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Technical Paper

A Modular Battery Management System for HEVs

2002-06-03
2002-01-1918
Proper electric and thermal management of an HEV battery pack, consisting of many modules of cells, is imperative. During operation, voltage and temperature differences in the modules/cells can lead to electrical imbalances from module to module and decrease pack performance by as much as 25%. An active battery management system (BMS) is a must to monitor, control, and balance the pack. The University of Toledo, with funding from the U.S. Department of Energy and in collaboration with DaimlerChrysler and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory has developed a modular battery management system for HEVs. This modular unit is a 2nd generation system, as compared to a previous 1st generation centralized system. This 2nd generation prototype can balance a battery pack based on cell-to-cell measurements and active equalization. The system was designed to work with several battery types, including lithium ion, NiMH, or lead acid.
Journal Article

A Second Life for Electric Vehicle Batteries: Answering Questions on Battery Degradation and Value

2015-04-14
2015-01-1306
Battery second use-putting used plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) batteries into secondary service following their automotive tenure-has been proposed as a means to decrease the cost of PEVs while providing low cost energy storage to other fields (e.g., electric utility markets). To understand the value of used automotive batteries, however, we must first answer several key questions related to battery degradation, including: How long will PEV batteries last in automotive service? How healthy will PEV batteries be when they leave automotive service? How long will retired PEV batteries last in second-use service? How well can we best predict the second-use lifetime of a used automotive battery? Under the support of the U.S. Department of Energy's Vehicle Technologies Office, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory has developed a methodology and the requisite tools to answer these questions, including the Battery Lifetime Simulation Tool (BLAST).
Journal Article

A Statistical Characterization of School Bus Drive Cycles Collected via Onboard Logging Systems

2013-09-24
2013-01-2400
In an effort to characterize the dynamics typical of school bus operation, National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) researchers set out to gather in-use duty cycle data from school bus fleets operating across the country. Employing a combination of Isaac Instruments GPS/CAN data loggers in conjunction with existing onboard telemetric systems resulted in the capture of operating information for more than 200 individual vehicles in three geographically unique domestic locations. In total, over 1,500 individual operational route shifts from Washington, New York, and Colorado were collected. Upon completing the collection of in-use field data using either NREL-installed data acquisition devices or existing onboard telemetry systems, large-scale duty-cycle statistical analyses were performed to examine underlying vehicle dynamics trends within the data and to explore vehicle operation variations between fleet locations.
Technical Paper

A Techno-Economic Analysis of BEV Service Providers Offering Battery Swapping Services

2013-04-08
2013-01-0500
Battery electric vehicles (BEVs) offer the potential to reduce both oil imports and greenhouse gas emissions, but high upfront costs, battery-limited vehicle range, and concern over high battery replacement costs may discourage potential buyers. A subscription model in which a service provider owns the battery and supplies access to battery swapping infrastructure could reduce upfront and battery replacement costs with a predictable monthly fee, while expanding BEV range. Assessing the costs and benefits of such a proposal are complicated by many factors, including customer drive patterns, the amount of required infrastructure, battery life, etc. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory has applied its Battery Ownership Model to compare the economics and utility of BEV battery swapping service plan options to more traditional direct ownership options.
Technical Paper

A Techno-Economic Analysis of PEV Battery Second Use: Repurposed-Battery Selling Price and Commercial and Industrial End-User Value

2012-04-16
2012-01-0349
Accelerated market penetration of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) is presently restricted by the high cost of batteries. Deployment of grid-connected energy storage, which could increase the reliability, efficiency, and cleanliness of the grid, is similarly inhibited by the cost of batteries. Research, development, and manufacturing are underway to reduce cost by lowering material costs, enhance process efficiencies, and increase production volumes. Another approach under consideration is to recover a fraction of the battery cost after the battery has been retired from vehicular service via reuse in other applications, where it may still have sufficient performance to meet the requirements of other energy-storage applications.
Technical Paper

Accounting for the Variation of Driver Aggression in the Simulation of Conventional and Advanced Vehicles

