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Technical Paper

21st Century Lunar Exploration: Advanced Radiation Exposure Assessment

On January 14, 2004 President George W Bush outlined a new vision for NASA that has humans venturing back to the moon by 2020. With this ambitious goal, new tools and models have been developed to help define and predict the amount of space radiation astronauts will be exposed to during transit and habitation on the moon. A representative scenario is used that includes a trajectory from LEO to a Lunar Base, and simplified CAD models for the transit and habitat structures. For this study galactic cosmic rays, solar proton events, and trapped electron and proton environments are simulated using new dynamic environment models to generate energetic electron, and light and heavy ion fluences. Detailed calculations are presented to assess the human exposure for transit segments and surface stays.
Technical Paper

A Comparison of Pressure Sensitive Paint (PSP) Techniques for Aerodynamic Testing at Slow Velocities

Pressure Sensitive Paint (PSP) has been used for several years by the aircraft industry in transonic wind tunnel testing where the oxygen concentrations are low and the luminescence of the paint is easily recorded. Extending PSP to slower speeds where the oxygen concentrations are closer to atmospheric conditions is much more challenging. For the past few years, work has been underway at both Wright Patterson Air Force Base and Ford Motor Company to advance PSP techniques for testing at slower speeds. The CRADA (Cooperative Research and Development Agreement) provided a way for comparisons to be made of the different PSP systems that were being investigated. This paper will report on PSP tests conducted as part of the CRADA.
Technical Paper

A Faster “Transition” to Laminar Flow

A discussion is given of the ongoing research related to laminar flow airfoils, nacelles, and wings where the laminar flow is maintained by a favorable pressure gradient, surface suction or a combination of the two. Design methologies for natural laminar flow airfoil sections and wings for both low and high speed applications are outlined. Tests of a 7-foot chord, 23° sweep laminar-flow-control-airfoil at high subsonic Mach numbers are described along with the associated stability theory used to design the suction system. The state-of-the-art of stability theory is simply stated and a typical calculation illustrated. In addition recent computer simulations of transition using the time dependent Navier-Stokes (N-S) equations are briefly described. Advances in wind tunnel capabilities and instrumentation will be reviewed followed by the presentation of a few results from both wind tunnels and flight. Finally, some suggestions for future work will complete the paper.
Journal Article

A Fresh Look at Radiation Exposures from Major Solar Proton Events

Solar proton events (SPEs) represent the single-most significant source of acute radiation exposure during space missions. Historically, an exponential in rigidity (particle momentum) fit has been used to express the SPE energy spectrum using GOES data up to 100 MeV. More recently, researchers have found that a Weibull fit better represents the energy spectrum up to 1000 MeV (1 GeV). In addition, the availability of SPE data extending up to several GeV has been incorporated in analyses to obtain a more complete and accurate energy spectrum representation. In this paper we discuss the major SPEs that have occurred over the past five solar cycles (~50+ years) in detail - in particular, Aug 1972 and Sept & Oct 1989 SPEs. Using a high-energy particle transport/dose code, radiation exposure estimates are presented for various thicknesses of aluminum. The effects on humans and spacecraft systems are also discussed in detail.
Technical Paper

A MACH 6 External Nozzle Experiment with Argon-Freon Exhaust Simulation

A scramjet exhaust simulation technique for hypersonic wind tunnel testing has been developed. Mixtures of Argon and Freon correctly match the inviscid simulation parameters of Mach number, static-pressure ratio, and the ratio of specific heats at the combustor exit location; this simulation is accomplished at significantly reduced temperatures and without combustion. An investigation of nozzle parametrics in a Mach 6 freestream showed that the external nozzle ramp angle, the cowl trailing-edge angle, an external nozzle flow fence and the nozzle static-pressure ratio significantly affected the external nozzle thrust and pitching moment as measured by the integration of surface-pressure data. A comparison of Argon-Freon and air exhaust simulation showed that the external nozzle thrust and pitching moment were in error by roughly a factor of 2 using air due to the incorrect match of the ratio of specific heats.
Technical Paper

A New Method for Calculating Low Energy Neutron Flux

A new method is developed for calculating the low energy neutron flux in a space environment which is protected from galactic cosmic rays (GCR) and solar particle events (SPE) by shielding materials. Our calculations are compared with low energy neutron flux flight data recorded on four different STS low earth orbit missions. We also compare our neutron flux calculations with the low energy neutron flux data recorded by MIR. The low energy neutron flux calculations can be described as a deterministic method for solving the Boltzmann equation for the light ion flux associated with a given environment. Existing Monte Carlo neutron flux simulations associated with the MIR and ISS space stations are also compared with our deterministic method for calculating neutron flux.
Technical Paper

A Simplified Orbit Analysis Program for Spacecraft Thermal Design

This paper presents a simplified orbit analysis program developed to calculate orbital parameters for the thermal analysis of spacecraft and space-flight instruments. The program calculates orbit data for inclined and sunsynchronous earth orbits. Traditional orbit analyses require extensive knowledge of orbital mechanics to produce a simplified set of data for thermal engineers. This program was created to perform orbital analyses with minimal input and provides the necessary output for thermal analysis codes. Engineers will find the program to be a valuable analysis tool for fast and simple orbit calculations. A description of the program inputs and outputs is included. An overview of orbital mechanics for inclined and Sun-synchronous orbits is also presented. Finally, several sample cases are presented to illustrate the thermal analysis applications of the program.
Technical Paper

