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Technical Paper

A Proposed Byzantine Fault-Tolerant Voting Architecture using Time-Triggered Ethernet

2017-09-19
2017-01-2111
Over the last couple decades, there has been a growing interest in incorporating commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) technologies and open standards in the design of human-rated spacecraft. This approach is intended to reduce development and upgrade costs, lower the need for new design work, eliminate reliance on individual suppliers, and minimize schedule risk. However, it has not traditionally been possible for COTS solutions to meet the high reliability and fault tolerance requirements of systems implementing critical spacecraft functions. Byzantine faults are considered particularly dangerous to such systems because of their ability to escape traditional means of fault containment and disrupt consensus between system components. In this paper, we discuss the design of a voting protocol using Time-Triggered Ethernet capable of achieving data integrity in the presence of a single Byzantine fault.
Technical Paper

A Study to Explore Locomotion Patterns in Partial Gravity Environments

1992-07-01
921157
The primary objectives of this study were to determine the factors that affect stability during locomotion in both lunar and martian gravity environments and to determine the criteria needed to enhance stability and traction. This study tested the effects of changing the speed of locomotion and the pattern of locomotion under three gravity conditions. The results showed that as the gravity level decreased, the amount of vertical and horizontal forces dropped significantly. The results also showed that there are some similarities across gravity levels with regard to changing the speed as well as the pattern of locomotion. In general, an increase in the speed resulted in an increase in the vertical and the horizontal forces. A change in the pattern of locomotion showed that even at reduced gravity, it will be more difficult to stop than compared to continue or start the motion.
Technical Paper

An Environmental Sensor Technology Selection Process for Exploration

2005-07-11
2005-01-2872
In planning for Exploration missions and developing the required suite of environmental monitors, the difficulty lies in down-selecting a multitude of technology options to a few candidates with exceptional potential. Technology selection criteria include conventional analytical parameters (e.g., range, sensitivity, selectivity), operational factors (degree of automation, portability, required level of crew training, maintenance), logistical factors (size, mass, power, consumables, waste generation) and engineering factors such as complexity and reliability. Other more subtle considerations include crew interfaces, data readout and degree of autonomy from the ground control center. We anticipate that technology demonstrations designed toward these goals will be carried out on the International Space Station, the end result of which is a suite of techniques well positioned for deployment during Exploration missions.
Technical Paper

Analysis and Design of Crew Sleep Station for ISS

2002-07-15
2002-01-2303
This paper details the analysis and design of the Temporary Sleep Station (TeSS) environmental control system for International Space Station (ISS). The TeSS will provide crewmembers with a private and personal space, to accommodate sleeping, donning and doffing of clothing, personal communication and performance of recreational activities. The need for privacy to accommodate these activities requires adequate ventilation inside the TeSS. This study considers whether temperature, carbon dioxide, and humidity remain within crew comfort and safety levels for various expected operating scenarios. Evaluation of these scenarios required the use and integration of various simulation codes. An approach was adapted for this study, whereby results from a particular code were integrated with other codes when necessary.
Technical Paper

Assessment of Technology Readiness Level of a Carbon Dioxide Reduction Assembly (CRA) for Use on International Space Station

2004-07-19
2004-01-2446
When technologies are traded for incorporation into vehicle systems to support a specific mission scenario, they are often assessed in terms of “Technology Readiness Level” (TRL). TRL is based on three major categories of Core Technology Components, Ancillary Hardware and System Maturity, and Control and Control Integration. This paper describes the Technology Readiness Level assessment of the Carbon Dioxide Reduction Assembly (CRA) for use on the International Space Station. A team comprising of the NASA Johnson Space Center, Marshall Space Flight Center, Southwest Research Institute and Hamilton Sundstrand Space Systems International have been working on various aspects of the CRA to bring its TRL from 4/5 up to 6. This paper describes the work currently being done in the three major categories. Specific details are given on technology development of the Core Technology Components including the reactor, phase separator and CO2 compressor.
Technical Paper

