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Technical Paper

54 The Combustion Phenomena Under Corona Discharge Application

In this study, the effect of corona discharge on the combustion phenomenon has been made clear. A homogeneous propane-air mixture was used and six equivalence ratios were tested. For generating the positive and negative corona discharge, a non-uniform electric field was applied to the combustion chamber by the needle to plane gap. One or five needle-shaped electrodes were used to change the corona discharge state. When the positive corona discharge was applied, the luminescence from corona with five electrodes was weak as compared with that of one needle-shaped electrode. When the negative corona discharge was applied, the luminescence from corona and combustion were not affected by the number of electrode. When the positive corona discharge was applied by low voltage, the combustion was improved in the case of one needle-shaped electrode, but the index of combustion with one needle-shaped electrode was almost equal to that of five electrodes when the high voltage was applied.
Technical Paper

8 A Study of the Influence of Fuel Temperature on Emission Characteristics and Engine Performance of Compression Ignition Engine

In this study, the heated fuels were provided to the diesel engine in order to activate the fuel before the injection. Two test fuels: the normal diesel fuel and cetane, which have different boiling points were used. For both normal diesel fuel and cetane, crank angles at ignition and maximum pressure are delayed and the maximum combustion pressure is decreased as the fuel temperature rises. In cases of large and middle mass flow rate of fuel injection, the brake thermal efficiency and brake mean effective pressure are decreased when the fuel temperature is higher than 570 [K]. However, in the case of small mass flow rate of fuel injection, the brake thermal efficiency is almost independent of fuel temperature. HC and CO concentrations in the exhaust gas emission show constant values regardless of fuel temperature. However, NOx concentration is gradually decreased as the fuel temperature rises.
Technical Paper

A Comparative Study of HCCI and ATAC Combustion Characteristics Based on Experimentation and Simulations Influence of the Fuel Octane Number and Internal EGR on Combustion

Controlled Autoignition (CAI) combustion processes can be broadly divided between a CAI process that is applied to four-stroke engines and a CAI process that is applied to two-stroke engines. The former process is generally referred to as Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) combustion and the later process as Active Thermo-Atmosphere Combustion (ATAC). The region of stable engine operation differs greatly between these two processes, and it is thought that the elucidation of their differences and similarities could provide useful information for expanding the operation region of HCCI combustion. In this research, the same two-stroke engine was operated under both the ATAC and HCCI combustion processes to compare their respective combustion characteristics. The results indicated that the ignition timing was less likely to change in the ATAC process in relation to changes in the fuel octane number than it was in the HCCI combustion process.
Technical Paper

A Spectroscopic Study of the Effects of Multicomponent Fuel Blends on Supercharged HCCI Combustion

The growing severity of global environmental issues in recent years, including air pollution and the depletion of fossil fuels, has made it necessary for internal combustion engines to achieve higher efficiency and lower exhaust emission levels. Calls for reducing atmospheric emissions of carbon dioxide (CO₂) necessitate thoroughgoing measures to lower the levels of CO₂ originating in the combustion process of internal combustion engines and to facilitate operation on diverse energy sources. Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) combustion has attracted widespread interest because it achieves high efficiency and can reduce particulate matter (PM) and nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions simultaneously. These characteristics are obtainable because HCCI combustion can take place at ultra-lean conditions exceeding the limits of flame propagation.
Technical Paper

A Study of Autoignition Behavior and Knock Intensity in a SI Engine under Different Engine Speed by Using In-Cylinder Visualization

Internal combustion engines have been required to achieve even higher efficiency in recent years in order to address environmental concerns. However, knock induced by abnormal combustion in spark-ignition engines has impeded efforts to attain higher efficiency. Knock characteristics during abnormal combustion were investigated in this study by in-cylinder visualization and spectroscopic measurements using a four-stroke air-cooled single-cylinder engine. The results revealed that knock intensity and the manner in which the autoignited flame propagated in the end gas differed depending on the engine speed.
Technical Paper

A Study of Combustion in an HCCI Engine Using Non-Equilibrium Plasma Discharge Assist

This study focused on a non-equilibrium plasma discharge as a means of assisting HCCI combustion.Experiments were conducted with a four-stroke single-cylinder engine fitted with a spark electrode in the top of the combustion chamber for continuously generating non-equilibrium plasma from the intake stroke to the exhaust stroke. The results showed that applying non-equilibrium plasma to the HCCI test engine advanced the main combustion period that otherwise tended to be delayed as the engine speed was increased. In addition, it was found that the combined use of exhaust gas recirculation and non-equilibrium plasma prevented a transition to partial combustion while suppressing cylinder pressure oscillations at high loads.
Technical Paper

A Study of HCCI Combustion Assisted by a Streamer Discharge Based on Visualization of the Entire Bore Area

