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Technical Paper

An Automatic Parameter Matching for Engine Fuel Injection Control

An automatic matching method for engine control parameters is described which can aid efficient development of new engine control systems. In a spark-ignition engine, fuel is fed to a cylinder in proportion to the air mass induced in the cylinder. Air flow meter characteristics and fuel injector characteristics govern fuel control. The control parameters in the electronic controller should be tuned to the physical characteristics of the air flow meter and the fuel injectors during driving. Conventional development of the engine control system requires a lot of experiments for control parameter matching. The new matching method utilizes the deviation of feedback coefficients for stoichiometric combustion. The feedback coefficient reflects errors in control parameters of the air flow meter and fuel injectors. The relationship between the feedback coefficients and control parameters has been derived to provide a way to tune control parameters to their physical characteristics.
Technical Paper

An Integrated Control Algorithm for an SI Engine and a CVT

A new integrated control system has been developed for controlling an SI engine and a CVT proactively so as to obtain the demanded drive torque most efficiently. Taking into account ease of calibration, a control system configuration has been achieved that determines the CVT ratio from the target drive torque and vehicle speed, based on the steady-state relationship between the demanded drive torque and the vehicle speed, gear ratio, engine torque and fuel economy. An analysis was made of drive torque characteristics while the ratio was changing under transient conditions. The results showed that using engine torque to compensate for the ratio change response lag and inertia torque, which is proportional to the differential of the gear ratio, is effective in improving drive torque responsiveness.
Technical Paper

Application of CARS to Development of High Compression Ratio Spark Ignition Engine

Coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS) temperature measurements were performed in the unburned gas in a spark ignition engine. First, as the residual gas mass fraction is one of the factor that is known to cause to autoignition, the effect of the residual gas mass fraction on the unburned gas temperature is estimated. In order to control the residual gas mass fraction, a skip fired cycle method was used., and the single cylinder test engine used in this study was fueled with gasoline (89.9 RON). The residual gas causes the unburned gas temperature to rise by approximately 55 K and it also produces a large temperature variation on the order of ±20 K when expressed as a standard deviation. Second, the unburned gas temperature of the single cylinder test engine and the 4 valve production engine was measured under steady-state engine operation in order to compare the residual gas mass fraction of the test engine with that of the production engine.
Technical Paper

Characteristics of Mixture Formation in a Direct Injection SI Engine with Optimized In-Cylinder Swirl Air Motion

This paper presents a study of mixture formation in the combustion chamber of a direct-injection SI engine. In-cylinder flow measurement was conducted using laser Doppler velocimetry (LDV) and particle image velocimetry (PIV), and visualization of fuel vapor behavior was done using laser-induced fluorescence (LIF). Further, fast response flame ionization detector (FID) was used to measure the hydrocarbon (HC) concentrations in the vicinity of the spark plug. Thereby mixture concentrations in the vicinity of the spark plug, within the mixture distribution observed using LIF, were quantified. Results revealed that an upward flow forms near the center of the cylinder in the latter half of the compression stroke and goes from the piston crown toward the cylinder head. This upward flow is caused by the synergistic effect of the swirl motion generated in the cylinder and the cylindrical bowl provided in the piston crown eccentrically to the central axis of the cylinder.
Technical Paper

Crank-angle-resolved Measurements of Air-fuel Ratio, Temperature, and Liquid Fuel Droplet Scattering in a Direct-injection Gasoline Engine

Simultaneous crank-angle-resolved measurements of gasoline vapor concentration, gas temperature, and liquid fuel droplet scattering were made with three-color infrared absorption in a direct-injection spark-ignition engine with premium gasoline. The infrared light was coupled into and out of the cylinder using fiber optics incorporated into a modified spark plug, allowing measurement at a location adjacent to the spark plug electrode. Two mid-infrared (mid-IR) laser wavelengths were simultaneously produced by difference-frequency-generation in periodically poled lithium niobate (PPLN) using one signal and two pump lasers operating in the near-infrared (near-IR). A portion of the near-IR signal laser residual provided a simultaneous third, non-resonant, wavelength for liquid droplet detection. This non-resonant signal was used to subtract the influence of droplet scattering from the resonant mid-IR signals to obtain vapor absorption signals in the presence of droplet extinction.
Technical Paper

