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Technical Paper

A Reevaluation of Appendix C Ice Roughness Using Laser Scanning

2015-06-15
2015-01-2098
Many studies have been performed to quantify the formation and evolution of roughness on ice shapes created in Appendix C icing conditions, which exhibits supercooled liquid droplets ranging from 1-50 µm. For example Anderson and Shin (1997), Anderson et al. (1998), and Shin (1994) represent early studies of ice roughness during short-duration icing events measured in the Icing Research Tunnel at the NASA Glenn Research Center. In the historical literature, image analysis techniques were employed to characterize the roughness. Using multiple images of the roughness elements, these studies of roughness focused on extracting parametric representations of ice roughness elements. While the image analysis approach enabled many insights into icing physics, recent improvements in laser scanning approaches have revolutionized the process of ice accretion shape characterization.
Technical Paper

Aerodynamic Effects of Simulated Ice Accretion on a Generic Transport Model

2011-06-13
2011-38-0065
An experimental research effort was begun to develop a database of airplane aerodynamic characteristics with simulated ice accretion over a large range of incidence and sideslip angles. Wind-tunnel testing was performed at the NASA Langley 12-ft Low-Speed Wind Tunnel using a 3.5% scale model of the NASA Langley Generic Transport Model. Aerodynamic data were acquired from a six-component force and moment balance in static-model sweeps from α = -5 to 85 deg. and β = -45 to 45 deg. at a Reynolds number of 0.24x10⁶ and Mach number of 0.06. The 3.5% scale GTM was tested in both the clean configuration and with full-span artificial ice shapes attached to the leading edges of the wing, horizontal and vertical tail. Aerodynamic results for the clean airplane configuration compared favorably with similar experiments carried out on a 5.5% scale GTM.
Technical Paper

An Aerodynamic Simulation Process for Iced Lifting Surfaces and Associated Issues

2003-06-16
2003-01-2135
This paper discusses technologies and software tools that are being implemented in a software toolkit currently under development at NASA Glenn Research Center. Its purpose is to help study the effects of icing on airfoil performance and assist with the aerodynamic simulation process which consists of characterization and modeling of ice geometry, application of block topology and grid generation, and flow simulation. Tools and technologies for each task have been carefully chosen based on their contribution to the overall process. For the geometry characterization and modeling, we have chosen an interactive rather than automatic process in order to handle numerous ice shapes. An Appendix presents features of a software toolkit developed to support the interactive process. Approaches taken for the generation of block topology and grids, and flow simulation, though not yet implemented in the software, are discussed with reasons for why particular methods are chosen.
Technical Paper

An Experimental Investigation of SLD Impingement on Airfoils and Simulated Ice Shapes

2003-06-16
2003-01-2129
This paper presents experimental methods for investigating large droplet impingement dynamics and for obtaining small and large water droplet impingement data. Droplet impingement visualization experiments conducted in the Goodrich Icing Wind Tunnel with a 21-in chord NACA 0012 airfoil demonstrated considerable droplet splashing during impingement. The tests were performed for speeds in the range 50 to 175 mph and with cloud median volumetric diameters in the range of 11 to 270 microns. Extensive large droplet impingement tests were conducted at the NASA Glenn Icing Research Tunnel (IRT). Impingement data were obtained for a range of airfoil sections including three 36-inch chord airfoils (MS(1)-0317, GLC-305, and NACA 652-415), a 57-inch chord Twin Otter horizontal tail section and 22.5-minute and 45-minute LEWICE glaze ice shapes for the Twin Otter tail section. Small droplet impingement tests were also conducted for selected test models.
Technical Paper

An Overview of NASA Engine Ice-Crystal Icing Research

2011-06-13
2011-38-0017
Ice accretions that have formed inside gas turbine engines as a result of flight in clouds of high concentrations of ice crystals in the atmosphere have recently been identified as an aviation safety hazard. NASA's Aviation Safety Program (AvSP) has made plans to conduct research in this area to address the hazard. This paper gives an overview of NASA's engine ice-crystal icing research project plans. Included are the rationale, approach, and details of various aspects of NASA's research.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Experimental Ice Accretion Data and Assessment of a Thermodynamic Model during Ice Crystal Icing