This study investigated the effect of streamer discharge on autoignition and combustion in a Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) engine. A continuous streamer discharge was generated in the center of the combustion chamber of a 2-stroke optically accessible engine that allowed visualization of the entire bore area. The experimental results showed that the flame was initiated and grew from the vicinity of the electrode under the application of a streamer discharge. Subsequently, rapid autoignition (HCCI combustion) occurred in the unburned mixture in the end zone, thus indicating that HCCI combustion was accomplished assisted by the streamer discharge. In other word, ignition timing of HCCI combustion was advanced after the streamer discharging process, and the initiation behavior of the combustion flame was made clear under that condition.
Technical Paper

A Study of HCCI Combustion Characteristics Using Spectroscopic Techniques

The principal issues of Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) combustion that must be addressed include ignition timing control and expansion of the stable operation region. Detailed analyses of ignition and combustion mechanisms must be undertaken to resolve these issues. In this study, spectroscopic techniques were used to investigate the effects of the fuel octane number and residual gas state on ignition and combustion characteristics. Spectroscopic measurements were made of light emission intensity and of absorbance at a wavelength corresponding to HCHO (formaldehyde) which plays an important role in the low-temperature reaction (i.e. cool flame). The results revealed that varying the fuel octane number and the residual gas state changed the cool flame magnitude and the duration of the low-temperature reaction period, which substantially altered the ignition characteristics of HCCI combustion.
Technical Paper

A Study of HCCI Combustion Using a Two-Stroke Gasoline Engine with a High Compression Ratio

In this study, it was shown that Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) combustion in a 4-stroke engine, operating under the conditions of a high compression ratio, wide open throttle (WOT) and a lean mixture, could be simulated by raising the compression ratio of a 2-stroke engine. On that basis, a comparison was then made with the characteristics of Active Thermo-Atmosphere Combustion (ATAC), the HCCI process that is usually accomplished in 2-stroke engines under the conditions of a low compression ratio, partial throttle and a large quantity of residual gas. One major difference observed between HCCI combustion and ATAC was their different degrees of susceptibility to the occurrence of cool flames, which was attributed to differences in the residual gas state. It was revealed that the ignition characteristics of these two combustion processes differed greatly in relation to the fuel octane number.
Journal Article

A Study of HCCI Combustion using Spectroscopic Techniques and Chemical Kinetic Simulations

This study was conducted to investigate the influence of low-temperature reactions on the Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) combustion process. Specifically, an investigation was made of the effect of the residual gas condition on low-temperature reactions, autoignition and the subsequent state of combustion following ignition. Light emission and absorption spectroscopic measurements were made in the combustion chamber in order to investigate low-temperature reactions in detail. In addition, chemical kinetic simulations were performed to validate the experimental results and to analyze the elemental reaction process. The results made clear the formation behavior of the chemical species produced during low-temperature HCCI reactions.
Technical Paper

A Study of HCCI Operating Range Expansion by Applying Reaction Characteristics of Low-Carbon Alternative Fuels

Issues that must be addressed to make Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) engines a practical reality include the difficulty of controlling the ignition timing and suppression of rapid combustion under high load conditions. Overcoming these issues to make HCCI engines viable for practical application is indispensable to the further advancement of internal combustion engines. Previous studies have reported that the operating region of HCCI combustion can be expanded by using DME and Methane blended fuels.(1), (2), (3), (4), (5) The reason is that the reaction characteristics of these two low-carbon fuels, which have different ignition properties, have the effect of inducing heat release in two stages during main combustion, thus avoiding excessively rapid combustion. However, further moderation of rapid combustion in high-load region is needed to expand the operation region. This study focused on supercharging and use of blended fuels.
Technical Paper

A Study of IDI 2-Stroke Cycle Compression Ignition Engine with DME

DME is alternate fuel for diesel engines, however DME has defects such as small lower calorific value, inferior lubricity and weak fuel penetration. To compensate disadvantages, In-direct injection 2-stroke diesel engine with low pressure fuel injection system was proposed. The fuel injection timing near TDC gave good performance because the heat loss of low temperature oxidation reaction reduced. The brake torque and brake thermal efficiency of 2-stroke IDI diesel engine were lower than those of 4-stroke engine. However, the exhaust gas emissions were very low level because the intake air leaked through the exhaust port and the exhaust gas was diluted.
Journal Article

A Study of Ignition Characteristics of an HCCI Engine Operating on a Two-component Fuel

The Homogenous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) engine is positioned as a next-generation internal combustion engine and has been the focus of extensive research in recent years to develop a practical system. One reason is that this new combustion system achieves lower fuel consumption and simultaneous reductions of nitrogen oxide (NOx) and particulate matter (PM) emissions, which are major issues of internal combustion engines today. However, the characteristics of HCCI combustion can prevent suitable engine operation owing to the rapid combustion process that occurs accompanied by a steep pressure rise when the amount of fuel injected is increased to obtain higher power output. A major issue of HCCI is to control this rapid combustion so that the quantity of fuel injected can be increased for greater power. Controlling the ignition timing is also an issue because it is substantially influenced by the chemical reactions of the fuel.
Technical Paper

A Study of Ignition and Combustion in an SI Engine Using Multistage Pulse Discharge Ignition

