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Technical Paper

1.2GPa Advanced High Strength Steel with High Formability

To reduce the Body in White (BIW) mass, it is necessary to expand the application of Advanced High-Strength Steels (AHSS) to complex shaped parts. In order to apply AHSS to complex shaped parts with thinner gauge, high formability steel is required. However, higher strength steels tend to display lower elongations, compared with low/medium strength steels. Current AHSS are applied to limited parts for this reason. The new 1.2GPa material, with high formability, was developed to solve this issue. The mechanical property targets for the high elongation 1.2GPa material were achieved by precise metallurgical optimization. Many material aspects were studied, such as formability, weldabilty, impact strength, and delayed fracture. As the result of this development, 1.2GPa AHSS has been applied to a new vehicle launched in 2013.The application of this material was the 1st in the world, and achieved a 11kg mass reduction.
Technical Paper

A Blind Spot Assistance System Based on Direct Yaw-Moment Control

This paper deals with a blind spot assistance system that assists the driver by generating yaw-moment when a driver's lane change maneuver is detected and when there is an object present in the blind spot area of the adjacent lane. The system combines lane information and driver's maneuver information for estimating the driver's lane change. If the millimeter wave sensor detects an object in the rear blind spot area in the event of a lane change, direct yaw-moment in the opposite direction of the lane change maneuver is generated. The unique method of detecting driver's lane change, control method of assisting the driver to recover back in lane, and the system design to maintain driver compatibility is mentioned, together with the effectiveness of the system.
Technical Paper

A Comparison of Gas Chromatography-Based Methods of Analyzing Hydrocarbon Species

Gas chromatographic methods for analyzing hydrocarbon species in vehicle exhaust emissions were compared in terms of their collection efficiency, detection limit, repeatability and number of species detected using cylinder gas and tailpipe emission samples. The main methods compared were a Tenax cold trap injection (TCT) method (C5-C12 HCs) and a cold trap injection (CTI) method (C2-C4 HCs; C5-C12 HCs). Our own direct (DIR) method was used to confirm the collection efficiencies. Both methods yielded good results, but the CTI method showed low collection efficiency for some C2-C4 HCs. Measurement of individual species is needed with this method for accurate analysis of tailpipe emissions. Both the CTI method and the TCT method combined with the DIR method for determining C2-C4 HCs yielded nearly the same ozone specific reactivity values for the NMHC species analyzed.
Journal Article

A Comparison of the NHTSA Research Offset Oblique and Small Overlap Impact Tests and the IIHS Moderate and Small Overlap Tests

The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) and the Insurance Institute for Highway Safety (IIHS) have both developed crash test methodologies to address frontal collisions in which the vehicle's primary front structure is either partially engaged or not engaged at all. IIHS addresses Small Overlap crashes, cases in which the vehicle's primary front energy absorbing structure is not engaged, using a rigid static barrier with an overlap of 25% of the vehicle's width at an impact angle of 0°. The Institute's Moderate Overlap partially engages the vehicle's primary front energy absorbing structure using a deformable static barrier with 40% overlap at a 0° impact angle. The NHTSA has developed two research test methods which use a common moving deformable barrier impacting the vehicle with 20% overlap at a 7° impact angle and 35% overlap at a 15° impact angle respectively.
Technical Paper

A Consideration of Vehicle's Door Shutting Performance

Many papers have mentioned, in passing, a phenomena that is known as “airtightness”, which is one factor that hinders automobile doors from closing. It also causes the eardrums of any passengers in the vehicle to be temporarily pressurized when the door is closed. However, few documents have considered this phenomena in detail. In this paper, we investigate the magnitude of “airtightness” as it affects ear pressure and examine its relationship to such factors as the volume of the passenger compartment, door's opening area and its inertial moment. Finally, we utilized estimation methods to predict its influence on the force required to close the door and the amount of the resultant air draft.
Technical Paper

A Driver Behavior Recognition Method Based on a Driver Model Framework

A method for detecting drivers' intentions is essential to facilitate operating mode transitions between driver and driver assistance systems. We propose a driver behavior recognition method using Hidden Markov Models (HMMs) to characterize and detect driving maneuvers and place it in the framework of a cognitive model of human behavior. HMM-based steering behavior models for emergency and normal lane changes as well as for lane keeping were developed using a moving base driving simulator. Analysis of these models after training and recognition tests showed that driver behavior modeling and recognition of different types of lane changes is possible using HMMs.
Technical Paper

