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Technical Paper

An Examination of Spray Stochastics in Single-Hole Diesel Injectors

2015-09-01
2015-01-1834
Recent advances in x-ray spray diagnostics at Argonne National Laboratory's Advanced Photon Source have made absorption measurements of individual spray events possible. A focused x-ray beam (5×6 μm) enables collection of data along a single line of sight in the flow field and these measurements have allowed the calculation of quantitative, shot-to-shot statistics for the projected mass of fuel sprays. Raster scanning though the spray generates a two-dimensional field of data, which is a path integrated representation of a three-dimensional flow. In a previous work, we investigated the shot-to-shot variation over 32 events by visualizing the ensemble standard deviations throughout a two dimensional mapping of the spray. In the current work, provide further analysis of the time to steady-state and steady-state spatial location of the fluctuating field via the transverse integrated fluctuations (TIF).
Technical Paper

Analysis of the Spray Numerical Injection Modeling for Gasoline Applications

2020-04-14
2020-01-0330
The modeling of the fuel jet atomization is key in the characterization of Internal Combustion (IC) engines and 3D Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) is a recognized tool to provide insights for design and control purposes. Multi-hole injectors with counter-bored nozzle are the standard for Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) applications and the Spray-G injector from the Engine Combustion Network (ECN) is considered the reference for numerical studies, thanks to the availability of extensive experimental data. In this work, the behavior of the Spray-G injector is simulated in a constant volume chamber, ranging from sub-cooled (nominal G) to flashing conditions (G2), validating the models on Diffused Back Illumination and Phase Doppler Anemometry data collected in vaporizing inert conditions.
Technical Paper

Durability Study of a Light-Duty High Pressure Common Rail Fuel Injection System Using E10 Gasoline

2020-04-14
2020-01-0616
In this study, a 500-hour test cycle was used to evaluate the durability of a prototype high pressure common rail injection system operating up to 1800 bar with E10 gasoline. Some aspects of the hardware were modified from their baseline design in order to accommodate an opposed-piston, two-stroke engine application and mitigate the impacts of exposure to gasoline. Overall system performance was maintained throughout testing as fueling rate and rail pressure targets were continuously achieved. Although evidence of vapor formation in the low-pressure part of the system was observed, there was no significant physical damage to the associated components. Injectors showed no deviation in their flow characteristics after exposure to gasoline and high resolution imaging of the nozzle tips and pilot valve assemblies did not indicate the presence of cavitation damage.
Journal Article

Evaluation of Shot-to-Shot In-Nozzle Flow Variations in a Heavy-Duty Diesel Injector Using Real Nozzle Geometry

2018-04-03
2018-01-0303
Cyclic variability in internal combustion engines (ICEs) arises from multiple concurrent sources, many of which remain to be fully understood and controlled. This variability can, in turn, affect the behavior of the engine resulting in undesirable deviations from the expected operating conditions and performance. Shot-to-shot variation during the fuel injection process is strongly suspected of being a source of cyclic variability. This study focuses on the shot-to-shot variability of injector needle motion and its influence on the internal nozzle flow behavior using diesel fuel. High-speed x-ray imaging techniques have been used to extract high-resolution injector geometry images of the sac, orifices, and needle tip that allowed the true dynamics of the needle motion to emerge. These measurements showed high repeatability in the needle lift profile across multiple injection events, while the needle radial displacement was characterized by a much higher degree of randomness.
Journal Article

Experimental and Computational Investigation of Subcritical Near-Nozzle Spray Structure and Primary Atomization in the Engine Combustion Network Spray D

2018-04-03
2018-01-0277
In order to improve understanding of the primary atomization process for diesel-like sprays, a collaborative experimental and computational study was focused on the near-nozzle spray structure for the Engine Combustion Network (ECN) Spray D single-hole injector. These results were presented at the 5th Workshop of the ECN in Detroit, Michigan. Application of x-ray diagnostics to the Spray D standard cold condition enabled quantification of distributions of mass, phase interfacial area, and droplet size in the near-nozzle region from 0.1 to 14 mm from the nozzle exit. Using these data, several modeling frameworks, from Lagrangian-Eulerian to Eulerian-Eulerian and from Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) to Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS), were assessed in their ability to capture and explain experimentally observed spray details. Due to its computational efficiency, the Lagrangian-Eulerian approach was able to provide spray predictions across a broad range of conditions.
Technical Paper