2013-04-08
2013-01-1453
Hybrid electric vehicles, plug-in hybrid electric vehicles, and battery electric vehicles offer the potential to reduce both oil imports and greenhouse gases, as well as to offer a financial benefit to the driver. However, assessing these potential benefits is complicated by several factors, including the driving habits of the operator. We focus on driver aggression, i.e., the level of acceleration and velocity characteristic of travel, to (1) assess its variation within large, real-world drive datasets, (2) quantify its effect on both vehicle efficiency and economics for multiple vehicle types, (3) compare these results to those of standard drive cycles commonly used in the industry, and (4) create a representative drive cycle for future analyses where standard drive cycles are lacking.
Technical Paper

Alternative Fuel Truck Evaluation Project - Design and Preliminary Results

1998-05-04
981392
The objective of this project, which is supported by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) through the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), is to provide a comprehensive comparison of heavy-duty trucks operating on alternative fuels and diesel fuel. Data collection from up to eight sites is planned. This paper summarizes the design of the project and early results from the first two sites. Data collection is planned for operations, maintenance, truck system descriptions, emissions, duty cycle, safety incidents, and capital costs and operating costs associated with the use of alternative fuels in trucking.
Technical Paper

Alternative Fuel Vehicle Fleet Buyer's Guide

1999-05-03
1999-01-1510
Fleet managers need a tool to assist them in assessing their need to comply with EPAct and to provide them with the ability to obtain information that will allow them to make alternative fuel vehicle purchasing decisions. This paper will describe the Web-based tool that will inform a fleet manager, based on their geographic location, the type of fleet they own or operate, and the number and types of vehicles in their fleet, whether or not they need to meet the requirements of EPAct, and, if so, the percentage of new vehicle purchases needed to comply with the law. The tool provides detailed specifications on available OEM alternative fuel vehicles, including the purchase cost of the vehicles, fuel and fuel system characteristics, and incentives and rebates surrounding the purchase of each vehicle. The full set of federal, state, and local incentives is made available through the tool, as well as detailed access to refueling site and dealership locations.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Fast Charging Station Network for Electrified Ride-Hailing Services

2018-04-03
2018-01-0667
Today’s electric vehicle (EV) owners charge their vehicles mostly at home and seldom use public direct current fast charger (DCFCs), reducing the need for a large deployment of DCFCs for private EV owners. However, due to the emerging interest among transportation network companies to operate EVs in their fleet, there is great potential for DCFCs to be highly utilized and become economically feasible in the future. This paper describes a heuristic algorithm to emulate operation of EVs within a hypothetical transportation network company fleet using a large global positioning system data set from Columbus, Ohio. DCFC requirements supporting operation of EVs are estimated using the Electric Vehicle Infrastructure Projection tool. Operation and installation costs were estimated using real-world data to assess the economic feasibility of the recommended fast charging stations.
Journal Article

Analyzing Vehicle Fuel Saving Opportunities through Intelligent Driver Feedback

2012-04-16
2012-01-0494
While it is well known that “MPG will vary” based on how one drives, little independent research exists on the aggregate fuel savings potential of improving driver efficiency and on the best ways to motivate driver behavior changes. This paper finds that reasonable driving style changes could deliver significant national petroleum savings, but that current feedback approaches may be insufficient to convince many people to adopt efficient driving habits. To quantify the outer bound fuel savings for drive cycle modification, the project examines completely eliminating stop-and-go driving plus unnecessary idling, and adjusting acceleration rates and cruising speeds to ideal levels. Even without changing the vehicle powertrain, such extreme adjustments result in dramatic fuel savings of over 30%, but would in reality only be achievable through automated control of vehicles and traffic flow.
Technical Paper

Chassis Dynamometer Emission Measurements from Refuse Trucks Using Dual-Fuel™ Natural Gas Engines

