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Journal Article

A System for Simulating Road-Representative Atmospheric Turbulence for Ground Vehicles in a Large Wind Tunnel

2016-04-05
2016-01-1624
Turbulence is known to influence the aerodynamic and aeroacoustic performance of ground vehicles. What is not thoroughly understood are the characteristics of turbulence that influence this performance and how they can be applied in a consistent manner for aerodynamic design and evaluation purposes. Through collaboration between Transport Canada and the National Research Council Canada (NRC), a project was undertaken to develop a system for generating road-representative turbulence in the NRC 9 m Wind Tunnel, named the Road Turbulence System (RTS). This endeavour was undertaken in support of a larger project to evaluate new and emerging drag reduction technologies for heavy-duty vehicles. A multi-stage design process was used to develop the RTS for use with a 30% scale model of a heavy-duty vehicle in the NRC 9m Wind Tunnel.
Technical Paper

Advanced Real-time Aerodynamic Model Identification Technique

2001-09-11
2001-01-2965
The Flight Research Laboratory (FRL), National Research Council (NRC) of Canada is currently developing an in-flight aircraft aerodynamic model identification technique that determines the small perturbation model at a given test condition. Initial demonstrations have been carried out using the NRC Falcon 20 research aircraft. An efficient system architecture, in terms of both software algorithms and hardware processing, has been designed to meet the stringent near real-time requirements of an in-flight system. As well, novel hardware and software techniques are being applied to the calibration and measurement of the fundamental in-flight parameters, such as air data. The small perturbation models are then combined to develop a global model of the aircraft that is validated by comparing the model response to flight data. The maneuvers were performed according to the FAA Acceptance Test Guide (ATG).
Journal Article

Aerodynamic Performance of Flat-Panel Boat-Tails and Their Interactive Benefits with Side-Skirts

2016-09-27
2016-01-8015
This paper describes an investigation of the performance potential of conventional flat-panel boat-tail concepts applied to tractor-trailer combinations. The study makes use of data from two wind-tunnel investigations, using model scales of 10% and 30%. Variations in boat-tail geometry were evaluated including the influence of length, side-panel angle and shape, top-panel angle and vertical position, and the presence of a lower panel. In addition, the beneficial interaction of the aerodynamic influence of boat-tails and side-skirts that provides a larger drag reduction than the sum of the individual-component drag reductions, identified in recent years through wind-tunnel tests in different facilities, has been further confirmed. This confirmation was accomplished using combinations of various boat-tails and side-skirts, with additional variations in the configuration of the tractor-trailer configuration.
Technical Paper

Assessment of the Dynamic Stability Characteristics of the Bell Model M427 Helicopter Using Parameter Estimation Technology

2002-11-05
2002-01-2916
A joint program between Bell Helicopter Textron Canada and the Flight Research Laboratory of Canada's National Research Council was initiated to address the aerodynamic modelling challenges of the Bell M427 helicopter. The primary objective was to use the NRC parameter estimation technique, based on modified maximum likelihood estimation (MMLE), on a limited set of flight test data to efficiently develop an accurate forward-flight mathematical model of the Bell M427. The effect of main rotor design changes on the aircraft stability characteristics was also investigated, using parameter estimation. This program has demonstrated the feasibility of creating a forward-flight rotorcraft aerodynamic mathematical model based on time-domain parameter estimation, and the ability of a 6 degree-of-freedom MMLE model to accurately document the impact of minor rotor modifications on aircraft stability.
Technical Paper

Comparison Tests Between Major European and North American Automotive Wind Tunnels

1983-02-01
830301
The results of comparative aerodynamic force measurements on a full-scale notchback-type vehicle, performed between 6 European companies operating full-scale automotive wind tunnels, were published in the SAE Paper 800140. Correlation tests with the same vehicle have been extended to 2 further European and 3 North American wind tunnels. First the geometry, the design and the flow data of the different wind tunnels is compared. The facilities compared include wind tunnels with open-test-sections, closed-test-sections and one tunnel with slotted side walls. The comparison of results, especially for drag coefficients, show that the correlation between the differently designed wind tunnels is reasonable. Problems of blockage correction are briefly discussed. The comparison tests furthermore revealed that careful design of the wheel pads and blockage corrections for lift seem to be very influential in achieving reasonable lift correlations. Six-component measurements show similar problems.
Journal Article

