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Technical Paper

A Comparison of Pressure Sensitive Paint (PSP) Techniques for Aerodynamic Testing at Slow Velocities

2002-03-04
2002-01-0255
Pressure Sensitive Paint (PSP) has been used for several years by the aircraft industry in transonic wind tunnel testing where the oxygen concentrations are low and the luminescence of the paint is easily recorded. Extending PSP to slower speeds where the oxygen concentrations are closer to atmospheric conditions is much more challenging. For the past few years, work has been underway at both Wright Patterson Air Force Base and Ford Motor Company to advance PSP techniques for testing at slower speeds. The CRADA (Cooperative Research and Development Agreement) provided a way for comparisons to be made of the different PSP systems that were being investigated. This paper will report on PSP tests conducted as part of the CRADA.
Technical Paper

A Faster “Transition” to Laminar Flow

1985-11-01
851855
A discussion is given of the ongoing research related to laminar flow airfoils, nacelles, and wings where the laminar flow is maintained by a favorable pressure gradient, surface suction or a combination of the two. Design methologies for natural laminar flow airfoil sections and wings for both low and high speed applications are outlined. Tests of a 7-foot chord, 23° sweep laminar-flow-control-airfoil at high subsonic Mach numbers are described along with the associated stability theory used to design the suction system. The state-of-the-art of stability theory is simply stated and a typical calculation illustrated. In addition recent computer simulations of transition using the time dependent Navier-Stokes (N-S) equations are briefly described. Advances in wind tunnel capabilities and instrumentation will be reviewed followed by the presentation of a few results from both wind tunnels and flight. Finally, some suggestions for future work will complete the paper.
Journal Article

A Fresh Look at Radiation Exposures from Major Solar Proton Events

2008-06-29
2008-01-2164
Solar proton events (SPEs) represent the single-most significant source of acute radiation exposure during space missions. Historically, an exponential in rigidity (particle momentum) fit has been used to express the SPE energy spectrum using GOES data up to 100 MeV. More recently, researchers have found that a Weibull fit better represents the energy spectrum up to 1000 MeV (1 GeV). In addition, the availability of SPE data extending up to several GeV has been incorporated in analyses to obtain a more complete and accurate energy spectrum representation. In this paper we discuss the major SPEs that have occurred over the past five solar cycles (~50+ years) in detail - in particular, Aug 1972 and Sept & Oct 1989 SPEs. Using a high-energy particle transport/dose code, radiation exposure estimates are presented for various thicknesses of aluminum. The effects on humans and spacecraft systems are also discussed in detail.
Technical Paper

A Simplified Orbit Analysis Program for Spacecraft Thermal Design

1997-07-01
972540
This paper presents a simplified orbit analysis program developed to calculate orbital parameters for the thermal analysis of spacecraft and space-flight instruments. The program calculates orbit data for inclined and sunsynchronous earth orbits. Traditional orbit analyses require extensive knowledge of orbital mechanics to produce a simplified set of data for thermal engineers. This program was created to perform orbital analyses with minimal input and provides the necessary output for thermal analysis codes. Engineers will find the program to be a valuable analysis tool for fast and simple orbit calculations. A description of the program inputs and outputs is included. An overview of orbital mechanics for inclined and Sun-synchronous orbits is also presented. Finally, several sample cases are presented to illustrate the thermal analysis applications of the program.
Technical Paper

APPLICATIONS OF ADVANCED AERODYNAMIC TECHNOLOGY TO LIGHT AIRCRAFT

1973-02-01
730318
This paper discusses a project for adapting advanced technology, much of it borrowed from the jet transport, to general aviation design practice. The NASA funded portion of the work began in 1969 at the University of Kansas and resulted in a smaller, experimental wing with spoilers and powerful flap systems for a Cessna Cardinal airplane. The objective was to obtain increased cruise performance and improved ride quality while maintaining the take-off and landing speeds of the unmodified airplane. Some flight data and research pilot comments are presented. The project was expanded in 1972 to include a light twin-engine airplane. For the twin there was the added incentive of a potential increase in single-engine climb performance. The expanded project is a joint effort involving the University of Kansas, Piper Aircraft Company, Robertson Aircraft Company, and Wichita State University. The use of a new high-lift Whitcomb airfoil is planned for both the wing and the propellers.
Technical Paper

Aerodynamic-Performance Planform and Camber Optimization of a Supersonic Transport Wing

1993-09-01
932632
This paper describes recent research in integrated aerodynamic-performance design optimization applied to a supersonic transport wing. The subsonic and supersonic aerodynamics are modeled with linear theory and the aircraft performance is evaluated by using a complete mission analysis. The goal of the optimization problem is to either maximize the aircraft range or minimize the take-off gross weight while constraining the total fuel load and approach speed. A major difficulty encountered during this study was the inability to obtain accurate derivatives of the aerodynamic models with respect to the planform shape. This work addresses this problem and provides one solution for the derivative difficulties. Additional optimization studies reveal the impact of camber design on the global optimization problem. In these studies, the plan-form optimization is first conducted on a flat plate wing and camber optimization is performed on the resulting planform.
Technical Paper