Development of Transient Knock Prediction Technique by Using a Zero-Dimensional Knocking Simulation with Chemical Kinetics

A transient knock prediction technique has been developed by coupling a zero-dimensional knocking simulation with chemical kinetics and a one-dimensional gas exchange engine model to study the occurrence of transient knock in SI engines. A mixed chemical reaction mechanism of the primary reference fuels was implemented in the two-zone combustion chamber model as the auto-ignition model of the end-gas. An empirical correlation between end-gas auto-ignition and knock intensity obtained through intensive analysis of experimental data has been applied to the knocking simulation with the aim of obtaining better prediction accuracy. The results of calculations made under various engine operating parameters show good agreement with experimental data for trace knock sensitivity to spark advance.
Technical Paper

Effects of intake-Valve Closing Timing on Spark-Ignition Engine Combustion

In spark-ignition engine pumping loss increases and fuel economy decreases during partial load operation. Methods to reduce this pumping loss by controlling the intake-valve closing timing are currently under study. The authors, also, have confirmed that pumping loss can be reduced by controlling the amount of intake air-fuel mixture through making changes in the in Cake-valve closing timing. However, when pumping loss was reduced by controlling intake-valve closing timing, an improvement in fuel economy equivalent to the reduction in pumping loss was not obtained. In this study, it was found that the major contributing factor to this phenomenon was the deterioration of the combustion, namely, increase in combustion duration and in combustion fluctuation.
Technical Paper

Heat Capacity Changes Predict Nitrogen Oxides Reduction by Exhaust Gas Recirculation

Earlier work has demonstrated that exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) decreases peak combustion temperature and thus reduces the concentration of nitrogen oxides (NOx) in spark ignition engine exhaust. The present authors hypothesized that NOx formation is primarily affected by the heat capacity of the combustion gases and recycled exhaust. The hypothesis was tested in an experimental program involving the admission of inert gases such as He, Ar, H2, and CO2, and water in place of EGR. In addition to confirming the validity of the original hypothesis, the test data also indicated that engine output and efficiency were significantly affected by the heat capacity of the combustion gases. The authors conclude that EGR functions by increasing the heat capacity of the working fluid, and demonstrates that the correlative changes in NOx and engine performance can be predicted from heat capacity considerations.
Technical Paper

Potentiality of the Modification of Engine Combustion Rate for NOx Formation Control in the Premixed SI Engine

In order to study the potentiality of the modification of the combustion rate for NOx formation control in the spark ignition (SI) engine, the authors first developed a new mathematical model by assuming the stepped gas temperature gradient in the cylinder. The predicted results from this new mathematical model show good coincidence with the experimental data. Second, the authors discuss the effects of the modification of the combustion rate on NOx formation using the new mathematical model. It was concluded that NOx formation in the premixed SI engine would be essentially determined by the specific fuel consumption only, regardless of any modification of the engine combustion rate.
Technical Paper

Stabilized Combustion in a Spark Ignited Engine through a Long Spark Duration

An investigation has been done on the relationship between spark ignition characteristics and combustion stability in a gasoline engine. The spark discharge parameters examined were the spark current, energy, and duration. It has been found that lengthening the spark discharge duration is particularly effective in achieving stabilized combustion. A longer spark duration provides a continued supply of electric energy as kinetic energy to the mixture around the spark gap. The analytical results of a constant volume combustion chamber test verify that a longer spark duration promotes flame initiation and makes reliable flame propagation possible. The length of the spark duration is regarded as the period from ignition to the onset of combustion pressure rise. The results of a combustion pressure analysis reveal that the spark duration must be longer than the heat release delay.