Considerations for the Wind Tunnel Simulation of Tractor-Trailer Combinations: Correlation of Full- and Half-Scale Measurements

2013-09-24
2013-01-2456
The 9-meter wind tunnel of the National Research Council (NRC) of Canada is commonly employed in testing of class 8 tractors at full- and model-scales. In support of this work a series of tests of an identical model at full- and half-scale were performed to investigate some of the effects resulting from simulation compromises. Minimum Reynolds Number considerations drive the crucial decisions of what scale and speed to employ for testing. The full- and half-scale campaigns included Reynolds Number sweeps allowing conclusions to be reached on the minimum Reynolds number required for testing of fully-detailed commercial truck models. Furthermore the Reynolds sweeps were repeated at a variety of yaw angles to examine whether the minimum Reynolds Number was a function of yaw angle and the resulting flow regime changes. The test section of the NRC 9-meter wind tunnel is not sufficiently long to accommodate a full-scale tractor and a typical trailer length of 48′ or more.
Technical Paper

Development of a Supercooled Large Droplet Environment within the NRC Altitude Icing Wind Tunnel

2015-06-15
2015-01-2092
Simulations of supercooled large droplet (SLD) icing environments within the NRC's Altitude Icing Wind Tunnel (AIWT) have been performed in which broad band mass distribution spectra are achieved that include a distinct pattern of liquid water content (LWC) over a range of droplet sizes (i.e., bi-modal distribution). The mass distribution is achieved through modification of the existing spray system of the AIWT to allow two spray profiles with differing LWC and median volumetric diameter (MVD) to be simultaneously injected into the flow. Results of spray profile distributions measured in the test section have demonstrated that freezing drizzle conditions, where MVD is either less than or greater than 40 μm, can be achieved.
Technical Paper

Development of a Unique Icing Spray System for a New Facility for Certification of Large Turbofan Engines

2011-06-13
2011-38-0099
The Global Aerospace Centre for Icing and Environmental Research (GLACIER) facility has been constructed in Thompson, Manitoba, Canada. This project involves the construction and operation of a facility which will provide icing certification tests for large gas turbine engines, as well as performance, endurance and other gas turbine engine qualification testing. MDS Aero Support, in partnership with the National Research Council of Canada (NRC), Pratt and Whitney Canada, and Rolls Royce Canada, has developed a globally unique outdoor engine test and certification facility. The prime purpose of this facility is for icing certification of aviation gas turbine engines, initially for Rolls-Royce and Pratt & Whitney, two of the three largest gas turbine manufacturers in the world.
Technical Paper

Do Turbulent Premixed Flame Fronts in Spark-Ignition Engines Behave Like Passive Surfaces?

2000-06-19
2000-01-1942
A widely held belief in the combustion community is that the chemical and hydrodynamic structure of a stretched laminar premixed flame can be preserved in a turbulent flow field over a range of conditions collectively known as the flamelet regime, and the homogeneous charge spark-ignition engine combustion falls within the domain of this regime. The major assumption in the laminar flamelet concept as applied to the turbulent premixed flames is that the flame front behaves as a constant-property passive scalar surface, and an increase in the wrinkled flame surface area with increasing turbulence intensity is the dominant mechanism for the observed flame velocity enhancement. The two approaches that have been recently used for estimating a measure of the wrinkled flame surface area in spark-ignition engines and other premixed flames are the flame surface density concept and fractal geometry.
Technical Paper

Effects of Fuel Properties on Exhaust Emissions of a Single Cylinder DI Diesel Engine

1996-10-01
962116
In this study, the AVL 8-mode steady-state simulations of the EPA transient test were conducted on a two litre single cylinder Ricardo Proteus research engine using two fuel matrices, one consisting fuels having different cetane numbers and the other consisting fuels of different aromatic contents. Engine exhaust emissions of NOx, HC, CO, CO2 and particulates were measured at two different injection timings. The results show that the single cylinder engine behaves similarly as a number of multi-cylinder production engines. The 8-mode simulation was also shown to produce exhaust emissions close to those obtained from the EPA transient test procedure. The cetane number response of the research engine indicates that an increase in cetane number of the fuel with cetane improvers reduced NOx emissions but increased particulate emissions.
Technical Paper

