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Journal Article

A Novel Technique to Determine Free-Stream Velocity from Ground-Based Anemometric Measurements During Track Tests

2016-09-27
2016-01-8023
A novel method was developed to predict the free-stream velocity experienced by a traveling vehicle based on track-side anemometric measurements. The end objective of this research was to enhance the reliability of the prediction of free-stream conditions in order to improve the accuracy of aerodynamic drag coefficient (CD) assessments from track tests of surface vehicles. Although the technique was applied to heavy-duty vehicles in the present work, it is equally applicable to any vehicle type. The proposed method is based on Taylor’s hypothesis, a principle applied in fluid mechanics to convert temporal signals into the spatial domain. It considers that the turbulent wind velocity fluctuations measured at one point are due to the "passage of an unchanging pattern of turbulent motion over the point". The method is applied to predict the wind velocity that the vehicle will experience as it encounters a wind pattern detected earlier by an anemometer located upwind.
Technical Paper

A Phenomenological Model for Soot Formation and Oxidation in Direct-Injection Diesel Engines

1995-10-01
952428
The concentration of carbonaceous particulate matter in the exhaust of diesel engines depends on the rates of formation and oxidation of soot in the combustion chamber. Soot forms early in the combustion process when local fuel-rich areas exist, whereas soot oxidation occurs later when more air is entrained into the fuel spray. Based on this understanding, a phenomenological combustion model is established. In the model, the cylinder volume is divided into four zones: a rich fuel spray core, a premixed-burning/burned gas zone, a mixing controlled burning zone and a lean air zone. Soot formation takes place in the mixing controlled burning zone where the local C/O ratio is above the critical value. Soot oxidation occurs in the premixed-burning/burned gas zone as air is entrained. By using a quasi-global chemical reaction scheme, the oxidation of soot particles by different species can be investigated.
Journal Article

A System for Simulating Road-Representative Atmospheric Turbulence for Ground Vehicles in a Large Wind Tunnel

2016-04-05
2016-01-1624
Turbulence is known to influence the aerodynamic and aeroacoustic performance of ground vehicles. What is not thoroughly understood are the characteristics of turbulence that influence this performance and how they can be applied in a consistent manner for aerodynamic design and evaluation purposes. Through collaboration between Transport Canada and the National Research Council Canada (NRC), a project was undertaken to develop a system for generating road-representative turbulence in the NRC 9 m Wind Tunnel, named the Road Turbulence System (RTS). This endeavour was undertaken in support of a larger project to evaluate new and emerging drag reduction technologies for heavy-duty vehicles. A multi-stage design process was used to develop the RTS for use with a 30% scale model of a heavy-duty vehicle in the NRC 9m Wind Tunnel.
Technical Paper

Advanced Real-time Aerodynamic Model Identification Technique

2001-09-11
2001-01-2965
The Flight Research Laboratory (FRL), National Research Council (NRC) of Canada is currently developing an in-flight aircraft aerodynamic model identification technique that determines the small perturbation model at a given test condition. Initial demonstrations have been carried out using the NRC Falcon 20 research aircraft. An efficient system architecture, in terms of both software algorithms and hardware processing, has been designed to meet the stringent near real-time requirements of an in-flight system. As well, novel hardware and software techniques are being applied to the calibration and measurement of the fundamental in-flight parameters, such as air data. The small perturbation models are then combined to develop a global model of the aircraft that is validated by comparing the model response to flight data. The maneuvers were performed according to the FAA Acceptance Test Guide (ATG).
Journal Article

Aerodynamic Performance of Flat-Panel Boat-Tails and Their Interactive Benefits with Side-Skirts

2016-09-27
2016-01-8015
This paper describes an investigation of the performance potential of conventional flat-panel boat-tail concepts applied to tractor-trailer combinations. The study makes use of data from two wind-tunnel investigations, using model scales of 10% and 30%. Variations in boat-tail geometry were evaluated including the influence of length, side-panel angle and shape, top-panel angle and vertical position, and the presence of a lower panel. In addition, the beneficial interaction of the aerodynamic influence of boat-tails and side-skirts that provides a larger drag reduction than the sum of the individual-component drag reductions, identified in recent years through wind-tunnel tests in different facilities, has been further confirmed. This confirmation was accomplished using combinations of various boat-tails and side-skirts, with additional variations in the configuration of the tractor-trailer configuration.
Technical Paper