A Dynamic Test Procedure for Evaluation of Tripped Rollover Crashes

Rollover crashes have continued to be a source of extensive research into determining both vehicle performance, and occupant restraint capabilities. Prior research has utilized various test procedures, including the FMVSS 208 dolly fixture, as a basis for evaluating vehicle and restraint performance. This research, using 2001 Nissan Pathfinder sport utility vehicles (SUVs), was conducted to update the status of passenger vehicle rollover testing, and evaluate dynamic test repeatability with a new test procedure. A series of eight rollover tests was conducted using these SUV vehicles, mounted on a modified FMVSS 208 rollover dolly fixture, with instrumented dummies in both front seat positions. This test protocol involved launching the vehicles horizontally, after snubbing the dolly fixture, and having the leading-side tires contact curbing for a trip mechanism.
Technical Paper

A Fundamental Study on External Engine Noise Propagation from Light Vehicles

In this paper, we have analyzed the problem of the engine noise propagation and have classified that there is a fundamental relationship between exterior noise and structural design. In the case of light vehicles, we have isolated the following 2 factors in structural design which have a direct bearing on exterior noise. (1) The layout and the area of exposed openings in the engine room. (2) The ability of the engine room to absorb noise. In conclusion we suggest comprehensive approach to the problem of automotive noise reduction.
Technical Paper

A Highly Accurate Fuel Level Measuring System

With conventional float-type fuel level sensor's, measurement errors when the vehicle is on an incline or going around corners. Now, a highly-accurate measuring system employing an electrostatic capacity sensor is developed for practical application. This sensor is composed of multiple electrode plates formed alone a allows accurate measurement of regaining fuel even in tanks of irregular shapes. Also, since this sensor comes a unit, it is easier to replace. The system furthermore, employs software provided with averaging, memory storage, and permittivity correction functions in order to elminate the effects of fuel level fluctuations and pressure changes within the tank during driving along with the effect of fuels with different permittivity.
Technical Paper

A Lightweight, Multifunctional Plastic Reinforcement for Body Panels

A light weight,multifunctional plastic reinforcement has been developed for the outer body panels of vehicles. This new plastic reinforcement,composed mainly of polyvinylchloride resin, epoxy resin and an organic foaming agent, provides a 63% weight reduction over conventional plastic reinforcements, while adding the damping function to outer body panels. This paper introduces the process followed in developing the new plastic reinforcement and describes its characteristics. This new plastic reinforcement is already employed in the Nissan S-Cargo model, and it will be adopted in other passenger car models to be released in the near future.
Technical Paper

A Loss Analysis Design Approach to Improving Torque Converter Performance

This paper describes the relationship between the design parameters used to define the geometry of an automotive torque converter and the resultant efficiency in relation to the internal flow characteristics. Taking the turbine bias angle and the contraction ratio of the pump flow passage as specific examples, the effects of each design parameter on the internal flow characteristics and the occurrence of loss were analyzed. A three-dimensional viscous flow analysis code was used in the numerical computation procedure and a method developed independently by the authors was used in the loss analysis. The flow near the wall was visualized experimentally using a technique resembling the so-called oil film method. The visualized results showed good qualitative agreement with the numerical analysis results.
Technical Paper

A Lubrication Analysis of Multi Link VCR Engine Components using a Mixed Elasto-Hydrodynamic Lubrication Theory Model

Research is under way on an engine system [1] that achieves a variable compression ratio using a multiple-link mechanism between the crankshaft and pistons for the dual purpose of improving fuel economy and power output. At present, there is no database that allows direct judgment of the feasibility of the specific sliding parts in this mechanism. In this paper, the feasibility was examined by making a comparison with the sliding characteristics and material properties of conventional engine parts, for which databases exist, and using evaluation parameters based on mixed elasto-hydrodynamic (EHD) lubrication calculations. In addition, the innovations made to the mixed EHD calculation method used in this study to facilitate calculations under various lubrication conditions are also explained, including the treatment of surface roughness, wear progress and stiffness around the bearings.
Technical Paper

A Method for Predicting Connecting Rod Bearings Reliability Based on Seizure and Wear Analysis

Maintaining reliability of the connecting rod bearing is a very important subject, and the following is a problem that needs to be overcome. Predicting reliability has generally depended on minimum oil film thickness (M.O.F.T), but recently, the engines of passenger cars which have greater power and speed potential than conventional ones are sometimes run beyond their M.O.F.T. limit (a degree of roughness around the crank shaft's axis.) In such a case, it is so difficult to predict reliability according to M.O.F.T., that we need a new index which directly shows seizure and wear. For this purpose, we found that the crank shaft pin temperature can be a key cause of seizure and wear according to an analysis of the relationship between its temperature and the seizure and wear caused intentionally. Using this method, we confirmed that the combination of bearing and crank shaft materials is very important for preventing seizure and wear.
Technical Paper

A Model Based Design Methodology for Variable Flux PMSMs to Obtain Desired Speed-Torque Characteristics