2019-06-10
2019-01-2016
This paper analyzes ice crystal icing accretion data and evaluates a thermodynamic ice crystal icing model, which has been previously presented, to describe the possible mechanisms of icing within the core of a turbofan jet engine. The model functions between two distinct ice accretions based on a surface energy balance: freeze-dominated icing and melt-dominated icing. Freeze-dominated icing occurs when liquid water (from melted ice crystals) freezes and accretes on a surface along with the existing ice of the impinging water and ice mass. This freeze-dominated icing is characterized as having strong adhesion to the surface. The amount of ice accretion is partially dictated by a freeze fraction, which is the fraction of impinging liquid water that freezes. Melt-dominated icing occurs as unmelted ice on a surface accumulates. This melt-dominated icing is characterized by weakly bonded surface adhesion.
Technical Paper

Collection Efficiency and Ice Accretion Characteristics of Two Full Scale And One 1/4 Scale Business Jet Horizontal Tails

2000-05-09
2000-01-1683
Collection efficiency and ice accretion calculations have been made for a series of business jet horizontal tail configurations using a three-dimensional panel code, an adaptive grid code, and the NASA Glenn LEWICE3D grid based ice accretion code. The horizontal tail models included two full scale wing tips and a 25% scale model. Flow solutions for the horizontal tails were generated using the PMARC panel code. Grids used in the ice accretion calculations were generated using the adaptive grid code ICEGRID. The LEWICE3D grid based ice accretion program was used to calculate impingement efficiency and ice shapes. Ice shapes typifying rime and mixed icing conditions were generated for a 30 minute hold condition. All calculations were performed on an SGI Octane computer. The results have been compared to experimental flow and impingement data.
Technical Paper

Detection of Smoke from Microgravity Fires

2005-07-11
2005-01-2930
The history and current status of spacecraft smoke detection is discussed including a review of the state of understanding of the effect of gravity on the resultant smoke particle size. The results from a spacecraft experiment (Comparative Soot Diagnostics (CSD)) which measured microgravity smoke particle sizes are presented. Five different materials were tested producing smokes with different properties including solid aerosol smokes and liquid droplets aerosol smokes. The particulate size distribution for the solid particulate smokes increased substantially in microgravity and the results suggested a corresponding increase for the smokes consisting of a liquid aerosol. A planned follow on experiment that will resolve the issues raised by CSD is presented. Early results from this effort have provided the first measurements of the ambient aerosol environment on the ISS (International Space Station) and suggest that the ISS has very low ambient particle levels.
Journal Article

Developing Abrasion Test Standards for Evaluating Lunar Construction Materials

2009-07-12
2009-01-2377
Operational issues encountered by Apollo astronauts relating to lunar dust were catalogued, including material abrasion that resulted in scratches and wear on spacesuit components, ultimately impacting visibility, joint mobility and pressure retention. Standard methods are being developed to measure abrasive wear on candidate construction materials to be used for spacesuits, spacecraft, and robotics. Calibration tests were conducted using a standard diamond stylus scratch tip on the common spacecraft structure aluminum, Al 6061-T6. Custom tips were fabricated from terrestrial counterparts of lunar minerals for scratching Al 6061-T6 and comparing to standard diamond scratches. Considerations are offered for how to apply standards when selecting materials and developing dust mitigation strategies for lunar architecture elements.
Technical Paper

Development of Icing Condition Remote Sensing Systems and their Implications for Future Flight Operations

2003-06-16
2003-01-2096
NASA and the FAA are funding the development of ground-based remote sensing systems specifically designed to detect and quantify the icing environment aloft. The goal of the NASA activity is to develop a relatively low cost stand-alone system that can provide practical icing information to the flight community. The goal of the FAA activity is to develop more advanced systems that can identify supercooled large drop (SLD) as well as general icing conditions and be integrated into the existing weather information infrastructure. Both activities utilize combinations of sensing technologies including radar, radiometry, and lidar, along with Internet-available external information such as numerical weather model output where it is found to be useful. In all cases the measured data of environment parameters will need to be converted into a measure of icing hazard before it will be of value to the flying community.
Journal Article

