced chattering derived by simulation. The validity of this control strategy was also confirmed experimentally.
Technical Paper

A Vehicle State Detection Method Based on Estimated Aligning Torque Using EPS

This paper proposes a vehicle state detection method for improving the stability of vehicles equipped with electric power steering (EPS) and electronic stability control (ESC) systems. ESC is an effective vehicle stability control system that operates within a vehicle's stability limitations. Generally ESC uses a vehicle state signal such as yaw rate. To enhance the ESC function so that it can alleviate understeer, a process that is capable of detecting understeer is required. This concept motivated us to develop a vehicle state detection algorithm based on estimated self-aligning torque using EPS. It is well known that maximum self-aligning torque occurs before maximum cornering force is reached. We have confirmed that the proposed algorithm can detect understeer earlier than conventional means based on vehicle yaw rate.
Technical Paper

Active Control for Body Vibration of F.W.D. Car

A Vehicle Vibration Control System by Active Control has been developed. The experimental results using a 4-cylinder gasoline engine installed in a car showed that at the position of the driver's seat, the acceleration of the vibration was reduced by 16 dB. This system operates stably and at low cost because of having a feedforward system, so many applications can be expected in the near future as methods for vehicle vibration reduction.
Technical Paper

An EPS Control Strategy to Improve Steering Maneuverability on Slippery Roads

This paper proposes a new Electric Power Steering (EPS) control strategy that improves steering maneuverability especially on slippery roads. In a conventional steering system (including mechanical and hydraulic ones), poor steering wheel returnability associated with reduced alignment torque from the road may lead to awkward handling on slippery roads. In experiments with a test driver, we found that this phenomenon occurs because of the delay in the driver turning the steering wheel to avoid spinning the vehicle. This delay comes from a lower steering wheel returnability than driver expected. Increasing the steering wheel returnability will be effective in avoiding this problem. This can be realized by using the steering angle feedback or the estimated alignment torque feedback. However, the simple feedback of such values will provide drivers with poor road information when the road is slippery.
Technical Paper

An Online Estimation Method of Stability Factor of a Vehicle for Steering

In this paper, we suggest a novel algorithm to distinguish semi-steady states from various steering patterns and to estimate the stability factor. The algorithm also estimates each stability factor in left and right turns because there could be a case where they differ based on uneven tire wear and so on. The stability factor, which is the turning characteristic of a vehicle, has been treated as constant for most vehicle control systems. However, in fact, it may change in some situations, for example when a vehicle is overloaded. So there is a chance that a driver may be aware of an unusual sensation when vehicle control is designed based on a constant stability factor. We have succeeded in developing an algorithm to estimate the stability factor accurately enough to be able to compensate for it and have confirmed the effectiveness of the algorithm by simulation and vehicle testing as well.
Technical Paper

Automotive Mini Disc Changer Mechanism

A new automotive Mini Disc (MD) changer mechanism has been developed which fits a 1 DIN size chassis. This mechanism, mainly consisting of a disc change mechanism and an anti-vibration mechanism employing a floating disc drive unit system, offers a high vibration resistance, quick disc change capability and a size small enough to set a unit in an instrumental panel (I/P).
Technical Paper

Development of Autonomous Driving System Using GNSS and High Definition Map

Recently, development of vehicle control system targeting Full Driving Automation (autonomous driving level 5) has advanced. Some applications of autonomous driving systems like the Lane Keeping Assist system (LKA) and Auto Lane Change system (ALC) (autonomous driving level 1-3) have been put on the market. However, the conventional system using information from front camera, it is difficult to operate in some situations. For example the road that no line, large curvature and number of lane increases or decreases. We propose an autonomous driving system using high accuracy vehicle position estimation technology and a high definition map. An LKA system calculates the target steering wheel angle based on both vehicle position information from the Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) and the target lane of high the definition map, according to the method of front gaze driver model. Then, the system controls steering the wheel angle by Electric Power Steering (EPS).
Technical Paper

Development of Lane Keeping Assist System Using Lateral-Position-Error Control at Forward Gaze Point

Mitsubishi Electric has been developing a lane keeping assist system (LKAS). This system consists of our products such as an electric power steering (EPS), a camera, and an electronic control unit (ECU) for ADAS. In this system, the camera detects a lane marker, the ECU estimates reference path and vehicle position, and calculates reference steering wheel angle, and the EPS controls a steering wheel angle based on reference steering wheel angle. In this paper, we explain the calculation method of reference steering wheel angle for path tracking control. We derive a formula of reference steering wheel angle calculation that converges lateral position deviation in desired time by using lateral position deviation change rate control on forward gaze point as path tracking control algorithm. Since the formula is obtained from the vehicle model, we can easily design a controller depending on the vehicle type, by using known vehicle specifications.
Technical Paper

Development of Recognition System for ICC using Sensitive Laser Radar

In JAPAN some ICCs (Intelligent Cruise Control systems) with recognition systems using Laser Radar have been produced since 1995. However these recognition systems have some improvement challenges; 1) Improvement of detectability for less reflective objects, 2) Improvement of identification performance of a vehicle to be tracked in the same lane (a target vehicle), 3) Improvement of detection performance under bad weather condition. We are developing a New Recognition System using sensitive Laser Radar with APD (Avalanche Photo Diode) as a solution for these challenges. In this paper, we will describe our experimental system using sensitive Laser Radar, especially, algorithm for target vehicle recognition and its performance.
Technical Paper