Emissions from Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine with EGR using Fuels Derived from Oil Sands and Conventional Crude

2003-10-27
2003-01-3144
The exhaust emissions from a single-cylinder version of a heavy-duty diesel engine with exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) were studied using 12 diesel fuels derived from oil sands and conventional sources. The test fuels were blended from 22 refinery streams to produce four fuels (two from each source) at three different total aromatic levels (10, 20, and 30% by mass). The cetane numbers were held constant at 43. Exhaust emissions were measured using the AVL eight-mode steady-state test procedure. PM emissions were accurately modeled by a single regression equation with two predictors, total aromatics and sulphur content. Sulphate emissions were found to be independent of the type of sulphur compound in the fuel. NOx emissions were accurately modeled by a single regression equation with total aromatics and density as predictor variables. PM and NOx emissions were significantly significantly affected by fuel properties, but crude oil source did not play a role.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of Visual Failure versus Aerodynamic Limit for a Snow Contaminated Anti-Iced Wing Section during Simulated Takeoff

2019-06-10
2019-01-1972
Under contract to Airlines for America (A4A), APS Aviation Inc. (APS), in collaboration with the National Research Council of Canada (NRC), completed an aircraft ground icing exploratory research project at the NRC 3 m × 6 m Wind Tunnel in Ottawa in January 2019. The purpose of this project was to investigate the feasibility of using aerodynamic data to evaluate the performance of contaminated anti-icing fluid, rather than the traditional visual fluid failure indicators that are used to develop Holdover Times (HOTs). The aerodynamic performance of a supercritical airfoil model with anti-icing fluids and snow contamination was evaluated against the clean, dry performance of the airfoil in order to calculate the associated aerodynamic penalty. The visual failure of the fluid was also evaluated for each run, and the visual and aerodynamic results were compared against each other for each contamination exposure time.
Journal Article

Evaluation of the Aerodynamics of Drag Reduction Technologies for Light-duty Vehicles: a Comprehensive Wind Tunnel Study

2016-04-05
2016-01-1613
In a campaign to quantify the aerodynamic drag changes associated with drag reduction technologies recently introduced for light-duty vehicles, a 3-year, 24-vehicle study was commissioned by Transport Canada. The intent was to evaluate the level of drag reduction associated with each technology as a function of vehicle size class. Drag reduction technologies were evaluated through direct measurements of their aerodynamic performance on full-scale vehicles in the National Research Council Canada (NRC) 9 m Wind Tunnel, which is equipped with a the Ground Effect Simulation System (GESS) composed of a moving belt, wheel rollers and a boundary layer suction system. A total of 24 vehicles equipped with drag reduction technologies were evaluated over three wind tunnel entries, beginning in early 2014 to summer 2015. Testing included 12 sedans, 8 sport utility vehicles, 2 minivans and 2 pick-up trucks.
Technical Paper

Four Years of Testing to AS5562

2019-06-10
2019-01-1957
With the publication of SAE AS5562 in 2015, icing wind tunnel test facilities have upgraded their operating environments and instrumentation to meet the client demand to test to this new standard. Nearing four years of testing and development to this standard, numerous questions and challenges have arisen that industry has addressed on an individual basis but not in a common format for all. This paper addresses some of the known challenges in an effort to apply AS5562 consistently across industry and provide clarity to all users.
Technical Paper

Fundamental Ice Crystal Accretion Physics Studies

2011-06-13
2011-38-0018
Due to numerous engine power-loss events associated with high-altitude convective weather, ice accretion within an engine due to ice-crystal ingestion is being investigated. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the National Research Council (NRC) of Canada are starting to examine the physical mechanisms of ice accretion on surfaces exposed to ice-crystal and mixed-phase conditions. In November 2010, two weeks of testing occurred at the NRC Research Altitude Facility utilizing a single wedge-type airfoil designed to facilitate fundamental studies while retaining critical features of a compressor stator blade or guide vane. The airfoil was placed in the NRC cascade wind tunnel for both aerodynamic and icing tests. Aerodynamic testing showed excellent agreement compared with CFD data on the icing pressure surface and allowed calculation of heat transfer coefficients at various airfoil locations.
Journal Article