Experimental Aerodynamic Simulation of a Scallop Ice Accretion on a Swept Wing

2019-06-10
2019-01-1984
Understanding the aerodynamic impact of swept-wing ice accretions is a crucial component of the design of modern aircraft. Computer-simulation tools are commonly used to approximate ice shapes, so the necessary level of detail or fidelity of those simulated ice shapes must be understood relative to high-fidelity representations of the ice. Previous tests were performed in the NASA Icing Research Tunnel to acquire high-fidelity ice shapes. From this database, full-span artificial ice shapes were designed and manufactured for both an 8.9%-scale and 13.3%-scale semispan wing model of the CRM65 which has been established as the full-scale baseline for this swept-wing project. These models were tested in the Walter H. Beech wind tunnel at Wichita State University and at the ONERA F1 facility, respectively. The data collected in the Wichita St.
Technical Paper

Flying Qualities Evaluation of a Commuter Aircraft with an Ice Contaminated Tailplane

2000-05-09
2000-01-1676
During the NASA/FAA Tailplane Icing Program, pilot evaluations of aircraft flying qualities were conducted with various ice shapes attached to the horizontal tailplane of the NASA Twin Otter Icing Research Aircraft. Initially, only NASA pilots conducted these evaluations, assessing the differences in longitudinal flight characteristics between the baseline or clean aircraft, and the aircraft configured with an Ice Contaminated Tailplane (ICT). Longitudinal tests included Constant Airspeed Flap Transitions, Constant Airspeed Thrust Transitions, zero-G Pushovers, Repeat Elevator Doublets, and, Simulated Approach and Go-Around tasks. Later in the program, guest pilots from government and industry were invited to fly the NASAT win Otter configured with a single full-span artificial ice shape attached to the leading edge of the horizontal tailplane.
Technical Paper

Ground-Based and Airborne Remote Sensing of Inflight Aircraft Icing Conditions

2000-04-11
2000-01-2112
NASA, the FAA, DoD, and NOAA have teamed with industry and academia to develop a capability to detect icing conditions ahead of aircraft using onboard or ground-based remote sensing systems. The goal of the program is to provide pilots with sufficient information to allow avoidance of icing. Information displayed to the pilot, as a measure of icing potential, will be useful in assessing the risk of entering the sensed conditions. This requires measurement and mapping of cloud microphysical parameters, especially cloud and precipitation liquid water content, droplet size and temperature, with range. Remote measurement of cloud microphysical conditions has been studied for years. However, this is the largest focused program devoted to remotely detect aircraft icing conditions. Primary funding sources are NASA Aerospace Operations Systems, the FAA Aviation Weather Research Program and William J.
Technical Paper

Ice Accretions on a Swept GLC-305 Airfoil

2002-04-16
2002-01-1519
An experiment was conducted in the Icing Research Tunnel (IRT) at NASA Glenn Research Center to obtain castings of ice accretions formed on a 28° swept GLC-305 airfoil that is representative of a modern business aircraft wing. Because of the complexity of the casting process, the airfoil was designed with three removable leading edges covering the whole span. Ice accretions were obtained at six icing conditions. After the ice was accreted, the leading edges were detached from the airfoil and moved to a cold room. Molds of the ice accretions were obtained, and from them, urethane castings were fabricated. This experiment is the icing test of a two-part experiment to study the aerodynamic effects of ice accretions.
Journal Article

Ice Crystal Icing Engine Testing in the NASA Glenn Research Center's Propulsion Systems Laboratory: Altitude Investigation

2015-06-15
2015-01-2156
The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) conducted a full scale ice crystal icing turbofan engine test using an obsolete Allied Signal ALF502-R5 engine in the Propulsion Systems Laboratory (PSL) at NASA Glenn Research Center. The test article used was the exact engine that experienced a loss of power event after the ingestion of ice crystals while operating at high altitude during a 1997 Honeywell flight test campaign investigating the turbofan engine ice crystal icing phenomena. The test plan included test points conducted at the known flight test campaign field event pressure altitude and at various pressure altitudes ranging from low to high throughout the engine operating envelope. The test article experienced a loss of power event at each of the altitudes tested.
Technical Paper