BIO-Plex Thermal Control System Design

2001-07-09
2001-01-2324
Engineers at the Johnson Space Center (JSC) are using innovative strategies to design the TCS for the Bio-regenerative Planetary Life Support Systems Test Complex (BIO-Plex), a regenerative advanced life support system ground test bed. This paper provides a current description of the BIO-Plex TCS design, testing objectives, analyses, descriptions of the TCS test articles expected to be tested in the BIO-Plex, and forward work regarding TCS. The TCS has been divided into some subsystems identified as permanent “infrastructure” for the BIO-Plex and others that are “test articles” that may change from one test to the next. The infrastructure subsystems are the Heating, Ventilation and Air-Conditioning (HVAC), the Crew Chambers Internal Thermal Control Subsystem (CC ITCS), the Biomass Production Chamber Internal Thermal Control Subsystem (BPC ITCS), the Waste Heat Distribution Subsystem (WHDS) and the External Thermal Control Subsystem (ETCS).
Technical Paper

Biofilm Formation and Control in a Simulated Spacecraft Water System: Three Year Results

1992-07-01
921310
Two simulated spacecraft water systems are being used to evaluate the effectiveness of iodine for controlling microbial contamination within such systems. An iodine concentration of about 2.0 mg/L is maintained in one system by passing ultrapure water through an iodinated ion exchange resin. Stainless steel coupons with electropolished and mechanically-polished sides are being used to monitor biofilm formation. Results after three years of operation show a single episode of significant bacterial growth in the iodinated system when the iodine level dropped to 1.9 mg/L. This growth was apparently controlled by replacing the iodinated ion exchange resin, thereby increasing the iodine level. The second batch of resin has remained effective in controlling microbial growth down to an iodine level of 1.0 mg/L. Scanning electron microscopy indicates that the iodine has impeded but may have not completely eliminated the formation of biofilm.
Technical Paper

Design of a Water Electrolysis Flight Experiment

1993-07-01
932087
Supply of oxygen (O2) and hydrogen (H2) by electrolyzing water in space will play an important role in meeting the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) needs and goals for future space missions. Both O2 and H2 are envisioned to be used in a variety of processes including crew life support, spacecraft propulsion, extravehicular activity, electrical power generation/storage as well as in scientific experiment and manufacturing processes. Life Systems, Inc., in conjunction with NASA, has been developing an alkaline-based Static Feed Electrolyzer (SFE). During the development of the water electrolysis technology over the past 23 years, an extensive engineering and scientific data base has been assembled.
Technical Paper

Development Status of the VPCAR Water Processor Assembly

2003-07-07
2003-01-2626
The purification of waste water is a critical element of any long-duration space mission. The Vapor Phase Catalytic Ammonia Removal (VPCAR) system offers the promise of a technology requiring low quantities of expendable material that is suitable for exploration missions. NASA has funded an effort to produce an engineering development unit specifically targeted for integration into the NASA Johnson Space Center's Integrated Human Exploration Mission Simulation Facility (INTEGRITY) formally known in part as the Bioregenerative Planetary Life Support Test Complex (Bio-Plex) and the Advanced Water Recovery System Development Facility. The system includes a Wiped-Film Rotating-Disk (WFRD) evaporator redesigned with micro-gravity operation enhancements, which evaporates wastewater and produces water vapor with only volatile components as contaminants. Volatile contaminants, including organics and ammonia, are oxidized in a catalytic reactor while they are in the vapor phase.
Technical Paper

Development of a Test Facility for Air Revitalization Technology Evaluation

2007-07-09
2007-01-3161
Development of new air revitalization system (ARS) technology can initially be performed in a subscale laboratory environment, but in order to advance the maturity level, the technology must be tested in an end-to-end integrated environment. The Air Revitalization Technology Evaluation Facility (ARTEF) at the NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) serves as a ground test bed for evaluating emerging ARS technologies in an environment representative of spacecraft atmospheres. At the center of the ARTEF is a hypobaric chamber which serves as a sealed atmospheric chamber for closed loop testing. A Human Metabolic Simulator (HMS) was custom-built to simulate the consumption of oxygen, and production of carbon dioxide, moisture and heat by up to eight persons. A variety of gas analyzers and dew point sensors are used to monitor the chamber atmosphere and the process flow upstream and downstream of a test article. A robust vacuum system is needed to simulate the vacuum of space.
Technical Paper