Aircraft Performance Degradation - the Effects of Inflight Icing upon Lift, Drag and Propulsive Efficiency

2011-06-13
2011-38-0073
Data is presented from a number of flight research aircraft, which have been involved in the research of the effects of inflight icing, in a variety of atmospheric supercooled droplet and mixed-phase icing environmental conditions. The aircraft Types considered cover both Pneumatic and Thermal Ice Protection Systems (IPS). Icing includes supercooled droplet impact icing upon airframe and propeller blades and cold-soaked frost icing. The drag effects of inflight icing, from mixed-phase small and large droplets encountered during the course of SALPEX cloud physics research operations, upon a Fokker F-27 turboprop transport aircraft, have been analyzed. Furthermore, during the course of AIRS 1.5 and AIRS II inflight icing flight research operations, the NRC Convair conducted aerodynamic characterization maneuvers, following and during icing accretion in a wide range of environmental conditions of altitude, air temperature, LWC and droplet spectra.
Technical Paper

Aluminum Extrusions for Automotive Crash Applications

2017-03-28
2017-01-1272
One of the main applications for aluminum extrusions in the automotive sector is crash structures including crash rails, crash cans, bumpers and structural body components. The objective is usually to optimize the energy absorption capability for a given structure weight. The ability to extrude thin wall multi-void extrusions contributes to this goal. However, the alloy used also plays a significant role in terms of the ability to produce the required geometry, strength - which to a large extent controls the energy absorption capability and the “ductility” or fracture behavior which controls the strain that can be applied locally during crush deformation before cracking. This paper describes results of a test program to examine the crush behavior of a range of alloys typically supplied for automotive applications as a function of processing parameters including artificial ageing and quench rate.
Journal Article

An Investigation of the Influence of Close-Proximity Traffic on the Aerodynamic Drag Experienced by Tractor-Trailer Combinations

2019-04-02
2019-01-0648
Recent research to investigate the aerodynamic-drag reduction associated with truck platooning systems has begun to reveal that surrounding traffic has a measurable impact on the aerodynamic performance of heavy trucks. A 1/15-scale wind-tunnel study was undertaken to measure changes to the aerodynamic drag experienced by heavy trucks in the presence of upstream traffic. The results, which are based on traffic conditions with up to 5 surrounding vehicles in a 2-lane configuration and consisting of 3 vehicle shapes (compact sedans, SUVs, and a medium-duty truck), show drag reductions of 1% to 16% for the heavy truck model, with the largest reductions of the same order as those experienced in a truck-platooning scenario. The data also reveal that the performance of drag-reduction technologies applied to the heavy-truck model (trailer side-skirts and a boat-tail) demonstrate different performance when applied to an isolated vehicle than to conditions with surrounding traffic.
Journal Article

Analysis of Residual Strain Profiles in Distorted Aluminum Engine Blocks by Neutron Diffraction

2013-04-08
2013-01-0171
In recent years, light weight components have been an area of significant importance in automotive design. This has led to the replacement of steel and cast iron with aluminum alloys for many automotive components. For instance, Al-Si alloys have successfully replaced nodular and gray cast iron in the production of large automotive components such as engine blocks. However, excessive residual strain along the cylinder bores of these engine blocks may result in cylinder distortion during engine operation. Therefore, in this study, neutron diffraction was used to evaluate residual strain along the aluminum cylinder bridge and the gray cast iron liners of distorted and undistorted engine blocks. The strains were measured in the hoop, radial, and axial orientations. The results suggest that the residual strain along the aluminum cylinder bridge of the distorted engine block was tensile for all three measured components.
Journal Article

Analysis of Residual Stress Profiles in the Cylinder Web Region of an As-Cast V6 Al Engine Block with Cast-In Fe Liners Using Neutron Diffraction

2011-04-12
2011-01-0036
Continuous efforts to develop a lightweight alloy suitable for the most demanding applications in automotive industry resulted in a number of advanced aluminum (Al) and magnesium alloys and manufacturing routes. One example of this is the application of 319 Al alloy for production of 3.6L V6 gasoline engine blocks. Aluminum is sand cast around Fe-liner cylinder inserts, prior to undergoing the T7 heat treatment process. One of the critical factors determining the quality of the final product is the type, level, and profile of residual stresses along the Fe liners (or extent of liner distortion) that are always present in a cast component. In this study, neutron diffraction was used to characterize residual stresses along the Al and the Fe liners in the web region of the cast engine block. The strains were measured both in Al and Fe in hoop, radial, and axial orientations. The stresses were subsequently determined using generalized Hooke's law.
Technical Paper

