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Journal Article

Biodiesel Impact on Engine Lubricant Dilution During Active Regeneration of Aftertreatment Systems

Experiments were conducted with ultra low sulfur diesel (ULSD) and 20% biodiesel blends (B20) to compare lube oil dilution levels and lubricant properties for systems using late in-cylinder fuel injection for aftertreatment regeneration. Lube oil dilution was measured by gas chromatography (GC) following ASTM method D3524 to measure diesel content, by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometry following a modified ASTM method D7371 to measure biodiesel content, and by a newly developed back-flush GC method that simultaneously measures both diesel and biodiesel. Heavy-duty (HD) engine testing was conducted on a 2008 6.7L Cummins ISB equipped with a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) and diesel particle filter (DPF). Stage one of engine testing consisted of 10 consecutive repeats of a forced DPF regeneration event. This continuous operation with late in-cylinder fuel injection served as a method to accelerate lube-oil dilution.
Journal Article

Distillation-based Droplet Modeling of Non-Ideal Oxygenated Gasoline Blends: Investigating the Role of Droplet Evaporation on PM Emissions

In some studies, a relationship has been observed between increasing ethanol content in gasoline and increased particulate matter (PM) emissions from vehicles equipped with spark ignition engines. The fundamental cause of the PM increase seen for moderate ethanol concentrations is not well understood. Ethanol features a greater heat of vaporization (HOV) than gasoline and also influences vaporization by altering the liquid and vapor composition throughout the distillation process. A droplet vaporization model was developed to explore ethanol’s effect on the evaporation of aromatic compounds known to be PM precursors. The evolving droplet composition is modeled as a distillation process, with non-ideal interactions between oxygenates and hydrocarbons accounted for using UNIFAC group contribution theory. Predicted composition and distillation curves were validated by experiments.
Journal Article

Effect of Accelerated Aging Rate on the Capture of Fuel-Borne Metal Impurities by Emissions Control Devices

Small impurities in the fuel can have a significant impact on the emissions control system performance over the lifetime of the vehicle. Of particular interest in recent studies has been the impact of sodium, potassium, and calcium that can be introduced either through fuel constituents, such as biodiesel, or as lubricant additives. In a collaboration between the National Renewable Energy Laboratory and the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, a series of accelerated aging studies have been performed to understand the potential impact of these metals on the emissions control system. This paper explores the effect of the rate of accelerated aging on the capture of fuel-borne metal impurities in the emission control devices and the subsequent impact on performance. Aging was accelerated by doping the fuel with high levels of the metals of interest. Three separate evaluations were performed, each with a different rate of accelerated aging.
Journal Article

Field Evaluation of Biodiesel (B20) Use by Transit Buses

The objective of this research project was to compare B20 (20% biodiesel fuel) and ultra-low-sulfur (ULSD) diesel-fueled buses in terms of fuel economy, vehicle maintenance, engine performance, component wear, and lube oil performance. We examined 15 model year (MY) 2002 Gillig 40-foot transit buses equipped with MY 2002 Cummins ISM engines. The engines met 2004 U.S. emission standards and employed exhaust gas recirculation (EGR). For 18 months, eight of these buses operated exclusively on B20 and seven operated exclusively on ULSD. The B20 and ULSD study groups operated from different depots of the St. Louis (Missouri) Metro, with bus routes matched for duty cycle parity. The B20- and ULSD-fueled buses exhibited comparable fuel economy, reliability (as measured by miles between road calls), and total maintenance costs. Engine and fuel system maintenance costs were also the same for the two groups after correcting for the higher average mileage of the B20 group.
Technical Paper

Fuel-Lubricant Interactions on the Propensity for Stochastic Pre-Ignition

This work explores the interaction of lubricant and fuel properties on stochastic pre-ignition (SPI). Findings are based statistically significant measurements of cylinder pressure to SPI tendency and magnitude. Specifically, lubricant detergents, lubricant volatility, fuel volatility, fuel chemical composition, fuel-wall impingement, and engine load were varied to study the physical-chemistry effects of fuel-lubricant interactions on SPI tendency. The work illustrates that at low loads, with fuels susceptible to SPI events, lubricant detergent package effects on SPI were non-significant. However, with changes to fuel distillation, fuel-wall impingement or fuel chemistry, lubricant detergent effects could be observed even at reduced loads.
Journal Article