Aircraft Landing Dynamics Facility, A Unique Facility with New Capabilities

1985-10-01
851938
The Aircraft Landing Dynamics Facility (ALDF), formerly called the Landing Loads Track, is described. The paper gives a historical overview of the original NASA Langley Research Center Landing Loads Track and discusses the unique features of this national test facility. Comparisions are made between the original track characteristics and the new capabilities of the Aircraft Landing Dynamics Facility following the recently completed facility update. Details of the new propulsion and arresting gear systems are presented along with the novel features of the new high-speed carriage. The data acquisition system is described and the paper concludes with a review of future test programs.
Technical Paper

An Experimental Investigation of the Flow Over the Rear End of a Notchback Automobile Configuration

2000-03-06
2000-01-0489
An experimental investigation of the flow over the rear end of a 0.16 scale notchback automobile configuration has been conducted in the NASA Langley Basic Aerodynamics Research Tunnel (BART). The objective of this work was to investigate the flow separation that occurs behind the backlight and obtain experimental data that can be used to understand the physics and time-averaged structure of the flow field. A three-component laser velocimeter was used to make non-intrusive, velocity measurements in the center plane and in a single cross-flow plane over the decklid. In addition to off-body measurements, flow conditions on the car surface were documented via surface flow visualization, boundary layer measurements, and surface pressures.
Technical Paper

An Investigation of the Effects of the Propeller Slipstream on a Laminar Wing Boundary Layer

1985-04-01
850859
A research program is in progress to study the effects of the propeller slipstream on natural laminar flow. Flight and wind tunnel measurements of the wing boundary layer have been made using hot-film velocity sensor probes. The results show the boundary layer, at any given point, to alternate between laminar and turbulent states. This cyclic behavior is due to periodic external flow turbulence originating from the viscous wake of the propeller blades. Analytic studies show the cyclic laminar/turbulent boundary layer layer to result in a significantly lower wing section drag than a fully turbulent boundary layer. The application of natural laminar flow design philosophy yields drag reduction benefits in the slipstream affected regions of the airframe, as well as the unaffected regions.
Technical Paper

Biologically Inspired Micro-Flight Research

2003-09-08
2003-01-3042
Natural fliers demonstrate a diverse array of flight capabilities, many of which are poorly understood. NASA has established a research project to explore and exploit flight technologies inspired by biological systems. One part of this project focuses on dynamic modeling and control of micro aerial vehicles that incorporate flexible wing structures inspired by natural fliers such as insects, hummingbirds and bats. With a vast number of potential civil and military applications, micro aerial vehicles represent an emerging sector of the aerospace market. This paper describes an ongoing research activity in which mechanization and control concepts for biologically inspired micro aerial vehicles are being explored. Research activities focusing on a flexible fixed-wing micro aerial vehicle design and a flapping-based micro aerial vehicle concept are presented.
Technical Paper

Fifty Years of Laminar Flow Flight Testing

1988-10-01
881393
Laminar flow flight experiments conducted over the past fifty years will be reviewed. The emphasis will be on flight testing conducted under the NASA Laminar Flow Control Program which has been directed towards the most challenging technology application- the high subsonic speed transport. The F111/TACT NLF Glove Flight Test, the F-14 Variable Sweep Transition Flight Experiment, the 757 Wing Noise Survey and NLF Glove Flight Test, the NASA Jetstar Leading Edge Flight Test Program, and the recently initiated Hybrid Laminar Flow Control Flight Experiment will be discussed. To place these recent experiences in perspective, earlier important flight tests will first be reviewed to recall the lessons learned at that time.
Technical Paper

Flight Investigation of Natural Laminar Flow on the Bellanca Skyrocket II

1983-02-01
830717
Two major concerns have inhibited the use of natural laminar flow (NLF) for viscous drag reduction on production aircraft. These are the concerns of achieveability of NLF on practical airframe surfaces, and maintainability in operating environments. Previous research in this area left a mixture of positive and negative conclusions regarding these concerns. While early (pre-1950) airframe construction methods could not achieve NLF criteria for waviness, several modern construction methods (composites for example) can achieve the required smoothness. This paper presents flight experiment data on the achieveability and maintainability of NLF on a high-performance, single-propeller, composite airplane, the Bellanca Skyrocket II. The significant contribution of laminar flow to the performance of this airplane was measured. Observations of laminar flow in the propeller slipstream are discussed, as are the effects of insect contamination on the wing.
Technical Paper

Langley Research Center Resources and Needs for Manned Space Operations Simulation

1987-10-01
871724
Over the past three decades, the application of simulation facilities to manned space flight projects has increased chances of successful mission completion by revealing the capabilities and limitations of both man and machine. The Space Station era, which implies on-orbit assembly, heightened system complexity, and great diversity of operations and equipment, will require increased dependence on simulation studies to validate the tools and techniques being proposed. For this reason the Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) undertook a survey of both the facilities available for and the research requiring such simulations. This paper was written to provide LaRC input to the SAE survey of simulation needs and resources. The paper provides a brief historial sketch of early Langley Research Center simulators, and the circumstances are described which resulted in a de-emphasis of manned simulation in 1971.
Technical Paper

