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Technical Paper

A Diesel Oxidation Catalyst for Exhaust Emissions Reduction

The authors used a mass spectrometer to determine an SOF reduction mechanism of a diesel oxidation catalyst. The results indicate that SOF reduction lies in the catalytic conversion of high molecular organic matter to low molecular organic matter. And unregulated emissions are also reduced through this conversion. It is also found that the SOF reduction performance is highly dependent up on the condition of the wash coat. There is some limitation to improving diesel oxidation catalyst performance because of the sulfur content found in diesel fuel. Finally, the authors have determined what we think are the specifications of the presently best catalytic converter.
Technical Paper

A Keynote on Future Combustion Engines

A characteristic mechanism of in-cylinder combustion is “time-domain mixing” which mixes up unburned gas, products in the different stages of combustion process, and burned gas, by “eddy”, a flow component with its scales of several to 10 mm. It seems to play a role in completing the combustion. Now that direct injection is a central engine technology, a keyword to combustion control is “freedom of mixing”, that is, no restriction on mixture formation, realized by direct injection. Various kinds of combustion control technologies utilizing it, have been presented. After combustion control for a premixed leanburn gasoline engine, and a direct injection gasoline engine, was achieved by turbulence control, and mixing control, respectively, the next target of combustion control will be ignition control. It will be possible, by controlling some boundary condition on combustion and fuel chemistry. Time-domain mixing and freedom of mixing will support it.
Technical Paper

A Method of Predicting Dent Resistance of Automobile Body Panels

Optimizing the design of automobile outer panels for weight reductions requires a consideration of stiffness and dent resistance. This paper presents a finite element analysis method for predicting the dent resistance of automobile body panels. The method is based on elastoplasticity analysis and nonlinear contact analysis. The analysis shows that dent resistance is greatly influenced not only by the stress-strain curve of the formed panel but also by the residual stress in the panel. An increase in yield stress improves dent resistance. The computed results obtained with this method compare favorably with experimental data, thereby validating this approach.
Technical Paper

A New Approach to Vehicle Interior Control

In order to meet increasing demands for safety and comfort in a vehicle compartment, automatic adjustment of seat, mirrors, steering wheel has been developed. The multiplex wiring system was constructed for the automatic adjustment of the cockpit elements to drivers preferred positions or to physique-matched settings based on ergonomic data. This paper describes the construction of the multiplex system and functions of automatic adjustment of the cockpit elements for comfortable driving position and better visibility.
Technical Paper

A New Hydraulic Coupling Unit (HCU) for 4WD Vehicles

This year (1989) Mitsubishi Motors Corp. introduced, on some models, a newly-developed Hydraulic Coupling Uint (HCU), by which 2WD vehicles can be converted into 4WD ones in the same way as done by a viscous coupling (VC). This HCU is similar in the configuration to a vane pump: the oil discharge is returned to the suction chamber through a number of orifices. The rotor and cam ring (housing) are respectively connected to the two shafts; either of the one with the front wheels and the other with the rear wheels. Accordingly, it works as a slip-sensitive differential like a VC while it has a merit of progressive and parabolic torque-response characteristic, which offers stronger traction and acceleration capability and also minimizes tight-corner braking. This paper discusses primarily the configurations, functions and test results of the HCU and also presents an overview on further development possibilities of the 4WD system.
Technical Paper

A New Method for Analyzing Idle Shake on Front Wheel Drive Cars

A new method for analyzing idle shake is discussed. A primary design technique of engine mount systems and vehicle bodies in the early development stage is proposed. In general, specifications for the engine mount system, which is composed of several insulator rubbers, are determined by certain criteria of transmissibilities of engine excitation forces to the rigid foundation. However, when the transmitted forces are applied to a flexible body, the resultant response of the body depends not only on the transmissibilities of the isolation system, but on vibratory characteristics of the flexible body. Therefore, the body needs to be taken into account for antivibration design as well as the engine mount system. Besides, the engine mount and the body cannot be evaluated by simple criteria due to the several insulator rubbers which feature many transmissibilities and transfer functions.
Technical Paper