Hydraulic Hybrid and Conventional Parcel Delivery Vehicles' Measured Laboratory Fuel Economy on Targeted Drive Cycles

This research project compares laboratory-measured fuel economy of a medium-duty diesel powered hydraulic hybrid vehicle drivetrain to both a conventional diesel drivetrain and a conventional gasoline drivetrain in a typical commercial parcel delivery application. Vehicles in this study included a model year 2012 Freightliner P10HH hybrid compared to a 2012 conventional gasoline P100 and a 2012 conventional diesel parcel delivery van of similar specifications. Drive cycle analysis of 484 days of hybrid parcel delivery van commercial operation from multiple vehicles was used to select three standard laboratory drive cycles as well as to create a custom representative cycle. These four cycles encompass and bracket the range of real world in-use data observed in Baltimore United Parcel Service operations.
Journal Article

Knock Resistance and Fine Particle Emissions for Several Biomass-Derived Oxygenates in a Direct-Injection Spark-Ignition Engine

Several high octane number oxygenates that could be derived from biomass were blended with gasoline and examined for performance properties and their impact on knock resistance and fine particle emissions in a single cylinder direct-injection spark-ignition engine. The oxygenates included ethanol, isobutanol, anisole, 4-methylanisole, 2-phenylethanol, 2,5-dimethyl furan, and 2,4-xylenol. These were blended into a summertime blendstock for oxygenate blending at levels ranging from 10 to 50 percent by volume. The base gasoline, its blends with p-xylene and p-cymene, and high-octane racing gasoline were tested as controls. Relevant gasoline properties including research octane number (RON), motor octane number, distillation curve, and vapor pressure were measured. Detailed hydrocarbon analysis was used to estimate heat of vaporization and particulate matter index (PMI). Experiments were conducted to measure knock-limited spark advance and particulate matter (PM) emissions.
Technical Paper

Quantification of Biodiesel Content in Fuels and Lubricants by FTIR and NMR Spectroscopy

The use of biodiesel requires the development of proper quantification procedures for biodiesel content in blends and in lubricants (fuel dilution in oil). Although the ester carbonyl stretch at 1746 wavenumbers (cm-1) is the most prominent band in the IR spectrum of biodiesel, it is difficult to use for quantification purposes due to a severe fluctuation of absorption strength from sample to sample, even at the same biodiesel content. We have demonstrated that the ester carbonyl fluctuation is not caused by variation in the ester alkyl chain length; but is most likely caused by the degree of hydrogen bonding of the ester functional group with water in the sample. Water molecules can form complexes with the ester compound affecting the strength of the ester carbonyl band. The impact of water on quantification of the biodiesel content of blends was significant, even for B100 samples that met the proposed ASTM D6751 water limit of 500 ppm by D6304 (Karl Fischer Methdod).
Journal Article

Simulated Real-World Energy Impacts of a Thermally Sensitive Powertrain Considering Viscous Losses and Enrichment

It is widely understood that cold ambient temperatures increase vehicle fuel consumption due to heat transfer losses, increased friction (increased viscosity lubricants), and enrichment strategies (accelerated catalyst heating). However, relatively little effort has been dedicated to thoroughly quantifying these impacts across a large set of real world drive cycle data and ambient conditions. This work leverages experimental dynamometer vehicle data collected under various drive cycles and ambient conditions to develop a simplified modeling framework for quantifying thermal effects on vehicle energy consumption. These models are applied over a wide array of real-world usage profiles and typical meteorological data to develop estimates of in-use fuel economy. The paper concludes with a discussion of how this integrated testing/modeling approach may be applied to quantify real-world, off-cycle fuel economy benefits of various technologies.
Technical Paper

Statistical Design and Analysis Methods for Evaluating the Effects of Lubricant Formulations on Diesel Engine Emissions

The Advanced Petroleum-Based Fuels - Diesel Emissions Control (APBF-DEC) project is a joint U.S. government/industry research effort to identify optimal combinations of fuels, lubricants, engines, and emission control systems to meet projected emissions regulations during the period 2000 to 2010. APBF-DEC is conducting five separate projects involving light- and heavy-duty engine platforms. Four projects are focusing on the performance of emission control technologies for reducing criteria emissions using different fuels. This project is investigating the effects of lubricant formulation on engine-out emissions (Phase I) and the resulting impact on emission control systems (Phase II). This paper describes the statistical design and analysis methods used during Phase I of the lubricants project.