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Journal Article

Experimental and Computational Investigation of Subcritical Near-Nozzle Spray Structure and Primary Atomization in the Engine Combustion Network Spray D

2018-04-03
2018-01-0277
In order to improve understanding of the primary atomization process for diesel-like sprays, a collaborative experimental and computational study was focused on the near-nozzle spray structure for the Engine Combustion Network (ECN) Spray D single-hole injector. These results were presented at the 5th Workshop of the ECN in Detroit, Michigan. Application of x-ray diagnostics to the Spray D standard cold condition enabled quantification of distributions of mass, phase interfacial area, and droplet size in the near-nozzle region from 0.1 to 14 mm from the nozzle exit. Using these data, several modeling frameworks, from Lagrangian-Eulerian to Eulerian-Eulerian and from Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) to Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS), were assessed in their ability to capture and explain experimentally observed spray details. Due to its computational efficiency, the Lagrangian-Eulerian approach was able to provide spray predictions across a broad range of conditions.
Journal Article

LES of Diesel and Gasoline Sprays with Validation against X-Ray Radiography Data

2015-04-14
2015-01-0931
This paper focuses on detailed numerical simulations of direct injection diesel and gasoline sprays from production grade, multi-hole injectors. In a dual-fuel engine the direct injection of both the fuels can facilitate appropriate mixture preparation prior to ignition and combustion. Diesel and gasoline sprays were simulated using high-fidelity Large Eddy Simulations (LES) with the dynamic structure sub-grid scale model. Numerical predictions of liquid penetration, fuel density distribution as well as transverse integrated mass (TIM) at different axial locations versus time were compared against x-ray radiography data obtained from Argonne National Laboratory. A necessary, but often overlooked, criterion of grid-convergence is ensured by using Adaptive Mesh Refinement (AMR) for both diesel and gasoline. Nine different realizations were performed and the effects of random seeds on spray behavior were investigated.
Journal Article

Quantification of Shot-to-Shot Variation in Single Hole Diesel Injectors

2015-04-14
2015-01-0936
Recent advancements in x-ray radiography diagnostics for direct injection sprays at Argonne's Advanced Photon Source have allowed absorption measurements of individual spray events, in addition to ensemble-averaged measurements. These measurements offer insight into the shot-to-shot variation of these sprays in the near-nozzle, spray formation region. Three single hole diesel injectors are studied across various injection and ambient pressures, spanning 14 different conditions. We calculated two dimensional maps of the standard deviation in line of sight mass distribution between individual spray events. These illuminated the spatial and temporal extent of variability between spray events. Regions of large fluctuations were observed to move downstream during the initial spray period and reached a steady state location after this initial transient.
Technical Paper

Time Resolved, Three Dimensional Mass Distribution of Diesel Sprays Measured with X-Ray Radiography

2009-04-20
2009-01-0840
Most previous measurements of diesel sprays have yielded few details regarding the near-nozzle structure of the sprays. X-ray radiography measurements have provided quantitative, time-resolved measurements of spray behavior, but the radiography data are projections of the actual fuel distribution. In this study, diesel sprays from two axial, single-hole nozzles are measured using x-ray radiography from several viewing angles. A model-based reconstruction is used to determine the actual density distribution from the projected data. The spray from the hydroground nozzle is eccentric and relatively dense, while the spray from the non-hydroground nozzle is asymmetric and far less dense. Even several mm from the nozzles, the calculated density values are high enough to call into question the assumptions underlying many standard CFD spray models.
Journal Article

Time-Resolved X-Ray Radiography of Spark Ignition Plasma

2016-04-05
2016-01-0640
Understanding the short-lived structure of the plasma that forms between the electrodes of a spark plug is crucial to the development of improved ignition models for SI engines. However, measuring the amount of energy deposited in the gas directly and non-intrusively is difficult, due to the short time scales and small length scales involved. The breakdown of the spark gap occurs at nanosecond time scales, followed by an arc phase lasting a few microseconds. Finally, a glow discharge phase occurs over several milliseconds. It is during the arc and glow discharge phases that most of the heat transfer from the plasma to the electrodes and combustion gases occurs. Light emission can be used to measure an average temperature, but micron spatial resolution is required to make localized measurements.
Technical Paper

Time-Resolved and Quantitative Characterization of Highly Transient Gasoline Sprays by X-Radiography

2002-06-03
2002-01-1893
Using synchrotron x-radiography and mass deconvolution techniques, this work reveals strikingly interesting structural and dynamic characteristics of the direct injection (DI) gasoline hollow-cone sprays in the near-nozzle region. Employed to measure the sprays, x-radiography allows quantitative determination of the fuel distribution in this optically impenetrable region with a time resolution of better than 1 μs, revealing the most detailed near-nozzle mass distribution of a DI gasoline fuel spray ever detected. Based on the x-radiographs of the spray collected from four different perspectives, enhanced mathematical and numerical analyses were developed to deconvolute the mass density of the gasoline hollow-cone spray. This leads to efficient and accurate regression curve fitting of the measured experimental data to obtain essential parameters of the density distribution that are then used in reconstructing the cross-sectional density distribution at various times and locations.
Journal Article

X-Ray Radiography Measurements of the Thermal Energy in Spark Ignition Plasma at Variable Ambient Conditions

2017-09-04
2017-24-0178
The sparking behavior in an internal combustion engine affects the fuel efficiency, engine-out emissions, and general drivability of a vehicle. As emissions regulations become progressively stringent, combustion strategies, including exhaust gas recirculation (EGR), lean-burn, and turbocharging are receiving increasing attention as models of higher efficiency advanced combustion engines with reduced emissions levels. Because these new strategies affect the working environment of the spark plug, ongoing research strives to understand the influence of external factors on the spark ignition process. Due to the short time and length scales involved and the harsh environment, experimental quantification of the deposited energy from the sparking event is difficult to obtain. In this paper, we present the results of x-ray radiography measurements of spark ignition plasma generated by a conventional spark plug.
Technical Paper

X-Ray Radiography and CFD Studies of the Spray G Injector

2016-04-05
2016-01-0858
The salient features of modern gasoline direct injection include cavitation, flash boiling, and plume/plume interaction, depending on the operating conditions. These complex phenomena make the prediction of the spray behavior particularly difficult. The present investigation combines mass-based experimental diagnostics with an advanced, in-house modeling capability in order to provide a multi-faceted study of the Engine Combustion Network’s Spray G injector. First, x-ray tomography is used to distinguish the actual injector geometry from the nominal geometry used in past works. The actual geometry is used as the basis of multidimensional CFD simulations which are compared to x-ray radiography measurements for validation under cold conditions. The influence of nozzle diameter and corner radius are of particular interest. Next, the model is used to simulate flash-boiling conditions, in order to understand how the cold flow behavior corresponds to flashing performance.
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