Development of a Scan Laser Radar

This paper is concerned with a scan laser radar sensor used to measure distance. It s a basic component of a vehicle distance warning system or an intelligent cruise control system. An intelligent cruise control system requires not only the distance to the object, but also the ability to detect movement of the preceding vehicle and the existence of any other nearby obstacle. However conventional radar sensor mainly fixed beam technology and measure only distance. Therefore, it s insufficient for the application to an intelligent cruise control system. Our newly developed scan laser radar transmits an extreme narrow beam and scans both transmission direction and reception direction simultaneously at a high measurement time rate. This scan laser radar can measure the lateral position of objects with high accuracy and good reconstruction level.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of EPS Control Strategy Using Driving Simulator for EPS

We have developed a driving simulator for Electric Power Steering (EPS), which can be used to evaluate steering maneuverability on low μ roads. The simulator calculates an 11 DOF (degrees of freedom) vehicle motion based on the steering wheel angle, the accelerator pedal position and the brake pedal position which are operated by the driver. A reaction torque corresponding to the alignment torque is applied to the steering shaft using motors. A 3D CG reproducing the view from the cockpit is displayed on a forward screen. The simulator also includes column type EPS, which generates the assist torque. Consequently, the driver feels the steering torque with good reality. The tire model we used is non-linear and it enables us to simulate the vehicle dynamics also on slippery roads. We compared driver behavior in vehicle and simulator tests and found the simulator could evaluate the relationship between steering maneuverability and EPS control strategy even when the road was slippery.
Technical Paper

FMCW Automotive Radars Using Only In-Phase Channel

This paper describes a compact radar for automotive applications. A Frequency Modulated Continuous Wave (FMCW) radar is employed here with only in-phase channel. Since this radar cannot detect a sign of beat frequency of receiving signals, we have the ambiguity about the range and the velocity of targets. In this paper, we propose a novel FMCW automotive radar to suppress this ambiguity.
Technical Paper

Fuel Breakup Near Nozzle Exit of High-Pressure Swirl Injector for Gasoline Direct Injection Engine

Experimental investigations of fuel breakup very close to nozzle of practical high-pressure swirl injector, which is used in gasoline direct injection (GDI) engine, were carried out. In GDI engines, fuel is directly injected into cylinder therefore the spray characteristics and mixture formation are of primary importance. In this research, visualizations of primary spray formation process were demonstrated using a high-speed video camera (maximum speed: 1Mfps) with a long-distance microscope. Initial state and development of the spray were discussed under the different injection pressure condition. During the injection period, the length and thickness of the liquid sheet, which is produced from the nozzle exit, were measured using Ar-ion laser sheet and high-speed camera. Primary spray structure and behavior of liquid sheet, especially surface wave of liquid sheet, at nozzle exit were discussed using obtained images.
Technical Paper

Fuel Injection Control Systems that Improve Three Way Catalyst Conversion Efficiency

A fuel control method to reduce the harmful exhaust gas from SI engines is proposed. As is well known, both the amplitude and the frequency of the limit cycle in a conventional air-fuel ratio control system are determined uniquely by parameters in the system. And this limits our making full use of the oxygen storage effect of TWC. A simple model of TWC reaction revealed the relationship between maximum conversion efficiency and both the amplitude and the frequency in a air fuel control system. It also revealed that TWC conversion efficiency attained to maximum levels when both the amplitude and the frequency of the limit cycle are selected so as to make full use of the oxygen storage effect of TWC. In order to achieve this, it is necessary to vary both the amplitude and the frequency arbitrarily.
Technical Paper

GMR Revolution Sensors for Automobiles

We have developed a new series of revolution sensors using Giant Magnetoresistive (GMR) elements. We call these GMR revolution sensors. In automotive applications, revolution sensors have traditionally utilized Hall effect and anisotropic magnetoresistive (AMR) elements. Recently, more sensitive revolution sensors are necessary for improved control of engines, braking systems and automatic transmissions. Since GMR elements have one order higher MR ratio than AMR elements, GMR revolution sensors are much more sensitive. Furthermore, GMR elements have been integrated with circuits on Si substrates. This integration simplify the assembly process and increases the reliability of the GMR revolution sensors. This paper discusses the superiority of GMR sensing elements over Hall and AMR elements. This paper also reports the characteristic results of the GMR sensor.
Technical Paper

Gradationally Controlled Voltage Inverter for More Electric Aircrafts

The more electric aircraft (MEA) concept has been attracting attention over recent decades to reduce emissions and fuel consumption. In MEAs, many subsystems that previously used hydraulic or pneumatic power have been replaced by electrical systems, and hence the weight of inverters has significant importance. The weight of inverters is largely attributed to passive filters that reduce the derivative of output voltages dv/dt and electromagnetic interference noises caused by common-mode voltages. To reduce the size of passive filters, multilevel inverters with 5 or more voltage steps are preferred. However, classic multilevel inverters have some challenges to achieve these step numbers without using plural dc power supplies that require massive transformers. In this work, a gradationally controlled voltage (GCV) inverter is proposed for MEAs.