Lean-burn technology is regarded as one effective way to increase the efficiency of internal combustion engines. However, stable ignition is difficult to ensure with a lean mixture. It is expected that this issue can be resolved by improving ignition performance as a result of increasing the amount of energy discharged into the gaseous mixture at the time of ignition. There are limits, however, to how high ignition energy can be increased from the standpoints of spark plug durability, energy consumption and other considerations. Therefore, the authors have focused on a multistage pulse discharge (MSPD) ignition system that performs low-energy ignition multiple times. In this study, a comparison was made of ignition performance between MSPD ignition and conventional spark ignition (SI). A high-speed camera was used to obtain visualized images of ignition in the cylinder and a pressure sensor was used to measure pressure histories in the combustion chamber.
Technical Paper

A Study of Knocking Using Ion Current and Light Emission

This study attempted to elucidate combustion conditions in a progression from normal combustion to knocking by analyzing the ion current and light emission intensity that occurred during this transition. With the aim of understanding the combustion states involved, the ion current was measured at two positions in the combustion chamber. Light emission spectroscopy was applied to examine preflame reactions that are observed prior to autoignition in the combustion process of hydrocarbon fuels. The results obtained by analyzing the experimental data made clear the relationship between the ion current and light emission during the transition from normal combustion to knocking operation.
Technical Paper

A Study of Knocking in a Lean Mixture Using an Optically Accessible Engine

Improving the thermal efficiency of internal combustion engines requires operation under a lean combustion regime and a higher compression ratio, which means that the causes of autoignition and pressure oscillations in this operating region must be made clear. However, there is limited knowledge of autoignition behavior under lean combustion conditions. Therefore, in this study, experiments were conducted in which the ignition timing and intake air temperature (scavenging temperature) of a 2-stroke optically accessible test engine were varied to induce autoignition under a variety of conditions. The test fuel used was a primary reference fuel with an octane rating of 90. The results revealed that advancing the ignition timing under lean combustion conditions also advanced the autoignition timing, though strong pressure oscillations on the other hand tended not to occur.
Technical Paper

A Study of Streamer-Discharge-Assisted Autoignition Combustion using an Optically Accessible Engine

It is difficult to control the ignition timing of Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) engines because they lack a physical means of igniting the mixture. Another issue of HCCI engines is their narrow operating range owing to the occurrence of misfiring at low loads and abnormal combustion at high loads. As a possible solution to these issues, this study focused on the generation of a streamer discharge using nonequilibrium plasma as a means of assisting HCCI combustion. A two-stroke engine that allowed visualization of the entire bore area was used in this study. A primary reference fuel blend (50 RON) was used as the test fuel. The streamer discharge was continuously generated in the end-gas region during a 360 deg. interval from the scavenging stroke to the exhaust stroke using a spark plug from which the ground electrode had been removed. Experiments were conducted in which the applied voltage of the streamer discharge was varied to investigate its effect on combustion.
Journal Article

A Study of the Behavior of In-Cylinder Pressure Waves under HCCI Knocking by using an Optically Accessible Engine

This study investigated the origin of knocking combustion accompanied by pressure wave and strong pressure oscillations in a Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) engine. Experiments were conducted with a two-stroke single cylinder optically accessible engine that allowed the entire bore area to be visualized. The test fuel used was n-heptane. The equivalence ratio and intake temperature were varied to induce a transition from moderate HCCI combustion to extremely rapid HCCI combustion accompanied by in-cylinder pressure oscillations. Local autoignition and pressure wave behavior under each set of operating conditions were investigated in detail on the basis of high-speed in-cylinder visualization and in-cylinder pressure analysis. As a result, under conditions where strong knocking occurs, a brilliant flame originates from the burned gas side in the process where the locally occurring autoignition gradually spreads to multiple locations.
Technical Paper

A Study of the Factors Determining Knocking Intensity Based on High-Speed Observation of End-Gas Autoignition Using an Optically Accessible Engine

The purpose of this study was to investigate how autoignition leads to the occurrence of pressure oscillations. That was done on the basis of in-cylinder visualization and analysis of flame images captured with a high-speed camera using an optically accessible engine, in-cylinder pressure measurement and measurement of light emission from formaldehyde (HCHO). The results revealed that knocking intensity tended to be stronger with a faster localized growth speed of autoignition. An investigation was also made of the effect of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) as a means of reducing knocking intensity. The results showed that the application of EGR advanced the ignition timing, thereby reducing knocking intensity under the conditions where knocking occurred.
Technical Paper

A Study of the Mechanism Producing Autoignition in an HCCI Engine Using In-Cylinder Spectroscopy and Chemical Kinetic Simulation

This study examined Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) combustion characteristics in detail on the basis of in-cylinder combustion visualization, spectroscopic measurements of light emission and absorption and chemical kinetic simulations. Special attention was focused on investigating and comparing the effects of the fuel octane number and residual gas on combustion characteristics. The results made clear the relationship between the production/consumption of formaldehyde (HCHO) in the HCCI autoignition process and flame development behavior in the cylinder. Additionally, it was found that both the fuel octane number and residual gas have the effect of moderating low-temperature oxidation reactions. Furthermore, it was observed that residual gas has the effect of shifting the temperature for the occurrence of the hot flame to a higher temperature range.