A Summary of Reynolds Number Effects on Some Recent Tests in the Langley 0.3-Meter Transonic Cryogenic Tunnel

Reynolds number effects noted from selected test programs conducted in the Langiey 0.3-Meter Transonic Cryogenic Tunnel (0.3-m TCT) are discussed. The tests, which cover a unit Reynolds number range from about 2.0 to 80.0 million per foot, summarize effects of Reynolds number on: 1) aerodynamic data from a supercritical airfoil, 2) results from several wall interference correction techniques, and 3) results obtained from advanced, cryogenic test techniques. The test techniques include 1) use of a cryogenic sidewall boundary layer removal system, 2) detailed pressure and hot wire measurements to determine test section flow quality, and 3) use of a new hot film system suitable for transition detection in a cryogenic wind tunnel. The results indicate that Reynolds number effects appear most significant when boundary layer transition effects are present and at high lift conditions when boundary layer separation exists on both the model and the tunnel sidewall.
Technical Paper

A Summary of the Effects of Reynolds Number on Drag Divergence for Airfoils Tested in the Langley 0.3-Meter Transonic Cryogenic Tunnel

The direct first order effect of Reynolds number on the determination of drag-divergence conditions is summarized for six airfoils which were tested in the Langley 0.3-Meter Transonic Cryogenic Tunnel. A second order effect, derived through the effect of Reynolds number on the sidewall boundary layer, is included. In addition, a comparison of how the drag-divergence condition is affected on going from one class of airfoil to another is presented. The drag-divergence condition is affected first order by Reynolds number for each of the six airfoils and of course all data are affected second order, since the presence of the boundary layer necessitates a sidewall correction.
Technical Paper

A Time Dependent Model for the Lunar Radiation Environment

In view of manned missions targeted to the Moon, for which radiation exposure is one of the greatest challenges to be tackled, it is of fundamental importance to have available a tool, which allows determination of the particle flux and spectra at any time and at any point of the lunar surface. With this goal in mind, a new model of the Moon’s radiation environment due to Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCR) and Solar Particle Events (SPE) has been developed. Primary particles reach the lunar surface, and are transported all throughout the subsurface layers, with backscattering patterns taken into account. The surface itself has been modeled as regolith and bedrock, with composition taken from the results of the instruments flown on the Apollo missions, namely on the Apollo 12 from the Oceanus Procellarum landing site. Subsurface environments like lava tubes have been considered in the analysis.
Technical Paper


This paper discusses a project for adapting advanced technology, much of it borrowed from the jet transport, to general aviation design practice. The NASA funded portion of the work began in 1969 at the University of Kansas and resulted in a smaller, experimental wing with spoilers and powerful flap systems for a Cessna Cardinal airplane. The objective was to obtain increased cruise performance and improved ride quality while maintaining the take-off and landing speeds of the unmodified airplane. Some flight data and research pilot comments are presented. The project was expanded in 1972 to include a light twin-engine airplane. For the twin there was the added incentive of a potential increase in single-engine climb performance. The expanded project is a joint effort involving the University of Kansas, Piper Aircraft Company, Robertson Aircraft Company, and Wichita State University. The use of a new high-lift Whitcomb airfoil is planned for both the wing and the propellers.
Technical Paper

Advanced Analysis Methods and Nondestructive Inspection Technology Under Development in the NASA Airframe Structural Integrity Program

An advanced analytical methodology has been developed for predicting the residual strength of stiffened thin-sheet riveted shell structures such as those used for the fuselage of a commercial transport aircraft. The crack-tip opening angle elastic-plastic fracture criterion has been coupled to a geometric and material nonlinear finite element shell code for analyzing complex structural behavior. An automated adaptive mesh refinement capability together with global-local analysis methods have been developed to predict the behavior of fuselage structure with long cracks. This methodology is currently being experimentally verified. Advanced nondestructive inspection technology has been developed that will provide airline operators with the capability to conduct reliable and economical broad-area inspections of aircraft structures.
Technical Paper

Aerodynamic Design Data For a Cruise-Matched High Performance Single Engine Airplane

Design data are presented for a class of high-performance single-engine business airplanes. The design objectives include a cruise speed of 300 knots, a cruise altitude of 10,700 m (35,000 ft), a cruise payload of six passengers (including crew and baggage), and a no-reserves cruise range of 1300 n.mi. Two unconventional aerodynamic technologies were evaluated: the individual and combined effects of cruise-matched wing loading and of a natural laminar flow airfoil were analyzed. The tradeoff data presented illustrate the ranges of wing geometries, propulsion requirements, airplane weights, and aerodynamic characteristics which are necessary to meet the design objectives. very large design and performance improvements resulted from use of the aerodynamic technologies evaluated. Is is shown that the potential exists for achieving more than 200-percent greater fuel efficiency than is achieved by current airplanes capable of similar cruise speeds, payloads, and ranges.
Technical Paper