Identification and Characterization of Steady Spray Conditions in Convergent, Single-Hole Diesel Injectors

2019-04-02
2019-01-0281
Reduced-order models typically assume that the flow through the injector orifice is quasi-steady. The current study investigates to what extent this assumption is true and what factors may induce large-scale variations. Experimental data were collected from a single-hole metal injector with a smoothly converging hole and from a transparent facsimile. Gas, likely indicating cavitation, was observed in the nozzles. Surface roughness was a potential cause for the cavitation. Computations were employed using two engineering-level Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) codes that considered the possibility of cavitation. Neither computational model included these small surface features, and so did not predict internal cavitation. At steady state, it was found that initial conditions were of little consequence, even if they included bubbles within the sac. They however did modify the initial rate of injection by a few microseconds.
Journal Article

LES of Diesel and Gasoline Sprays with Validation against X-Ray Radiography Data

2015-04-14
2015-01-0931
This paper focuses on detailed numerical simulations of direct injection diesel and gasoline sprays from production grade, multi-hole injectors. In a dual-fuel engine the direct injection of both the fuels can facilitate appropriate mixture preparation prior to ignition and combustion. Diesel and gasoline sprays were simulated using high-fidelity Large Eddy Simulations (LES) with the dynamic structure sub-grid scale model. Numerical predictions of liquid penetration, fuel density distribution as well as transverse integrated mass (TIM) at different axial locations versus time were compared against x-ray radiography data obtained from Argonne National Laboratory. A necessary, but often overlooked, criterion of grid-convergence is ensured by using Adaptive Mesh Refinement (AMR) for both diesel and gasoline. Nine different realizations were performed and the effects of random seeds on spray behavior were investigated.
Technical Paper

Near-Nozzle Spray Characteristics of Heavy-Duty Diesel Injectors

2003-10-27
2003-01-3150
The process of spray atomization has typically been understood in terms of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability theory. However, this mechanism has failed to fully explain much of the measured data. For this reason a number of new atomization mechanisms have been proposed. The present study intends to gain an understanding of the spray dynamics and breakup processes in the near-nozzle region of heavy-duty diesel injector sprays. As this region is optically dense, synchrotron x-rays were used to gain new insights. This spray study was performed using a prototype common-rail injection system, by injecting a blend of diesel fuel and cerium-containing organometalic compound into a chamber filled with nitrogen at 1 atm. The x-rays were able to probe the dense region of the spray as close as 0.2 mm from the nozzle. These x-ray images showed two interesting features. The first was a breakup of the high density region about 22 μs After the Start Of Injection (ASOI).
Journal Article

Quantification of Shot-to-Shot Variation in Single Hole Diesel Injectors

2015-04-14
2015-01-0936
Recent advancements in x-ray radiography diagnostics for direct injection sprays at Argonne's Advanced Photon Source have allowed absorption measurements of individual spray events, in addition to ensemble-averaged measurements. These measurements offer insight into the shot-to-shot variation of these sprays in the near-nozzle, spray formation region. Three single hole diesel injectors are studied across various injection and ambient pressures, spanning 14 different conditions. We calculated two dimensional maps of the standard deviation in line of sight mass distribution between individual spray events. These illuminated the spatial and temporal extent of variability between spray events. Regions of large fluctuations were observed to move downstream during the initial spray period and reached a steady state location after this initial transient.
Journal Article