Assessment of the Dynamic Stability Characteristics of the Bell Model M427 Helicopter Using Parameter Estimation Technology

2002-11-05
2002-01-2916
A joint program between Bell Helicopter Textron Canada and the Flight Research Laboratory of Canada's National Research Council was initiated to address the aerodynamic modelling challenges of the Bell M427 helicopter. The primary objective was to use the NRC parameter estimation technique, based on modified maximum likelihood estimation (MMLE), on a limited set of flight test data to efficiently develop an accurate forward-flight mathematical model of the Bell M427. The effect of main rotor design changes on the aircraft stability characteristics was also investigated, using parameter estimation. This program has demonstrated the feasibility of creating a forward-flight rotorcraft aerodynamic mathematical model based on time-domain parameter estimation, and the ability of a 6 degree-of-freedom MMLE model to accurately document the impact of minor rotor modifications on aircraft stability.
Journal Article

CAM-Based Planning, Programming and Execution of Large-Scale Machining Operations by a Robot-Mounted Gantry System

2011-10-18
2011-01-2651
This paper examines issues related to planning, programming and execution of machining operations by a robot in the context of machining large parts with complex geometries by a gantry-mounted robotic system. Parts were created from surface data in a CAD/CAM environment. The same environment was used to generate tool paths using a conventional machine tool approach. These paths were converted to robot trajectories and validated using mathematical kinematic models of the robotic system. Validation was performed according to various criteria related to process performance. Associated robot programs were then automatically generated. The manufacturing cell was progressively integrated according to requirements resulting from iterative process characterization. A metrology-based calibration procedure was designed that considerably improved the system's positioning precision.
Technical Paper

Carded Recycled Carbon Fiber Mats for the Production of Thermoset Composites via Infusion/Compression Molding

2013-09-17
2013-01-2208
The use of carbon fiber reinforced thermoset composites has doubled in the last decade raising questions about the waste generated from manufacturing and at end-of-life, especially in the aircraft industry. In this study, 2.5 cm long carbon fibers were recovered from thermoset composite waste using a commercial scale pyrolysis process. Scanning electron microscopy, density measurements, single filament tensile testing as well as micro-droplet testing were performed to characterize the morphology, mechanical properties, and surface adhesion of the fibers. The recycled fibers appeared to be mostly undamaged and clean, exhibiting comparable mechanical properties to virgin carbon fibers. A carding process followed by an ultrasound treatment produced randomly aligned recycled fiber mats. These mats were used to fabricate composite plates, with fiber volume fractions up to 40 %, by infusion / compression molding.
Technical Paper

Comparison Tests Between Major European and North American Automotive Wind Tunnels

1983-02-01
830301
The results of comparative aerodynamic force measurements on a full-scale notchback-type vehicle, performed between 6 European companies operating full-scale automotive wind tunnels, were published in the SAE Paper 800140. Correlation tests with the same vehicle have been extended to 2 further European and 3 North American wind tunnels. First the geometry, the design and the flow data of the different wind tunnels is compared. The facilities compared include wind tunnels with open-test-sections, closed-test-sections and one tunnel with slotted side walls. The comparison of results, especially for drag coefficients, show that the correlation between the differently designed wind tunnels is reasonable. Problems of blockage correction are briefly discussed. The comparison tests furthermore revealed that careful design of the wheel pads and blockage corrections for lift seem to be very influential in achieving reasonable lift correlations. Six-component measurements show similar problems.
Journal Article

Considerations for the Wind Tunnel Simulation of Tractor-Trailer Combinations: Correlation of Full- and Half-Scale Measurements

2013-09-24
2013-01-2456
The 9-meter wind tunnel of the National Research Council (NRC) of Canada is commonly employed in testing of class 8 tractors at full- and model-scales. In support of this work a series of tests of an identical model at full- and half-scale were performed to investigate some of the effects resulting from simulation compromises. Minimum Reynolds Number considerations drive the crucial decisions of what scale and speed to employ for testing. The full- and half-scale campaigns included Reynolds Number sweeps allowing conclusions to be reached on the minimum Reynolds number required for testing of fully-detailed commercial truck models. Furthermore the Reynolds sweeps were repeated at a variety of yaw angles to examine whether the minimum Reynolds Number was a function of yaw angle and the resulting flow regime changes. The test section of the NRC 9-meter wind tunnel is not sufficiently long to accommodate a full-scale tractor and a typical trailer length of 48′ or more.
Technical Paper