Aerodynamic Effects of Simulated Ice Accretion on a Generic Transport Model

An experimental research effort was begun to develop a database of airplane aerodynamic characteristics with simulated ice accretion over a large range of incidence and sideslip angles. Wind-tunnel testing was performed at the NASA Langley 12-ft Low-Speed Wind Tunnel using a 3.5% scale model of the NASA Langley Generic Transport Model. Aerodynamic data were acquired from a six-component force and moment balance in static-model sweeps from α = -5 to 85 deg. and β = -45 to 45 deg. at a Reynolds number of 0.24x10⁶ and Mach number of 0.06. The 3.5% scale GTM was tested in both the clean configuration and with full-span artificial ice shapes attached to the leading edges of the wing, horizontal and vertical tail. Aerodynamic results for the clean airplane configuration compared favorably with similar experiments carried out on a 5.5% scale GTM.
Technical Paper

Aerodynamic-Performance Planform and Camber Optimization of a Supersonic Transport Wing

This paper describes recent research in integrated aerodynamic-performance design optimization applied to a supersonic transport wing. The subsonic and supersonic aerodynamics are modeled with linear theory and the aircraft performance is evaluated by using a complete mission analysis. The goal of the optimization problem is to either maximize the aircraft range or minimize the take-off gross weight while constraining the total fuel load and approach speed. A major difficulty encountered during this study was the inability to obtain accurate derivatives of the aerodynamic models with respect to the planform shape. This work addresses this problem and provides one solution for the derivative difficulties. Additional optimization studies reveal the impact of camber design on the global optimization problem. In these studies, the plan-form optimization is first conducted on a flat plate wing and camber optimization is performed on the resulting planform.
Technical Paper

Aerodynamics and Flying Qualities of Jet V/STOL Airplanes

A summary of information on airplane aerodynamics, ground effects, propulsion system aerodynamics, stability and control, and flying qualities of jet V/STOL airplanes - both direct jet lift and lift fan configurations is presented. The information is applicable to high-speed fighter-type airplanes. Research work in the following areas is reviewed: 1. Wind tunnel and other experimental research on jet-induced effects (including ground effects) on the aerodynamics and stability and control in the VTOL, STOL, hovering, and transition ranges of flight. 2. Experimental research on propulsion aerodynamics in the hovering and very low speed ranges of flight. 3. Flight-test experience on the flying qualities of several jet V/STOL airplanes.
Technical Paper

Air Transport Flight Parameter Measurements Program – Concepts and Benefits

A program is described in which statistical flight loads and operating practice data for airline transports in current operations are obtained from existing onboard digital flight data recorders. These data, primarily intended for use by manufacturers in updating design criteria, were obtained from narrow-body and wide-body jets. Unique procedures developed for editing and processing the data are discussed and differences from previous NACA/NASA VGH analog data are noted. The program is being expanded to include control surface and ground-operational parameters. Efforts to develop an onboard data processing system to derive direct statistical aircraft operating parameters are reviewed.
Technical Paper

Airbreathing Hypersonic Vision-Operational-Vehicles Design Matrix

This paper presents the status of the airbreathing hypersonic airplane and space-access vision-operational-vehicle design matrix, with emphasis on horizontal takeoff and landing systems being studied at Langley; it reflects the synergies and issues, and indicates the thrust of the effort to resolve the design matrix including Mach 5 to 10 airplanes with global-reach potential, pop-up and dual-role transatmospheric vehicles and airbreathing launch systems. The convergence of several critical systems/technologies across the vehicle matrix is indicated. This is particularly true for the low speed propulsion system for large unassisted horizontal takeoff vehicles which favor turbines and/or perhaps pulse detonation engines that do not require LOX which imposes loading concerns and mission flexibility restraints.
Technical Paper

Aircraft Landing Dynamics Facility, A Unique Facility with New Capabilities

The Aircraft Landing Dynamics Facility (ALDF), formerly called the Landing Loads Track, is described. The paper gives a historical overview of the original NASA Langley Research Center Landing Loads Track and discusses the unique features of this national test facility. Comparisions are made between the original track characteristics and the new capabilities of the Aircraft Landing Dynamics Facility following the recently completed facility update. Details of the new propulsion and arresting gear systems are presented along with the novel features of the new high-speed carriage. The data acquisition system is described and the paper concludes with a review of future test programs.
Technical Paper

Airframe Technology for Energy Efficient Transport Aircraft

Fuel costs comprise a major portion of air transport operating costs. Thus, energy efficiency is an essential design goal for future transport aircraft. Advanced composite structures, advanced wing geometries, and active control systems all promise substantial benefits in fuel efficiency and direct operating cost for derivative and new aircraft introduced by 1985. Technology for maintenance of a laminar boundary layer in cruise offers great benefits in fuel efficiency and direct operating cost and may be ready for application to transports introduced in the 1990's. NASA and the air transport industry are cooperating in a comprehensive Aircraft Energy Efficiency Program to expedite the introduction of these advanced technologies into production aircraft.