Recent Developments in X-ray Diagnostics for Cavitation

2015-04-14
2015-01-0918
Cavitation plays an important role in fuel injection systems. It alters the nozzle's internal flow structure and discharge coefficient, and also contributes to injector wear. Quantitatively measuring and mapping the cavitation vapor distribution in a fuel injector is difficult, as cavitation occurs on very short time and length scales. Optical measurements of transparent model nozzles can indicate the morphology of large-scale cavitation, but are generally limited by the substantial amount of scattering that occurs between vapor and liquid phases. These limitations can be overcome with x-ray diagnostics, as x-rays refract, scatter and absorb much more weakly from phase interfaces. Here, we present an overview of some recent developments in quantitative x-ray diagnostics for cavitating flows. Measurements were conducted at the Advanced Photon Source at Argonne National Laboratory, using a submerged plastic test nozzle.
Technical Paper

Time Resolved, Three Dimensional Mass Distribution of Diesel Sprays Measured with X-Ray Radiography

2009-04-20
2009-01-0840
Most previous measurements of diesel sprays have yielded few details regarding the near-nozzle structure of the sprays. X-ray radiography measurements have provided quantitative, time-resolved measurements of spray behavior, but the radiography data are projections of the actual fuel distribution. In this study, diesel sprays from two axial, single-hole nozzles are measured using x-ray radiography from several viewing angles. A model-based reconstruction is used to determine the actual density distribution from the projected data. The spray from the hydroground nozzle is eccentric and relatively dense, while the spray from the non-hydroground nozzle is asymmetric and far less dense. Even several mm from the nozzles, the calculated density values are high enough to call into question the assumptions underlying many standard CFD spray models.
Journal Article

Time-Resolved X-Ray Radiography of Spark Ignition Plasma

2016-04-05
2016-01-0640
Understanding the short-lived structure of the plasma that forms between the electrodes of a spark plug is crucial to the development of improved ignition models for SI engines. However, measuring the amount of energy deposited in the gas directly and non-intrusively is difficult, due to the short time scales and small length scales involved. The breakdown of the spark gap occurs at nanosecond time scales, followed by an arc phase lasting a few microseconds. Finally, a glow discharge phase occurs over several milliseconds. It is during the arc and glow discharge phases that most of the heat transfer from the plasma to the electrodes and combustion gases occurs. Light emission can be used to measure an average temperature, but micron spatial resolution is required to make localized measurements.
Technical Paper

Time-Resolved and Quantitative Characterization of Highly Transient Gasoline Sprays by X-Radiography

2002-06-03
2002-01-1893
Using synchrotron x-radiography and mass deconvolution techniques, this work reveals strikingly interesting structural and dynamic characteristics of the direct injection (DI) gasoline hollow-cone sprays in the near-nozzle region. Employed to measure the sprays, x-radiography allows quantitative determination of the fuel distribution in this optically impenetrable region with a time resolution of better than 1 μs, revealing the most detailed near-nozzle mass distribution of a DI gasoline fuel spray ever detected. Based on the x-radiographs of the spray collected from four different perspectives, enhanced mathematical and numerical analyses were developed to deconvolute the mass density of the gasoline hollow-cone spray. This leads to efficient and accurate regression curve fitting of the measured experimental data to obtain essential parameters of the density distribution that are then used in reconstructing the cross-sectional density distribution at various times and locations.
Journal Article

Time-resolved X-ray Tomography of Gasoline Direct Injection Sprays

2015-09-01
2015-01-1873
Quantitative measurements of direct injection fuel spray density and mixing are difficult to achieve using optical diagnostics, due to the substantial scattering of light and high optical density of the droplet field. For multi-hole sprays, the problem is even more challenging, as it is difficult to isolate a single spray plume along a single line of sight. Time resolved x-ray radiography diagnostics developed at Argonne's Advanced Photon Source have been used for some time to study diesel fuel sprays, as x-rays have high penetrating power in sprays and scatter only weakly. Traditionally, radiography measurements have been conducted along any single line of sight, and have been applied to single-hole and group-hole nozzles with few plumes. In this new work, we extend the technique to multi-hole gasoline direct injection sprays.
Technical Paper

