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Technical Paper

A Phenomenological Model for Soot Formation and Oxidation in Direct-Injection Diesel Engines

1995-10-01
952428
The concentration of carbonaceous particulate matter in the exhaust of diesel engines depends on the rates of formation and oxidation of soot in the combustion chamber. Soot forms early in the combustion process when local fuel-rich areas exist, whereas soot oxidation occurs later when more air is entrained into the fuel spray. Based on this understanding, a phenomenological combustion model is established. In the model, the cylinder volume is divided into four zones: a rich fuel spray core, a premixed-burning/burned gas zone, a mixing controlled burning zone and a lean air zone. Soot formation takes place in the mixing controlled burning zone where the local C/O ratio is above the critical value. Soot oxidation occurs in the premixed-burning/burned gas zone as air is entrained. By using a quasi-global chemical reaction scheme, the oxidation of soot particles by different species can be investigated.
Technical Paper

Aluminum Extrusions for Automotive Crash Applications

2017-03-28
2017-01-1272
One of the main applications for aluminum extrusions in the automotive sector is crash structures including crash rails, crash cans, bumpers and structural body components. The objective is usually to optimize the energy absorption capability for a given structure weight. The ability to extrude thin wall multi-void extrusions contributes to this goal. However, the alloy used also plays a significant role in terms of the ability to produce the required geometry, strength - which to a large extent controls the energy absorption capability and the “ductility” or fracture behavior which controls the strain that can be applied locally during crush deformation before cracking. This paper describes results of a test program to examine the crush behavior of a range of alloys typically supplied for automotive applications as a function of processing parameters including artificial ageing and quench rate.
Journal Article

Analysis of Residual Strain Profiles in Distorted Aluminum Engine Blocks by Neutron Diffraction

2013-04-08
2013-01-0171
In recent years, light weight components have been an area of significant importance in automotive design. This has led to the replacement of steel and cast iron with aluminum alloys for many automotive components. For instance, Al-Si alloys have successfully replaced nodular and gray cast iron in the production of large automotive components such as engine blocks. However, excessive residual strain along the cylinder bores of these engine blocks may result in cylinder distortion during engine operation. Therefore, in this study, neutron diffraction was used to evaluate residual strain along the aluminum cylinder bridge and the gray cast iron liners of distorted and undistorted engine blocks. The strains were measured in the hoop, radial, and axial orientations. The results suggest that the residual strain along the aluminum cylinder bridge of the distorted engine block was tensile for all three measured components.
Journal Article

Analysis of Residual Stress Profiles in the Cylinder Web Region of an As-Cast V6 Al Engine Block with Cast-In Fe Liners Using Neutron Diffraction

2011-04-12
2011-01-0036
Continuous efforts to develop a lightweight alloy suitable for the most demanding applications in automotive industry resulted in a number of advanced aluminum (Al) and magnesium alloys and manufacturing routes. One example of this is the application of 319 Al alloy for production of 3.6L V6 gasoline engine blocks. Aluminum is sand cast around Fe-liner cylinder inserts, prior to undergoing the T7 heat treatment process. One of the critical factors determining the quality of the final product is the type, level, and profile of residual stresses along the Fe liners (or extent of liner distortion) that are always present in a cast component. In this study, neutron diffraction was used to characterize residual stresses along the Al and the Fe liners in the web region of the cast engine block. The strains were measured both in Al and Fe in hoop, radial, and axial orientations. The stresses were subsequently determined using generalized Hooke's law.
Journal Article

CAM-Based Planning, Programming and Execution of Large-Scale Machining Operations by a Robot-Mounted Gantry System

2011-10-18
2011-01-2651
This paper examines issues related to planning, programming and execution of machining operations by a robot in the context of machining large parts with complex geometries by a gantry-mounted robotic system. Parts were created from surface data in a CAD/CAM environment. The same environment was used to generate tool paths using a conventional machine tool approach. These paths were converted to robot trajectories and validated using mathematical kinematic models of the robotic system. Validation was performed according to various criteria related to process performance. Associated robot programs were then automatically generated. The manufacturing cell was progressively integrated according to requirements resulting from iterative process characterization. A metrology-based calibration procedure was designed that considerably improved the system's positioning precision.
Technical Paper