EVA Operational Enhancements and ASEM

1992-07-01
921341
Among the many firsts which will occur on STS-49, the maiden voyage of the Space Shuttle Endeavour, a Space Station Freedom (SSF) experiment entitled Assembly of Station by Extravehicular Activity (EVA) Methods (ASEM) promises to test the boundaries of EVA operational capabilities. Should the results be favorable, station and other major users of EVA stand to benefit from increased capabilities. Even the preparation for the ASEM experiment is serving as a pathfinder for complex SSF operations. This paper reviews the major tasks planned for ASEM and discusses the operational analogies investigators are attempting to draw between ASEM and SSF. How these findings may be applied to simplify station assembly and maintenance will also be discussed.
Technical Paper

Environmental Control System for an Experimental Crew Return Vehicle

1997-07-01
972263
A small team of NASA engineers has been assembled at the Johnson Space Center, with the goal of developing an inexpensive space-capable vehicle. In order to minimize cost and development time of the experimental vehicle, it was desirable to build upon a previously-developed vehicle shape. The basic shape of the X-24A experimental lifting body was chosen for several reasons, and in the case of the Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS), the de-orbit cross-range capability of this shape provides for a minimal on-orbit time while waiting for landing opportunities, which in turn simplifies the ECLS. Figure 1 shows the X-38 vehicle body shape. In keeping with the goal of rapidly developing an inexpensive and reliable vehicle, the ECLS was developed using simple, passive systems where practical. This paper provides an overview of the ECLS mission requirements and design, with emphasis on the philosophy used in its development.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of Methods for Remediating Biofilms in Spacecraft Potable Water Systems

1994-06-01
941388
Controlling microbial growth and biofilm formation in spacecraft water-distribution systems is necessary to protect the health of the crew. Methods to decontaminate the water system in flight may be needed to support long-term missions. We evaluated the ability of iodine and ozone to kill attached bacteria and remove biofilms formed on stainless steel coupons. The biofilms were developed by placing the coupons in a manifold attached to the effluent line of a simulated spacecraft water-distribution system. After biofilms were established, the coupons were removed and placed in a treatment manifold in a separate water treatment system where they were exposed to the chemical treatments for various periods. Disinfection efficiency over time was measured by counting the bacteria that could be recovered from the coupons using a sonication and plate count technique. Scanning electron microscopy was also used to determine whether the treatments actually removed the biofilm.
Technical Paper

Food System Trade Study for an Early Mars Mission

2001-07-09
2001-01-2364
In preparation for future planetary exploration, the Bioregenerative Planetary Life Support Systems Test Complex (BIO-Plex) is currently being built at the NASA Johnson Space Center. The BIO-Plex facility will allow for closed chamber Earth-based tests. Various prepackaged food systems are being considered for the first 120-day BIO-Plex test. These food systems will be based on the Shuttle Training Menu and the International Space Station (ISS) Assembly Complete food systems. This paper evaluates several prepackaged food system options for the surface portion of an early Mars mission, based on plans for the first BIO-Plex test. The five systems considered are listed in Table 1. The food system options are assessed using equivalent system mass (ESM), which evaluates each option based upon the mass, volume, power, cooling and crewtime requirements.
Technical Paper

High Temperature Lift Heat Pump Refrigerant and Thermodynamic Cycle Selection

1994-06-01
941272
This paper describes the process and analysis used to select a refrigerant and thermodynamic cycle as the basis of a vapor compression heat pump requiring a high temperature lift. Use of a vapor compression heat pump versus other types was based on prior work performed for the Electric Power Research Institute. A high lift heat pump is needed to enable a thermal control system to remove heat down to 275K from a habitable volume when the external thermal environment is severe. For example, a long term habitat will reject heat from a space radiator to a 325K environment. The first step in the selection process was to perform an optimization trade study, quantifying the effect of radiator operating temperature and heat pump efficiency on total system mass; then, select the radiator operating temperature corresponding to the lowest system mass. Total system mass included radiators, all heat pump components and the power supply system.
Technical Paper