Light Aircraft Crash Safety Program

1974-02-01
740353
The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) have joined forces in a General Aviation Crashworthiness Program. This paper describes the research and development tasks of the program which are the responsibility of NASA. NASA is embarked upon research and development tasks aimed at providing the general aviation industry with a reliable crashworthy airframe design technology. The goals of the NASA program are: reliable analytical techniques for predicting the nonlinear behavior of structures; significant design improvements of airframes; and simulated full-scale crash test data. The analytical tools will include both simplified procedures for estimating energy absorption characteristics and more complex computer programs for analysis of general airframe structures under crash loading conditions.
Technical Paper

NASA Aerodynamic Research Applicable to Business Aircraft

1971-02-01
710378
A review is made of NASA aerodynamic research of interest to the designer of business aircraft. The results of wind-tunnel and flight studies of several current aircraft are summarized. The attainment of STOL performance is discussed and the effectiveness of several lift augmentation concepts is examined. Finally, the potentialities and problems of flight at and beyond the speed of sound are discussed.
Technical Paper

NASA Personal Air Transportation Technologies

2006-08-30
2006-01-2413
The ability to personalize air travel through the use of an on-demand, highly distributed air transportation system will provide the degree of freedom and control that Americans enjoy in other aspects of their life. This new capability, of traveling when, where, and how we want with greatly enhanced mobility, accessibility, and speed requires vehicle and airspace technologies to provide the equivalent of an internet PC ubiquity, to an air transportation system that now exists as a centralized hub and spoke mainframe NASA airspace related research in this new category of aviation has been conducted through the Small Aircraft Transportation (SATS) project, while the vehicle technology efforts have been conducted in the Personal Air Vehicle sector of the Vehicle Systems Program.
Technical Paper

Next Generation NASA GA Advanced Concept

2006-08-30
2006-01-2430
Not only is the common dream of frequent personal flight travel going unfulfilled, the current generation of General Aviation (GA) is facing tremendous challenges that threaten to relegate the Single Engine Piston (SEP) aircraft market to a footnote in the history of U.S. aviation. A case is made that this crisis stems from a generally low utility coupled to a high cost that makes the SEP aircraft of relatively low transportation value and beyond the means of many. The roots of this low value are examined in a broad sense, and a Next Generation NASA Advanced GA Concept is presented that attacks those elements addressable by synergistic aircraft design.
Technical Paper

Overview of Noise Reduction Technology in the NASA Short Haul (Civil Tiltrotor) Program

1996-11-18
962273
Noise is a barrier issue for penetration of civil markets by future tiltrotor aircraft. To address this issue, elements of the NASA Short Haul (Civil Tiltrotor) [SH(CT)] program are working in three different areas: noise abatement, noise reduction, and noise prediction. Noise abatement refers to modification of flight procedures to achieve quieter approaches. Noise reduction refers to innovative new rotor designs that would reduce the noise produced by a tiltrotor. Noise prediction activities are developing the tools to guide the design of future quiet tiltrotors. This paper presents an overview of SH(CT) activities in all three areas, including sample results.
Technical Paper

Performance Automotive Applications of Pressure-Sensitive Paint in the Langley Full Scale Tunnel

2002-12-02
2002-01-3291
Recently, there has been a strong emphasis on aerodynamic and aeroacoustic wind tunnel testing of automobiles. While significant level resources have been spent on investigating aerodynamics, the methodology has not changed appreciably since the beginning of aerodynamics as a science. Over the past decade, a number of global flow diagnostic techniques have been developed that drastically increase the quality and quantity of data from wind tunnel testing. One of these technologies is the use of pressure sensitive luminescent coatings, known as pressure-sensitive paint, a method which has matured considerably since its inception and is now used extensively in aerospace applications with good results. The goal of this research is to implement this technology in the full scale testing of high performance automotive vehicles. This paper discusses the details of a preliminary test, such as technique, paint formulation, camera and lighting hardware, and data reduction and analysis.
Technical Paper

Radar Detection of High Concentrations of Ice Particles - Methodology and Preliminary Flight Test Results

2019-06-10
2019-01-2028
High Ice Water Content (HIWC) has been identified as a primary causal factor in numerous engine events over the past two decades. Previous attempts to develop a remote detection process utilizing modern commercial radars have failed to produce reliable results. This paper discusses the reasons for previous failures and describes a new technique that has shown very encouraging accuracy and range performance without the need for any modifications to industry’s current radar design(s). The performance of this new process was evaluated during the joint NASA/FAA HIWC RADAR II Flight Campaign in August of 2018. Results from that evaluation are discussed, along with the potential for commercial application, and development of minimum operational performance standards for future radar products.
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