Transient Internal Nozzle Flow in Transparent Multi-Hole Diesel Injector

2020-04-14
2020-01-0830
An accurate prediction of internal nozzle flow in fuel injector offers the potential to improve predictions of spray computational fluid dynamics (CFD) in an engine, providing a coupled internal-external calculation or by defining better rate of injection (ROI) profile and spray angle information for Lagrangian parcel computations. Previous research has addressed experiments and computations in transparent nozzles, but less is known about realistic multi-hole diesel injectors compared to single axial-hole fuel injectors. In this study, the transient injector opening and closing is characterized using a transparent multi-hole diesel injector, and compared to that of a single axial hole nozzle (ECN Spray D shape). A real-size five-hole acrylic transparent nozzle was mounted in a high-pressure, constant-flow chamber. Internal nozzle phenomena such as cavitation and gas exchange were visualized by high-speed long-distance microscopy.
Technical Paper

Ultrafast X-Ray Phase-Enhanced Microimaging for Visualizing Fuel Injection Process

2005-09-11
2005-24-093
Propagation-based and phase-enhanced x-ray imaging was developed as a unique metrology technique to visualize the internal structure of high-pressure fuel injection nozzles. We have visualized the microstructures inside 200-μm fuel injection nozzles in a 3-mm-thick steel housing using this novel technique. Furthermore, this new x-ray-based metrology technique has been used to directly study the highly transient needle motion in the nozzles in situ and in real-time, which is virtually impossible by any other means. The needle motion has been shown to have the most direct effect on the fuel jet structure and spray formation immediately outside of the nozzle. In addition, the spray cone-angle has been perfectly correlated with the numerically simulated fuel flow inside the nozzle due to the transient nature of the needle during the injection.
Journal Article

X-Ray Radiography Measurements of the Thermal Energy in Spark Ignition Plasma at Variable Ambient Conditions

2017-09-04
2017-24-0178
The sparking behavior in an internal combustion engine affects the fuel efficiency, engine-out emissions, and general drivability of a vehicle. As emissions regulations become progressively stringent, combustion strategies, including exhaust gas recirculation (EGR), lean-burn, and turbocharging are receiving increasing attention as models of higher efficiency advanced combustion engines with reduced emissions levels. Because these new strategies affect the working environment of the spark plug, ongoing research strives to understand the influence of external factors on the spark ignition process. Due to the short time and length scales involved and the harsh environment, experimental quantification of the deposited energy from the sparking event is difficult to obtain. In this paper, we present the results of x-ray radiography measurements of spark ignition plasma generated by a conventional spark plug.
Technical Paper

X-Ray Radiography and CFD Studies of the Spray G Injector

2016-04-05
2016-01-0858
The salient features of modern gasoline direct injection include cavitation, flash boiling, and plume/plume interaction, depending on the operating conditions. These complex phenomena make the prediction of the spray behavior particularly difficult. The present investigation combines mass-based experimental diagnostics with an advanced, in-house modeling capability in order to provide a multi-faceted study of the Engine Combustion Network’s Spray G injector. First, x-ray tomography is used to distinguish the actual injector geometry from the nominal geometry used in past works. The actual geometry is used as the basis of multidimensional CFD simulations which are compared to x-ray radiography measurements for validation under cold conditions. The influence of nozzle diameter and corner radius are of particular interest. Next, the model is used to simulate flash-boiling conditions, in order to understand how the cold flow behavior corresponds to flashing performance.
Journal Article

X-ray Imaging of Cavitation in Diesel Injectors

2014-04-01
2014-01-1404
Cavitation plays a significant role in high pressure diesel injectors. However, cavitation is difficult to measure under realistic conditions. X-ray phase contrast imaging has been used in the past to study the internal geometry of fuel injectors and the structure of diesel sprays. In this paper we extend the technique to make in-situ measurements of cavitation inside unmodified diesel injectors at pressures of up to 1200 bar through the steel nozzle wall. A cerium contrast agent was added to a diesel surrogate, and the changes in x-ray intensity caused by changes in the fluid density due to cavitation were measured. Without the need to modify the injector for optical access, realistic injection and ambient pressures can be obtained and the effects of realistic nozzle geometries can be investigated. A range of single and multi-hole injectors were studied, both sharp-edged and hydro-ground. Cavitation was observed to increase with higher rail pressures.
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