Carded Recycled Carbon Fiber Mats for the Production of Thermoset Composites via Infusion/Compression Molding

2013-09-17
2013-01-2208
The use of carbon fiber reinforced thermoset composites has doubled in the last decade raising questions about the waste generated from manufacturing and at end-of-life, especially in the aircraft industry. In this study, 2.5 cm long carbon fibers were recovered from thermoset composite waste using a commercial scale pyrolysis process. Scanning electron microscopy, density measurements, single filament tensile testing as well as micro-droplet testing were performed to characterize the morphology, mechanical properties, and surface adhesion of the fibers. The recycled fibers appeared to be mostly undamaged and clean, exhibiting comparable mechanical properties to virgin carbon fibers. A carding process followed by an ultrasound treatment produced randomly aligned recycled fiber mats. These mats were used to fabricate composite plates, with fiber volume fractions up to 40 %, by infusion / compression molding.
Technical Paper

Controlling the Forming of Thermoplastics through Forming Power

2013-04-08
2013-01-0602
Controlling the forming of large thermoplastic parts from a simulation requires very precise predictions of the pressure and volume profile evolution. Present pressure profile based simulations adequately predict the thickness distribution of a part, but the forming pressure and volume profile development lack the precision required for process control. However new simulations based on the amount of power required to form the material can accurately predict these pressure and volume profiles. In addition online monitoring of the forming power on existing machines can be easily implemented by installing a flow rate and pressure meter at the gas entrance, and if necessary, exits of the part. An important additional benefit is that a machine thus equipped can function as an online rheometer that can characterize the viscosity of the material at the operating point by tuning the simulation to the online measurements.
Journal Article

Effect of Chill Parameters on the Residual Strain in Cast 319 Aluminum Alloy: A Neutron Diffraction Study

2014-04-01
2014-01-0836
The demand for light weight vehicles continues to stimulate extensive research into the development of light weight casting alloys and optimization of their manufacturing processes. Of primary relevance are Aluminum (Al) and Magnesium (Mg) based alloys, which have successfully replaced selected iron based castings in automobiles. However, optimization of as-cast microstructure, processing and performance remains a challenge for some Al-based alloys. In this context, placement of chills in castings has been frequently used to locally manipulate the solidification conditions and microstructure of a casting. In this work, the effect of using an active copper chill on the residual strain profile of a sand-cast B319 aluminum alloy was investigated. Wedge-shaped castings were produced with three different cooling conditions: copper plate chill, copper pipe with cooling water and no chill (baseline).
Technical Paper

Failure Mechanisms and Damage Model of Ductile Cast Iron under Low-Cycle Fatigue Conditions

2013-04-08
2013-01-0391
Strain-controlled low-cycle fatigue (LCF) experiments were conducted on ductile cast iron at total strain rates of 1.2/min, 0.12/min and 0.012/min in a temperature range of RT ~ 800°C. An integrated creep-fatigue (ICF) life prediction framework is proposed, which embodies a deformation mechanism based constitutive model and a thermomechanical damage model. The constitutive model is based on the decomposition of inelastic deformation into plasticity and creep mechanisms, which can describe both rate-independent and rate-dependent cyclic responses under wide strain rate and temperature conditions. The damage model takes into consideration of i) plasticity-induced fatigue, ii) intergranular embrittlement, iii) creep and iv) oxidation. Each damage form is formulated based on the respective physical mechanism/strain.
Journal Article

Fracture Behavior of Typical Structural Adhesive Joints Under Quasi-Static and Cyclic Loadings

2010-04-12
2010-01-0969
Structural adhesive joints are expected to retain integrity in their entire service-life that normally involves cyclic loading concurrent with environmental exposure. Under such a severe working condition, effective determination of fatigue life at different temperatures is crucial for reliable joint design. The main goal of this work was thus defined as evaluation of fatigue performance of adhesive joints at their extreme working temperatures in order to be compared with their fracture properties under static loading. A series of standard double-cantilever-beam (DCB) specimens have been bonded by three structural 3M epoxy adhesives selected from different applications. The specimens were tested under monotonic and cyclic opening loads (mode-I) in order to evaluate the quasi-static and fatigue performances of selected adhesives at room temperature, 80°C and -40°C.
Technical Paper