A New Oxygen Storage Componented Oxygen Sensor for the Emission Reductions of the Three-Way Catalyst System

A new prototype oxygen storage componented oxygen sensor has been developed which shows significant emission reductions of a 3-way catalyst system. This sensor is composed of ceria, as an oxygen storage component and supported pellets as a buffer layer surrounding the protective coating of the sensor element. This sensor offers a more rapid response than conventional ones under lean and rich fuel mixture excursions, which is caused by CO or O2 electrode poisoning.
Technical Paper

A Particulate Trap System Using Electric Heating Regeneration for Small Trucks

A trap system has been developed that collects particulate using two small filters and regenerates alternately by electric heaters. This system contains a new idea in detection of the amount of particulate accumulation in the filters. The system counts the amount using a particulate accumulation rate map which is a function of the engine load and speed. In vehicle test with this trap system, the particulate collection efficiency and the regeneration efficiency were proved to be high enough for practical use. The test results also showed that the shutdown performance of the route switch valve greatly influenced the regeneration efficiency.
Technical Paper

A Study of Friction Reduction by ‘Soft Skirt’ Piston

To reduce friction is required to improve engine fuel economy. This study aimed to reduce piston skirt friction, which is a major factor in engine friction. ‘Soft skirt’ is a trendy item in recent gasoline engines, which can improve skirt sliding condition by larger deformation when the piston is pressed to the liner. The effect is confirmed by friction measurement and oil film observation, using prototype pistons. And also one major factor of the effect is clarified that not only side force but also cylinder pressure causes effective deformation of the skirt to create thick oil film at early combustion stroke.
Technical Paper

A Study of Low-Noise Crankcase Structure for Light Commercial Vehicle

To reduce diesel engine noise that is induced mainly by main bearing impact forces, two types of low noise concepts of basic crankcase structures were studied. One is the “Isolated Skirt Type”, which has the feature to suppress vibrations of engine surface by separating the crankcase skirt from the main bearing caps. The other is the “Bed Plate Type”, which embodies the feature to suppress vibrations by stiffening the lower part of crankcase by adopting a bed plate design. Dynamic characteristics of both prototypes were investigated by means of experimental modal testings such as double pulse laser holography system and impulsive hydraulic excitation test rig which simulates the exciting force of combustion gas pressure in cylinder. As the result of many experimental tests, it was concluded that the “Bed Plate Type” was advantageous over the “Isolated Skirt Type” in terms of engine noise reduction.
Technical Paper

A Study of the Durability of Diesel Oxidation Catalysts

Diesel emission control is being addressed worldwide to help preserve the global environment. In 1994, emission controls in the U.S. called for reduction of diesel particulate matter (PM) to 10 to 20% of 1986's initial limit. In the same year, we developed and marketed small and medium duty trucks which were equipped with PM reduction systems that oxidize soluble organic fraction (SOF) contained in the PM, in order to satisfy these new regulations. Prior to their marketing, a catalyst was selected from among several types of candidate catalysts. Durability tests were performed using a catalytic converter-equipped small duty truck to verify the durability of the chosen catalyst. The durability test course was set up combining urban areas and expressways in the southern part of California, U.S.A.. The cumulative total distance covered on the test course reached 200,000 km. During the durability test, the catalyst was evaluated by measurement of PM emission using a chassis dynamometer.
Technical Paper

A Study on Adaptive Automatic Transmission Control

Various parameters for the shift scheduling of an automatic transmission were examined to detect more accurate road conditions, vehicle running conditions, and the driver's intention. The parameters include the vehicle speed, the gradient of a road, an index to curves in the road, and so on. The fuzzy logic was employed to incorporate these parameters into the shift scheduling control. The vehicle running tests have shown that the use of many parameters and the fuzzy logic was effective on reducing the frequencies of the transmission gear shift and the driver's brake operation in such road conditions as usually seen in mountainous areas
Technical Paper

A Study on Evaluation Method and Improvement of Shift Quality of Automatic Transmission