Heavy-Duty Vehicle Rear-View Camera Systems

2014-09-30
2014-01-2381
Transport Canada, through its ecoTECHNOLOGY for Vehicles program, retained the services of the National Research Council Canada to undertake a test program to examine the operational and human factors considerations concerning the removal of the side mirrors on a Class 8 tractor equipped with a 53 foot dry van semi-trailer. Full scale aerodynamic testing was performed in a 2 m by 3 m wind tunnel on a system component basis to quantify the possible fuel savings associated with the removal of the side mirrors. The mirrors on a Volvo VN780 tractor were removed and replaced with a prototype camera-based indirect vision system consisting of four cameras mounted in the front fender location; two cameras on either side of the vehicle. Four monitors mounted in the vehicle - two mounted on the right A-pillar and two mounted on the left A-pillar - provided indirect vision information to the vehicle operator.
Technical Paper

Ice Accretion Measurements on an Airfoil and Wedge in Mixed-Phase Conditions

2015-06-15
2015-01-2116
This paper presents measurements of ice accretion shape and surface temperature from ice-crystal icing experiments conducted jointly by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the National Research Council (NRC) of Canada. The data comes from experiments performed at NRC's Research Altitude Test Facility (RATFac) in 2012. The measurements are intended to help develop models of the ice-crystal icing phenomenon associated with engine ice-crystal icing. Ice accretion tests were conducted using two different airfoil models (a NACA 0012 and wedge) at different velocities, temperatures, and pressures although only a limited set of permutations were tested. The wedge airfoil had several tests during which its surface was actively cooled. The ice accretion measurements included leading-edge thickness for both airfoils. The wedge and one case from the NACA 0012 model also included 2D cross-section profile shapes.
Technical Paper

Icing Test and Measurement Capabilities of the NRC’s Gas Turbine Laboratory

2019-06-10
2019-01-1943
The National Research Council’s Gas Turbine Laboratory provides industry leading icing facilities that allow manufacturers to develop, validate and certify new products for flight in adverse conditions. This paper shows how NRC measurement techniques are used across the facilities, and presents a literature-review of recently developed capabilities. The overview includes new details on some facilities, and future capabilities that are in development or planned for the near future. Methods developed at the NRC for characterizing inclement conditions are discussed and include the Isokinetic Probe, Particle Shadow Velocimetry, the Particle Detection Probe, and a size-binned real-time thermodynamic evaporation model.
Technical Paper

In-Cabin Aeroacoustics of a Full-Scale Transport Truck

2016-09-27
2016-01-8143
The noise generated by the flow of air past a transport truck is a key design factor for the manufacturers of these vehicles as the sound levels in the cabin are a significant component of driver comfort. This paper describes a collaboration between Volvo GTT and the National Research Council Canada to measure the in-cabin aeroacoustics of a full-scale cab-over tractor in the NRC 9 m Wind Tunnel. Acoustic instrumentation was installed inside the tractor to record cabin noise levels and externally to acquire tunnel background noise data. Using a microphone mounted on the driver’s-side tunnel wall as a reference to remove variations in background noise levels between data points, differences in cabin noise levels were able to be detected when comparing the tractor with different configurations. The good repeatability of the data allowed for differences of as little as 0.5 dB to be measured.
Technical Paper

Influence of Fuel Aromatics Type on the Particulate Matter and NOx Emissions of a Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine

2000-06-19
2000-01-1856
The influence of fuel aromatics type on the particulate matter (PM) and NOx exhaust emissions of a heavy-duty, single-cylinder, DI diesel engine was investigated. Eight fuels were blended from conventional and oil sands crude oil sources to form five fuel pairs with similar densities but with different poly-aromatic (1.6 to 14.6%) or total aromatic (14.3 to 39.0%) levels. The engine was tuned to meet the U.S. EPA 1994 emission standards. An eight-mode, steady-state simulation of the U.S. EPA heavy-duty transient test procedure was followed. The experimental results show that there were no statistically significant differences in the PM and NOx emissions of the five fuel pairs after removing the fuel sulphur content effect on PM emissions. However, there was a definite trend towards higher NOx emissions as the fuel density, poly-aromatic and total aromatic levels of the test fuels increased.
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