Fundamental Ice Crystal Accretion Physics Studies

2011-06-13
2011-38-0018
Due to numerous engine power-loss events associated with high-altitude convective weather, ice accretion within an engine due to ice-crystal ingestion is being investigated. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the National Research Council (NRC) of Canada are starting to examine the physical mechanisms of ice accretion on surfaces exposed to ice-crystal and mixed-phase conditions. In November 2010, two weeks of testing occurred at the NRC Research Altitude Facility utilizing a single wedge-type airfoil designed to facilitate fundamental studies while retaining critical features of a compressor stator blade or guide vane. The airfoil was placed in the NRC cascade wind tunnel for both aerodynamic and icing tests. Aerodynamic testing showed excellent agreement compared with CFD data on the icing pressure surface and allowed calculation of heat transfer coefficients at various airfoil locations.
Technical Paper

Hot Forming of 7075 Aluminium Alloy Tubes to Produce Complex and Strong Components

2012-04-16
2012-01-0539
Lightweight tubular products offering enhanced stiffness and strength have always been of major concern for transportation and recreational applications. Hence, industries have turned to complex-shaped tubes to increase product performance and reduce energy costs. High-performance aluminum alloys, like 7075 for instance, have good mechanical properties such as high strength, but low formability at ambient temperature. Fortunately, hot tensile tests on 7075 samples have yielded an increase in formability with temperature. Therefore, testing has recently been launched at the Aluminum Technology Center to develop a new product application. More precisely, a 1,000-ton hydraulic press was equipped with +600°C heating plates and fitted with a bicycle handlebar mold. The plates provide 10 separate heating zones that can be adjusted independently. A thermo-mechanical model was also developed using LS-DYNA to determine tube temperatures around the heating zones.
Technical Paper

Mechanical Property Behaviour of Rheocast 319 Alloys with and without Iron Additions

2011-04-12
2011-01-1089
Cast aluminum-silicon alloys have witnessed a notable increase in use in the automotive and transport industry. The ability of these alloys to be easily cast into complex shapes coupled with a favorable strength-to-weight ratio has given them an edge over cast irons. One particular area of casting which has received further and further attention is the area of semi-solid casting, where an alloy casting is prepared as slurry with flow properties that resemble both solid and liquid. In the present work, the effects of iron additions on the mechanical properties of a 319 semi-solid alloy were studied. This alloy was prepared using the SEED process, as developed by Rio Tinto Alcan in collaboration with the Aluminum Technology Centre of NRC Canada. The SEED (Swirled Enthalpy Equilibration Device) process is a novel rheocasting method which yields a semi-solid slurry from the mechanical stirring and cooling of the molten aluminum.
Technical Paper

Optimization of Casting Parameters on an Improved AA6061 Aluminum Alloy for Semi-Solid Die Casting

2010-04-12
2010-01-0225
A study was conducted to assess the performance and castability of a new AA6061 aluminum alloy variant specially designed for semi-solid pressure die casting. The AA6061 alloy has very desirable mechanical properties for the fabrication of automotive parts. However, it has limited castability due to its low silicon content. It is not well suited for shape casting processes which are, for their part, very interesting in terms of production costs for complex-shaped automotive components. In an effort to meet automotive industry requirements, new AA6061 alloy variants have been developed by Rio Tinto Alcan researchers over the past years, aiming to improve the castability of the alloy while maintaining its desirable mechanical properties, by increasing its die-filling capacity, decreasing its hot tearing tendency. The study described herein is an example of how the performance of a single variant was assessed in terms of castability. The full study was conducted on six separate variants.
Technical Paper

Progress towards a 3D Numerical Simulation of Ice Accretion on a Swept Wing using the Morphogenetic Approach

2015-06-15
2015-01-2162
We have developed an original, three-dimensional icing modelling capability, called the “morphogenetic” approach, based on a discrete formulation and simulation of ice formation physics. Morphogenetic icing modelling improves on existing ice accretion models, in that it is capable of predicting simultaneous rime and glaze ice accretions and ice accretions with variable density and complex geometries. The objective of this paper is to show preliminary results of simulating complex three-dimensional features such as lobster tails and rime feathers forming on a swept wing. The results are encouraging. They show that the morphogenetic approach can predict realistically both the overall size and detailed structure of the ice accretion forming on a swept wing. Under cold ambient conditions, when drops freeze instantly upon impingement, the numerical ice structure has voids, which reduce its density.
Journal Article