Controlling the Forming of Thermoplastics through Forming Power

2013-04-08
2013-01-0602
Controlling the forming of large thermoplastic parts from a simulation requires very precise predictions of the pressure and volume profile evolution. Present pressure profile based simulations adequately predict the thickness distribution of a part, but the forming pressure and volume profile development lack the precision required for process control. However new simulations based on the amount of power required to form the material can accurately predict these pressure and volume profiles. In addition online monitoring of the forming power on existing machines can be easily implemented by installing a flow rate and pressure meter at the gas entrance, and if necessary, exits of the part. An important additional benefit is that a machine thus equipped can function as an online rheometer that can characterize the viscosity of the material at the operating point by tuning the simulation to the online measurements.
Technical Paper

Development and Commissioning of a Linear Compressor Cascade Rig for Ice Crystal Research

2011-06-13
2011-38-0079
This paper describes the commissioning of a linear compressor cascade rig for ice crystal research. The rig is located in an altitude chamber so the test section stagnation pressure, temperature and Mach number can be varied independently. The facility is open-circuit which eliminates the possibility of recirculating ice crystals reentering the test section and modifying the median mass diameter and total water content in time. As this is an innovative facility, the operating procedures and instrumentation used are discussed. Sample flow quality data are presented showing the distribution of velocity, temperature, turbulence intensity and ice water concentration in the test section. The control and repeatability of experimental parameters is also discussed.
Technical Paper

Do Turbulent Premixed Flame Fronts in Spark-Ignition Engines Behave Like Passive Surfaces?

2000-06-19
2000-01-1942
A widely held belief in the combustion community is that the chemical and hydrodynamic structure of a stretched laminar premixed flame can be preserved in a turbulent flow field over a range of conditions collectively known as the flamelet regime, and the homogeneous charge spark-ignition engine combustion falls within the domain of this regime. The major assumption in the laminar flamelet concept as applied to the turbulent premixed flames is that the flame front behaves as a constant-property passive scalar surface, and an increase in the wrinkled flame surface area with increasing turbulence intensity is the dominant mechanism for the observed flame velocity enhancement. The two approaches that have been recently used for estimating a measure of the wrinkled flame surface area in spark-ignition engines and other premixed flames are the flame surface density concept and fractal geometry.
Journal Article

Effect of Chill Parameters on the Residual Strain in Cast 319 Aluminum Alloy: A Neutron Diffraction Study

2014-04-01
2014-01-0836
The demand for light weight vehicles continues to stimulate extensive research into the development of light weight casting alloys and optimization of their manufacturing processes. Of primary relevance are Aluminum (Al) and Magnesium (Mg) based alloys, which have successfully replaced selected iron based castings in automobiles. However, optimization of as-cast microstructure, processing and performance remains a challenge for some Al-based alloys. In this context, placement of chills in castings has been frequently used to locally manipulate the solidification conditions and microstructure of a casting. In this work, the effect of using an active copper chill on the residual strain profile of a sand-cast B319 aluminum alloy was investigated. Wedge-shaped castings were produced with three different cooling conditions: copper plate chill, copper pipe with cooling water and no chill (baseline).
Technical Paper

Evaluation of Visual Failure versus Aerodynamic Limit for a Snow Contaminated Anti-Iced Wing Section during Simulated Takeoff

2019-06-10
2019-01-1972
Under contract to Airlines for America (A4A), APS Aviation Inc. (APS), in collaboration with the National Research Council of Canada (NRC), completed an aircraft ground icing exploratory research project at the NRC 3 m × 6 m Wind Tunnel in Ottawa in January 2019. The purpose of this project was to investigate the feasibility of using aerodynamic data to evaluate the performance of contaminated anti-icing fluid, rather than the traditional visual fluid failure indicators that are used to develop Holdover Times (HOTs). The aerodynamic performance of a supercritical airfoil model with anti-icing fluids and snow contamination was evaluated against the clean, dry performance of the airfoil in order to calculate the associated aerodynamic penalty. The visual failure of the fluid was also evaluated for each run, and the visual and aerodynamic results were compared against each other for each contamination exposure time.
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