It has been over a half century since automatic transmission vehicles were introduced to the market, and many improvements in terms of reliability, performance, and cost have since been made. As a result, over 70 percent of passenger cars in the Japanese market today are equipped with automatic transmissions. Despite these advances, customer demand for quieter operation and reduced vibration in automatic transmission vehicles requires further improvements, particularly in the area of reduced shock and smooth response during shifting. Technological improvements have been in progress to solve this problem by such means as reducing engine output during shifting, adapting feedback control and learning shift control. Consequently, an advanced evaluation method for shift quality, with accuracy matching that of human feeling, is required to help improving the shift quality of automatic transmissions.
Technical Paper

A Study on a Simulation of a Head Form Impact Against Plastic Plates

A Finite Element Method (FEM) simulation was conducted to predict energy-absorbing characteristics in an impact of a head form against plastic plates. Static and dynamic material tests were conducted in order to determine material properties of the plastics. The properties were applied in an explicit FEM code. The FEM results were validated through the impact tests by the head form against the same plastic plates. It was proved that the FEM could simulate the test result well, when the precise material properties were introduced in the simulation. The method can be expected to be available to predict energy-absorbing characteristics during the impact by the head form against automobile plastic components such as shell portions of instrument panels.
Technical Paper

A Study on the Effects of the Active Yaw Moment Control

This paper presents a new torque distribution system-“Right/Left Torque Control System”, aimed at improving a vehicle's cornering properties by using yaw moment control. The torque transfer mechanisms of this system have been analyzed. Also, a yaw moment control algorithm using yaw rate feedback control has been designed. Next, vehicle cornering properties were evaluated using numerical simulation developed from data taken from an actual vehicle. As a result, improvements were achieved in the maneuverability and stability of a vehicle during cornering.
Technical Paper

ATF Characteristics Required for the Latest Automatic Transmissions

This paper examines the anti-shudder property of automatic transmission fluid (ATF) in terms of evaluation criteria and durability. The anti-shudder property is required for precise slip control around the clutch in that kind of automatic transmission, applications which are currently increasing. To evaluate anti-shudder properties, friction characteristics are measured by modified Low Velocity Friction Apparatus (LVFA), and the data are compared with those from the actual vehicle. The analysis confirms that the occurrence of shudder on the vehicle is closely related to the ratio of the static friction coefficient to the dynamic one measured by modified LVFA.
Technical Paper

Accuracy of A/F Calculation from Exhaust Gas Composition of SI Engines

The accuracy of real-time A/F measurement at engine test benches has been improved with a modified equation to calculate A/F from exhaust gas composition. In addition to CO, CO2, total hydrocarbon (THC) and O2, the proposed equation includes NO and NO2 concentration as variables. In an attempt to improve the accuracy of the assumed constants in the equation, experiments have been conducted using automotive exhaust H2O and H2 analyzers. The accuracy of the proposed equation was proven through experiments and it was also found useful for precise evaluation of three-way catalyst or oxygen sensor characteristics.
Technical Paper

Acoustic Analysis of Truck Cab

This paper presents the results of acoustic analyses of light duty truck cabs by actual vehicle testing and by numerical analysis utilizing the boundary element method (BEM). In the resonance mode analysis using BEM, by taking into account the vibration characteristics of cab panels, the presence of the modes other than the purely acoustic cavity resonance modes were confirmed. The contribution of the panel vibrations to booming noise that occurs in actual light duty trucks was analyzed. BEM analysis showed that some of the panel vibration had a negative contribution to booming noise. In other words, decreasing vibration in such a section was shown to increase sound pressure. The results of the BEM analysis match well with actual test results. It has thus been demonstrated that BEM is an effective method for analyzing truck interior noise reduction.
Technical Paper

Active Control for Body Vibration of F.W.D. Car

A Vehicle Vibration Control System by Active Control has been developed. The experimental results using a 4-cylinder gasoline engine installed in a car showed that at the position of the driver's seat, the acceleration of the vibration was reduced by 16 dB. This system operates stably and at low cost because of having a feedforward system, so many applications can be expected in the near future as methods for vehicle vibration reduction.