Reduction of Hot Tears: Alloy and Casting Process Optimization Using Neutron Diffraction

2010-04-12
2010-01-0748
The continued need of vehicle weight reduction provides impetus for research into the development of novel automotive casting alloys and their processing technologies. Where possible, ferrous components are being replaced by aluminum (Al) and magnesium (Mg) alloy counterparts. This transition, however, requires a systematic optimization of the alloys and their manufacturing processes to enable production of defect-free castings. In this context, prevention of hot tears remains a challenge for Al and Mg alloy thin-wall castings. Hot tears form in semi-solid alloy subjected to localized tensile stress. Classical methods of stress measurement present numerous experimental limitations. In this research, neutron diffraction (ND) was used as a novel tool to obtain stress maps of castings and to quantify the effect of two processes used to eliminate hot tears in permanent mold castings: 1) increasing of the mold temperature during casting of Mg alloys, and 2) grain refinement of Al alloys.
Technical Paper

Repair Issues for Corroded Fuselage Lap Joints

1999-10-19
1999-01-5529
The National Research Council Canada has collected a large number of corroded and non-corroded fuselage lap joints from retired and operational aircraft. A number of these corroded joints have been disassembled in order to quantify the level of corrosion. During the disassembly, it was often observed that common repair techniques resulted in damage to the structure. The damage observed was significant enough to raise concerns regarding the effect of the repair techniques on structural integrity. This paper describes the different types of damage found.
Journal Article

Residual Stress Mapping along the Cylinder Bores of Al Alloy Engine Blocks Subjected to Production Solution Heat Treatment Schedule

2014-04-01
2014-01-0837
The development of an optimized heat treatment schedule, with the aim of maximizing strength and relieving tensile residual stress, is important to prevent in-service cylinder distortion in Al alloy engine blocks containing cast-in gray iron liners. However, to effectively optimize the engine block heat treatment schedule, the current solutionizing parameters must be analyzed and compared to the as-cast condition to establish a baseline for residual stress relief. In this study, neutron diffraction was carried out to measure the residual stress along the aluminum cylinder bridge following solution heat treatment. The stresses were measured in the hoop, radial and axial orientations and compared to a previous measured as-cast (TSR) engine block. The results suggest that solution heat treatment using the current production parameters partially relieved tensile residual stress in the Al cylinder bridge, with stress relief being more effective near the bottom of the cylinder.
Journal Article

The Effects of Ground Simulation on Tractor-Trailer Combinations

2013-09-24
2013-01-2454
The 9-meter wind tunnel of the National Research Council (NRC) of Canada is equipped with a boundary layer suction system, center belt and wheel rollers to simulate ground motion relative to test articles. Although these systems were originally commissioned for testing of full-scale automotive models, they are appropriately sized for ground simulation with half-scale tractor-trailer combinations. The size of the tunnel presents an opportunity to test half-scale commercial vehicles at full-scale Reynolds numbers with a model that occupies 3% of the test section cross-sectional area. This study looks at the effects of ground simulation on the force and pressure data of a half-scale model with rotating tractor wheels. A series of model changes, typical of a drag reduction program, were undertaken and each configuration was tested with both a fixed floor and with full-ground simulation to evaluate the effects of this technology on the total and incremental drag coefficients.
Technical Paper

Thermo-Mechanical Fatigue Testing of Welded Tubes for Exhaust Applications

2018-04-03
2018-01-0090
Selected ferritic stainless steel sheets for exhaust applications were tested under thermo-mechanical fatigue (TMF) condition in the temperature range of 400-800 °C with partial constraint. Straight welded tubes were used as the testing coupons to withstand large compression without buckling, and to understand the effect of welding as well. Repeated tests confirmed the observed failure scenario for each material type. The hysteresis loop behaviors were also simulated using the mechanism-based integrated creep and fatigue theory (ICFT) model. Although more development work is needed, for quick material screening purpose this type of testing could be a very cost effective solution for materials and tube weld development for exhaust applications.
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