2003-11-10
2003-01-3366
Emissions from 10 refuse trucks equipped with Caterpillar C-10 engines were measured on West Virginia University's (WVU) Transportable Emissions Laboratory in Riverside, California. The engines all used a commercially available Dual-Fuel™ natural gas (DFNG) system supplied by Clean Air Partners Inc. (CAP), and some were also equipped with catalyzed particulate filters (CPFs), also from CAP. The DFNG system introduces natural gas with the intake air and then ignites the gas with a small injection of diesel fuel directly into the cylinder to initiate combustion. Emissions were measured over a modified version of a test cycle (the William H. Martin cycle) previously developed by WVU. The cycle attempts to duplicate a typical curbside refuse collection truck and includes three modes: highway-to-landfill delivery, curbside collection, and compaction. Emissions were compared to similar trucks that used Caterpillar C-10 diesels equipped with Engelhard's DPX catalyzed particulate filters.
Technical Paper

Class 8 Trucks Operating On Ultra-Low Sulfur Diesel With Particulate Filter Systems: A Fleet Start-Up Experience

2000-10-16
2000-01-2821
Previous studies have shown that regenerating particulate filters are very effective at reducing particulate matter emissions from diesel engines. Some particulate filters are passive devices that can be installed in place of the muffler on both new and older model diesel engines. These passive devices could potentially be used to retrofit large numbers of trucks and buses already in service, to substantially reduce particulate matter emissions. Catalyst-type particulate filters must be used with diesel fuels having low sulfur content to avoid poisoning the catalyst. A project has been launched to evaluate a truck fleet retrofitted with two types of passive particulate filter systems and operating on diesel fuel having ultra-low sulfur content. The objective of this project is to evaluate new particulate filter and fuel technology in service, using a fleet of twenty Class 8 grocery store trucks. This paper summarizes the truck fleet start-up experience.
Technical Paper

Class 8 Trucks Operating On Ultra-Low Sulfur Diesel With Particulate Filter Systems: Regulated Emissions

2000-10-16
2000-01-2815
Emissions from heavy-duty vehicles may be reduced through the introduction of clean diesel formulations, and through the use of catalyzed particulate matter filters that can enjoy increased longevity and performance if ultra-low sulfur diesel is used. Twenty over-the-road tractors with Detroit Diesel Series 60 engines were selected for this study. Five trucks were operated on California (CA) specification diesel (CARB), five were operated on ARCO (now BP Amoco) EC diesel (ECD), five were operated on ARCO ECD with a Johnson-Matthey Continuously Regenerating Technology (CRT) filter and five were operated on ARCO ECD with an Engelhard Diesel Particulate Filter (DPX). The truck emissions were characterized using a transportable chassis dynamometer, full-scale dilution tunnel, research grade gas analyzers and filters for particulate matter (PM) mass collection. Two test schedules, the 5 mile route and the city-suburban (heavy vehicle) route (CSR), were employed.
Journal Article

Climate Control Load Reduction Strategies for Electric Drive Vehicles in Cold Weather

2016-04-05
2016-01-0262
When operated, the cabin climate control system is the largest auxiliary load on a vehicle. This load has significant impact on fuel economy for conventional and hybrid vehicles, and it drastically reduces the driving range of all-electric vehicles (EVs). Heating is even more detrimental to EV range than cooling because no engine waste heat is available. Reducing the thermal loads on the vehicle climate control system will extend driving range and increase the market penetration of EVs. Researchers at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory have evaluated strategies for vehicle climate control load reduction with special attention toward grid-connected electric vehicles. Outdoor vehicle thermal testing and computational modeling were used to assess potential strategies for improved thermal management and to evaluate the effectiveness of thermal load reduction technologies. A human physiology model was also used to evaluate the impact on occupant thermal comfort.
Technical Paper

Climate Control Load Reduction Strategies for Electric Drive Vehicles in Warm Weather

2015-04-14
2015-01-0355
Passenger compartment climate control is one of the largest auxiliary loads on a vehicle. Like conventional vehicles, electric vehicles (EVs) require climate control to maintain occupant comfort and safety, but cabin heating and air conditioning have a negative impact on driving range for all-electric vehicles. Range reduction caused by climate control and other factors is a barrier to widespread adoption of EVs. Reducing the thermal loads on the climate control system will extend driving range, thereby reducing consumer range anxiety and increasing the market penetration of EVs. Researchers at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory have investigated strategies for vehicle climate control load reduction, with special attention toward EVs. Outdoor vehicle thermal testing was conducted on two 2012 Ford Focus Electric vehicles to evaluate thermal management strategies for warm weather, including solar load reduction and cabin pre-ventilation.
Technical Paper