Variable flux permanent magnet synchronous machines (VFPMSMs) have been designed by using finite element analysis (FEA) to evaluate speed-torque capability considering requirement for magnetization state (MS) manipulation. However, due to its unique characteristic to change the MS, numerous combinations of design parameters need to be evaluated to achieve a final design. To accelerate the design process, this paper presents a method that consists of an equivalent magnetic circuit model and a process to obtain magnet width and thickness that satisfy target maximum torque and power factor (P.F.) capability. This model includes magnet operating point analysis under given magnet width and thickness condition to achieve target MS and avoid demagnetization at full load. This analysis provides desired stator magnetomotive force, magnet and stator induced flux linkage. Therefore, expected torque and P.F. capability is calculated.
Technical Paper

A Motor-Drive System Design That Takes Into Account EV Characteristics

This paper discusses various design factors that must be considered in achieving a practical motor-drive system for electric vehicles. When we design a motor-drive system for an electric vehicle, pursuit of high efficiency is required, and the system also has to have a good ease of use in practical situation. The following configuration is preferable for the realization of the vehicle that meets these requirements (1) A direct- coupled geartrain is used. (2) A permanent magnet synchronous motor is used as the traction motor. (3) The motor is inverter driven (battery operated) (4) A controller is needed to manage torque characteristics. When we design the motor-drive system using these configuration, we have to resolve various issues of the system concerning the vehicle and drive system performance fir practical use. By resolving these design issues, the practical performance of EVs can be improved and they can also make full use of the advantages of a motor-drive system.
Technical Paper

A New 1.6-Liter Twin-Cam 16-Valve Nissan Engine

Nissan has developed a new GA16DE engine for use in the new 1991 Sentra. The major development aims for this engine were to achieve ample torque at low to intermediate engine speed and smooth throttle response. These aims, of course, had to be compatible with good fuel economy, quietness, maintenance-free operation and high reliability. In addition, It was necessary to achieve a compact package size despite the twin-cam design. All of those objectives have been attained through the use of a super-long and aerodynamic intake system, variable valve timing control, a low friction, maintenance-free, direct acting valve system, dual direction fuel injectors, and a two-stage cam drive system. This paper discuss the major development objectives, basic engine structure and principal component parts.
Technical Paper

A New Approach to Developing a More Efficient Torque Converter Stator

A flatter design is becoming increasingly important for reducing torque converter axial size and weight. The conventional stator design method, in which the blade profile is geometrically determined and flow analysis of the profile may give some valuable information, is no longer sufficient for achieving efficient flow turning in the short axial length of flat torque converters. Here, after a brief review of the conventional design approach, an inverse design method is introduced, which yields a blade profile solution for a prescribed favorable velocity distribution along the blade. The performance improvement with this procedure has been demonstrated experimentally.
Technical Paper

A New Approach to Finding Optimum Planetary Gear Trains for Automatic Transmissions

There has been a growing need to develop more compact automatic transmissions with a greater number of speeds for better fuel economy and better driveability. This study investigated a method for determining suitable planetary gear trains for today's transmissions. A computer program has been developed for application to five-speed transmissions consisting of two planetary gearsets. By analyzing various gear train possibilities, the program can identify which gearsets are suitable for different conditions, including the number of speeds, the number of binding elements, topological suitability and other factors.
Technical Paper

A New CAD/CAM System for the Car Design Process

Sophisticated product designs enrich people's lives and social demands for creation of good designs are quite strong. In the automobile industry, good design quality is one of the principal factors for determining market competitiveness. In this situation where good design quality is required of every product, the authors have developed a CAD/CAM system which makes it possible to create good and accurate designs by translating designers' ideas directly and quickly into high quality CAD models, a capability that has long been desired. With this high performance system, freely formed curves and surfaces can be easily manipulated with a man-machine interface familiar to industrial designers accutomed to the conventional design process. The system also integrates photo-realistic rendering, stereography and NC milling machines for verifying differences between the realized shape and the image in the designer's mind.
Technical Paper

A New Electrochromic Device for Automotive Glass - The Development of Adjustable Transparency Glass

A new transparent type electrochromic device (ECD) has been developed. It consists of two electrochromic thin films facing each other, one of “prussian blue” (PB) and the other of tungsten trioxide (WO3). PB exhibits a high intensity of coloration and is blue in the oxidized state and transparent in the reduced state. By electrodeposition, the PB layer can be formed on large substrates at low cost. This ECD has been applied to large, curved automotive glass. It reversibly turns from dark blue to transparent at low operating voltage and maintains the same intensity of coloration without the aid of an external power supply. Compared with photochromic glass, it achieves a greater color change in a shorter time and its light absorption can be changed at will. It shields passengers from the discomfort of glare and heat flow through glass.