Human-Centric Teaming in a Multi-Agent EVA Assembly Task

2004-07-19
2004-01-2485
NASA's Human Space Flight program depends heavily on spacewalks performed by pairs of suited human astronauts. These Extra-Vehicular Activities (EVAs) are severely restricted in both duration and scope by consumables and available manpower. An expanded multi-agent EVA team combining the information-gathering and problem-solving skills of human astronauts with the survivability and physical capabilities of highly dexterous space robots is proposed. A 1-g test featuring two NASA/DARPA Robonaut systems working side-by-side with a suited human subject is conducted to evaluate human-robot teaming strategies in the context of a simulated EVA assembly task based on the STS-61B ACCESS flight experiment.
Technical Paper

Human-rating Automated and Robotic Systems — How HAL Can Work Safely with Astronauts

2009-07-12
2009-01-2527
Long duration human space missions, as planned in the Vision for Space Exploration, will not be possible without applying unprecedented levels of automation to support the human endeavors. The automated and robotic systems must carry the load of routine “housekeeping” for the new generation of explorers, as well as assist their exploration science and engineering work with new precision. Fortunately, the state of automated and robotic systems is sophisticated and sturdy enough to do this work — but the systems themselves have never been human-rated as all other NASA physical systems used in human space flight have. Our intent in this paper is to provide perspective on requirements and architecture for the interfaces and interactions between human beings and the astonishing array of automated systems; and the approach we believe necessary to create human-rated systems and implement them in the space program.
Technical Paper

ISS TransHab: Architecture Description

1999-07-12
1999-01-2143
This paper will describe the ISS TransHab’s architectural design being proposed as a habitation module for the International Space Station. TransHab is a space inflatable habitation module that originally was designed to support a crew of six as a transit habitat (TransHab) to and from Mars. As an evolution of TransHab, it has transformed into the proposed alternative habitat module for the International Space Station (ISS). A team of architects and engineers at the Johnson Space Center has been designing and testing this concept to make it a reality.
Technical Paper

IVA/EVA Life Support Umbilical System

2007-07-09
2007-01-3228
For NASA's Constellation Program, an Intravehicular Activity (IVA) and Extravehicular Activity (EVA) Life Support Umbilical System (LSUS) will be required to provide environmental protection to the suited crew during Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) cabin contamination or depressurization and contingency EVAs. The LSUS will provide the crewmember with ventilation, cooling, power, communication, and data, and will also serve as a crew safety restraint during contingency EVAs. The LSUS will interface with the Vehicle Interface Assembly (VIA) in the CEV and the Suit Connector on the suit. This paper describes the effort performed to develop concept designs for IVA and EVA umbilicals, universal multiple connectors, handling aids and stowage systems, and VIAs that meet NASA's mission needs while adhering to the important guiding principles of simplicity, reliability, and operability.
Technical Paper

Immobilized Microbe Microgravity Water Processing System (IMMWPS) Flight Experiment Integrated Ground Test Program

2002-07-15
2002-01-2355
This paper provides an overview of the IMMWPS Integrated Ground Test Program, completed at the NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) during October and November 2001. The JSC Crew and Thermal Systems Division (CTSD) has developed the IMMWPS orbital flight experiment to test the feasibility of a microbe-based water purifier for use in zero-gravity conditions. The IMMWPS design utilizes a Microbial Processor Assembly (MPA) inoculated with facultative anaerobes to convert organic contaminants in wastewater to carbon dioxide and biomass. The primary purpose of the ground test program was to verify functional operations and procedures. A secondary objective was to provide initial ground data for later comparison to on-orbit performance. This paper provides a description of the overall test program, including the test article hardware and the test sequence performed to simulate the anticipated space flight test program. In addition, a summary of significant results from the testing is provided.
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