Iced Aircraft Flight Data for Flight Simulator Validation

2002-04-16
2002-01-1528
NASA is developing and validating technology to incorporate aircraft icing effects into a flight training device concept demonstrator. Flight simulation models of a DHC-6 Twin Otter were developed from wind tunnel data using a subscale, complete aircraft model with and without simulated ice, and from previously acquired flight data. The validation of the simulation models required additional aircraft response time histories of the airplane configured with simulated ice similar to the subscale model testing. Therefore, a flight test was conducted using the NASA Twin Otter Icing Research Aircraft. Over 500 maneuvers of various types were conducted in this flight test. The validation data consisted of aircraft state parameters, pilot inputs, propulsion, weight, center of gravity, and moments of inertia with the airplane configured with different amounts of simulated ice.
Technical Paper

In-flight Icing Hazard Verification with NASA's Icing Remote Sensing System for Development of a NEXRAD Icing Hazard Level Algorithm

2011-06-13
2011-38-0030
From November 2010 until May of 2011, NASA's Icing Remote Sensing System was positioned at Platteville, Colorado between the National Science Foundation's S-Pol radar and Colorado State University's CHILL radar (collectively known as FRONT, or ‘Front Range Observational Network Testbed’). This location was also underneath the flight-path of aircraft arriving and departing from Denver's International Airport, which allowed for comparison to pilot reports of in-flight icing. This work outlines how the NASA Icing Remote Sensing System's derived liquid water content and in-flight icing hazard profiles can be used to provide in-flight icing verification and validation during icing and non-icing scenarios with the purpose of comparing these times to profiles of polarized moment data from the two nearby research radars.
Journal Article

Influence of Freestream Temperature on Ice Accretion Roughness

2019-06-10
2019-01-1993
The influence of freestream static temperature on roughness temporal evolution and spatial variation was investigated in the Icing Research Tunnel (IRT) at NASA Glenn Research Center. A 53.34 cm (21-in.) NACA 0012 airfoil model and a 152.4 cm (60-in.) HAARP-II business jet airfoil model were exposed to Appendix C clouds for fixed exposure times and thus fixed ice accumulation parameter. For the base conditions, the static temperature was varied to produce different stagnation point freezing fractions. The resulting ice shapes were then scanned using a ROMER Absolute Arm system and analyzed using the self-organizing map approach of McClain and Kreeger. The ice accretion prediction program LEWICE was further used to aid in interrogations of the ice accretion point clouds by using the predicted surface variations of local collection efficiency.
Technical Paper

Measurement of Trace Water Vapor in a Carbon Dioxide Removal Assembly Product Stream

2004-07-19
2004-01-2444
The International Space Station Carbon Dioxide Removal Assembly (CDRA) uses regenerable adsorption technology to remove carbon dioxide (CO2) from cabin air. CO2 product water vapor measurements from a CDRA test bed unit at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center were made using a tunable infrared diode laser differential absorption spectrometer (TILDAS) provided by NASA Glenn Research Center. The TILDAS instrument exceeded all the test specifications, including sensitivity, dynamic range, time response, and unattended operation. During the CO2 desorption phase, water vapor concentrations as low as 5 ppmv were observed near the peak of CO2 evolution, rising to levels of ∼40 ppmv at the end of a cycle. Periods of high water concentration (>100 ppmv) were detected and shown to be caused by an experimental artifact.
Technical Paper

NASA's In-Flight Education and Training Aids for Pilots and Operators

2003-06-16
2003-01-2142
To support NASA's goal to improve aviation safety, the Aircraft Icing Project of the Aviation Safety Program has developed a number of education and training aids for pilots and operators on the hazards of atmospheric icing. A review of aircraft incident and accident investigations has revealed that flight crews have not always understood the effects of ice contamination on their aircraft. To increase this awareness, NASA has partnered with regulatory agencies and pilot trade organizations to assure relevant and practical materials that are focused toward the intended pilot audience. A number of new instructional design approaches and media delivery methods have been introduced to increase the effectiveness of the training materials by enhancing the learning experience, expanding user interactivity and participation, and, hopefully, increasing learner retention rates.
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