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Technical Paper

Development of New Hydraulic Fluids Specifications for Construction Machinery

Hydraulic fluid (HF) specifications for mobile construction equipment called JCMAS HK and HKB have been established by the Fuels and Lubricants Committee of Japan Construction Mechanization Association (JCMA). The specifications are designated by two viscosity categories of single grade and multigrade. Each category has ISO viscosity grade (VG) 32 and 46. The JCMAS HK oils are recommended for use in hydraulic systems designed at pressure up to 34.3MPa(5000psi) and to heat hydraulic fluid up to 100 °C. These oils also provide wear control, friction performance, oxidation and rust protection, seal swell control and filterability performance. Two piston pump test procedures were developed to evaluate lubricating performance of these oils under high pressure conditions. The JACMAS HKB oils are classified as environmentally friendly oils due to the additional requirement for biodegradability.
Technical Paper

JCMAS New Grease Specifications for Construction Machinery

Since construction machinery manufacturers recommend various brands and types of greases for their machinery, customers would benefit from a standardized grease which can be used in all construction machinery. Furthermore, construction machinery manufacturers have many experiences of field problems caused by commercially available and commonly used EP Lithium greases. Therefore, the Fuels and Lubricants Committee of Japan Construction Mechanization Association (JCMA) has developed a new grease specification called “Japan Construction Mechanization Association Specification (JCMAS) GK,” for construction equipment. The JCMAS GK includes requirements for National Lubrication and Grease Institute (NLGI) No. 1 and No. 2 consistency grades. The JCMAS GK greases have enough lubricating properties for periodical grease fitting of most construction machines, hydraulic excavators, bulldozers and wheel loaders. The JCMAS GK greases are applicable from -20 to +130 degrees Celsius.
Technical Paper

Long Drain/Fuel Efficient Engine Oils Based on the ZDTP Substitute Additive Technologhy

Zinc dialkylphosphate (ZP), a sulfur free analogue of Zinc dialkyldithiophosphate (ZDTP) has been synthesized and tested for engine oil application. The sulfur free engine oil based on ZP showed excellent TBN retention and engine cleanliness in several engine tests which were operated at low and high temperatures. A prototype low phosphorus (0.05%) and low sulfated ash (0.5%) engine oil exhibited even better longer drain performance than a fully synthetic engine oil containing 0.1% P and 1.1% sulfated ash. Thus, zinc dialkylphosphate can be a promising candidate as a ZDTP substitute for future catalyst system compatible engine oil.
Technical Paper

The Evaluation of the Fuel-Economy Performance of Low-Viscosity Drive-Train Lubricants and the Development of Oils with Improved Fatigue Life

In recent years, progress has been made in reducing the viscosities of manual transmission fluids (MTFs) and automatic transmission fluids (ATFs). Lower viscosities of MTFs and ATFs are expected to improve the fuel economy of automobiles by reducing the viscous resistance. Examples of low-viscosity ATFs already commercially available include Toyota Auto Fluid WS and ZF Friedrichshafen AG's ZNF 13014. This paper first reports methods for measuring the torque transmission efficiency in manual and automatic transmissions. We explain a simple rig test that we developed using an IAE gear test machine, and we describe oil temperature increase tests and torque measurement tests using actual transmissions and fuel economy tests using actual vehicles. Next, we describe the effects of lower viscosities on the torque transfer efficiency as measured with these measurement methods.
Technical Paper

Wear Mechanisms of Steel Under Boundary Lubrication in Presence of Carbon Black and Graphite Nano-onions Particles

Both carbon blacks and carbon nano-onions nanoparticles have a spheroidal shape and a nested structure. They can be used to simulate the presence of soots in used engine oils. When added to fully formulated fresh engines oils, these two kinds of particles behave very differently. Carbon black particles are highly abrasive causing a lot of wear of steel surfaces and friction increases. At the opposite, the addition of carbon onions in lubricant leads to a reduction of both friction and wear compared to pure base oil. This shows that there is an opportunity to control wear in engines by changing the structure of soots during the combustion process.