Co-Simulation of Electrical and Propulsion Systems

2001-08-20
2001-01-2533
One of the challenges of analyzing vehicular electrical systems is the co-dependence of the electrical system and the propulsion system. Even in traditional vehicles where the electrical power budget is very low, the electrical system analysis for macro power utilization over a drive cycle requires knowledge of the generator shaft rpm profile during the drive cycle. This co-dependence increases as the electrical power budget increases, and the integration of the two systems becomes complete when hybridization is chosen. Last year at this conference, the authors presented a paper entitled “Dual Voltage Electrical System Simulations.” That paper established validation for a suite of electrical component models and demonstrated the ability to predict system performance both on a macro power flow (entire drive cycle) level and a detailed transient-event level. The techniques were applicable to 12V, 42V, dual voltage, and/or elevated voltage systems.
Technical Paper

Cold-Start and Warmup Driveability Performance of Hybrid Electric Vehicles Using Oxygenated Fuels

2003-10-27
2003-01-3196
Hybrid vehicles may respond to fuel variables in unique ways; they could even require a unique driveability test. The Coordinating Research Council (CRC) conducted a program to determine the effect of ethanol content on driveability performance under cool ambient conditions. In addition to the 27 vehicles in the main fleet, four hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) were tested using the same fuels and driveability procedure. These HEVs responded to fuel in a manner similar to conventional vehicles; however, the HEVs showed unique driving characteristics not well captured in the existing test.
Technical Paper

CoolCalc: A Long-Haul Truck Thermal Load Estimation Tool

2011-04-12
2011-01-0656
In the United States, intercity long-haul trucks idle approximately 1,800 hrs per year primarily for sleeper cab hotel loads, consuming 838 million gallons of diesel fuel [1]. The U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is working on solutions to this challenge through the CoolCab project. The objective of the CoolCab project is to work closely with industry to design efficient thermal management systems for long-haul trucks that keep the cab comfortable with minimized engine idling. Truck engine idling is primarily done to heat or cool the cab/sleeper, keep the fuel warm in cold weather, and keep the engine warm for cold temperature startup. Reducing the thermal load on the cab/sleeper will decrease air conditioning system requirements, improve efficiency, and help reduce fuel use. To help assess and improve idle reduction solutions, the CoolCalc software tool was developed.
Technical Paper

Corroborative Evaluation of the Real-World Energy Saving Potentials of InfoRich Eco-Autonomous Driving (iREAD) System

2020-04-14
2020-01-0588
There has been an increasing interest in exploring the potential to reduce energy consumption of future connected and automated vehicles. People have extensively studied various eco-driving implementations that leverage preview information provided by on-board sensors and connectivity, as well as the control authority enabled by automation. Quantitative real-world evaluation of eco-driving benefits is a challenging task. The standard regulatory driving cycles used for measuring exhaust emissions and fuel economy are not truly representative of real-world driving, nor for capturing how connectivity and automation might influence driving trajectories. To adequately consider real-world driving behavior and potential “off-cycle” impacts, this paper presents four collaborative evaluation methods: large-scale simulation, in-depth simulation, vehicle-in-the-loop testing, and vehicle road testing.
Technical Paper

Cost Comparison of Wind Energy Delivered as Electricity or Hydrogen for Vehicles

2013-04-08
2013-01-1038
A simple cost analysis framework compares hydrogen and electricity as energy carriers delivering wind energy to light-duty vehicles (LDVs). We compare four wind energy pathways within a 2040-2050 timeframe and at large scale: a dedicated electricity transmission pathway and three distinct wind-hydrogen delivery pathways. Our results suggest that wind-hydrogen pathways will tend to be more costly than pure electricity transmission pathways on a per-mile driven cost basis ($/mile), but to a greater or lesser degree depending upon the pathway. The additional cost could be warranted to the degree that the hydrogen pathway adds value to consumers through full performance fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEV) compared to plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs), or through reduced variability in wind energy supply. If these benefits add value beyond the incremental costs suggested by our simple cost framework, some shift toward co-production or even dedicated hydrogen wind farms may be warranted.
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