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Technical Paper

A Co-Simulation Environment for Virtual Prototyping of Ground Vehicles

2007-10-30
2007-01-4250
The use of virtual prototyping early in the design stage of a product has gained popularity due to reduced cost and time to market. The state of the art in vehicle simulation has reached a level where full vehicles are analyzed through simulation but major difficulties continue to be present in interfacing the vehicle model with accurate powertrain models and in developing adequate formulations for the contact between tire and terrain (specifically, scenarios such as tire sliding on ice and rolling on sand or other very deformable surfaces). The proposed work focuses on developing a ground vehicle simulation capability by combining several third party packages for vehicle simulation, tire simulation, and powertrain simulation. The long-term goal of this project consists in promoting the Digital Car idea through the development of a reliable and robust simulation capability that will enhance the understanding and control of off-road vehicle performance.
Technical Paper

A Combined Model for High Speed Valve Train Dynamics (Partly Linear and Partly Nonlinear)

1990-09-01
901726
A numerical modeling technique is proposed for computer simulations of high speed valve train dynamics. The dynamic terms in the valve spring reaction forces are calculated using linear vibration theory for given kinematic valve motions. Because the spring dynamics are analyzed before the time stepping integration, spring surge phenomena can be included without using additional computer time. Consequently, valve train dynamics can be simulated very quickly without noticeable errors in accuracy. The experimental results prove the computer model developed here is accurate and also computationally efficient.
Technical Paper

A Comparative Study of Hydraulic Hybrid Systems for Class 6 Trucks

2013-04-08
2013-01-1472
In order to reduce fuel consumption, companies have been looking at hybridizing vehicles. So far, two main hybridization options have been considered: electric and hydraulic hybrids. Because of light duty vehicle operating conditions and the high energy density of batteries, electric hybrids are being widely used for cars. However, companies are still evaluating both hybridization options for medium and heavy duty vehicles. Trucks generally demand very large regenerative power and frequent stop-and-go. In that situation, hydraulic systems could offer an advantage over electric drive systems because the hydraulic motor and accumulator can handle high power with small volume capacity. This study compares the fuel displacement of class 6 trucks using a hydraulic system compared to conventional and hybrid electric vehicles. The paper will describe the component technology and sizes of each powertrain as well as their overall vehicle level control strategies.
Technical Paper

A Comparative Study of a Multi-Gas Generator Fan to a Turbofan Engine on a Vertical Takeoff and Landing Personal Air Vehicle

2006-08-30
2006-01-2435
This paper attempts to assess the benefits of a unique distributed propulsion concept, known as the Multi-Gas Generator Fan (MGGF) system, over conventional turbofan engines on civilian vertical takeoff and landing (VTOL) applications. The MGGF-based system has shown the potential to address the fundamental technical challenge in designing a VTOL aircraft: the significant mismatch between the power requirements at lift-off/hover and cruise. Vehicle-level performance and sizing studies were implemented using the Grumman Design 698 tilt-nacelle V/STOL aircraft as a notional personal air vehicle (PAV), subjected to hypothetical single engine failure (SEF) emergency landing requirements and PAV mission requirements.
Journal Article

A Comparison of Experimental and Modeled Velocity in Gasoline Direct-Injection Sprays with Plume Interaction and Collapse

2017-03-28
2017-01-0837
Modeling plume interaction and collapse for direct-injection gasoline sprays is important because of its impact on fuel-air mixing and engine performance. Nevertheless, the aerodynamic interaction between plumes and the complicated two-phase coupling of the evaporating spray has shown to be notoriously difficult to predict. With the availability of high-speed (100 kHz) Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) experimental data, we compare velocity field predictions between plumes to observe the full temporal evolution leading up to plume merging and complete spray collapse. The target “Spray G” operating conditions of the Engine Combustion Network (ECN) is the focus of the work, including parametric variations in ambient gas temperature. We apply both LES and RANS spray models in different CFD platforms, outlining features of the spray that are most critical to model in order to predict the correct aerodynamics and fuel-air mixing.
Journal Article

A Hydrogen Direct Injection Engine Concept that Exceeds U.S. DOE Light-Duty Efficiency Targets

2012-04-16
2012-01-0653
Striving for sustainable transportation solutions, hydrogen is often identified as a promising energy carrier and internal combustion engines are seen as a cost effective consumer of hydrogen to facilitate the development of a large-scale hydrogen infrastructure. Driven by efficiency and emissions targets defined by the U.S. Department of Energy, a research team at Argonne National Laboratory has worked on optimizing a spark-ignited direct injection engine for hydrogen. Using direct injection improves volumetric efficiency and provides the opportunity to properly stratify the fuel-air mixture in-cylinder. Collaborative 3D-CFD and experimental efforts have focused on optimizing the mixture stratification and have demonstrated the potential for high engine efficiency with low NOx emissions. Performance of the hydrogen engine is evaluated in this paper over a speed range from 1000 to 3000 RPM and a load range from 1.7 to 14.3 bar BMEP.
Technical Paper

A Mean Value Based Sizing and Simulation Model of a Hydrogen Fueled Spark-Ignition Internal Combustion Engine

2007-09-17
2007-01-3789
A mean value based sizing and simulation model has been developed for use in the conceptual design and sizing of hydrogen fueled spark-ignition internal combustion engines (HICE) in the aerospace industry, here ‘mean value’ includes mean effective pressure (MEP), mean piston speed, mean specific power, etc. This model is developed since there is currently no such model readily available for this purpose. When sizing the HICE, statistical data and common practice for gasoline internal combustion engines (GICE) are used to obtain preliminary sizes of the HICE, such as total cylinder volume, bore and stroke; to capture the effect of low volumetric efficiency, the preliminary results are adjusted by a volumetric correction factor until the cycle parameters of HICE are reasonable. A non-dimensional combustion model with hydrogen as fuel is incorporated with existing GICE methods. With this combustion model, the high combustion temperature and high combustion pressure are captured.
Journal Article

A Novel Approach to Assess Diesel Spray Models using Joint Visible and X-Ray Liquid Extinction Measurements

2015-04-14
2015-01-0941
Spray processes, such as primary breakup, play an important role for subsequent combustion processes and emissions formation. Accurate modeling of these spray physics is therefore key to ensure faithful representation of both the global and local characteristics of the spray. However, the governing physical mechanisms underlying primary breakup in fuel sprays are still not known. Several theories have been proposed and incorporated into different engineering models for the primary breakup of fuel sprays, with the most widely employed models following an approach based on aerodynamically-induced breakup, or more recently, based on liquid turbulence-induced breakup. However, a complete validation of these breakup models and theories is lacking since no existing measurements have yielded the joint liquid mass and drop size distribution needed to fully define the spray, especially in the near-nozzle region.
Technical Paper

A Numerical Investigation on Scalability and Grid Convergence of Internal Combustion Engine Simulations

2013-04-08
2013-01-1095
Traditional Lagrangian spray modeling approaches for internal combustion engines are highly grid-dependent due to insufficient resolution in the near nozzle region. This is primarily because of inherent restrictions of volume fraction with the Lagrangian assumption together with high computational costs associated with small grid sizes. A state-of-the-art grid-convergent spray modeling approach was recently developed and implemented by Senecal et al., (ASME-ICEF2012-92043) in the CONVERGE software. The key features of the methodology include Adaptive Mesh Refinement (AMR), advanced liquid-gas momentum coupling, and improved distribution of the liquid phase, which enables use of cell sizes smaller than the nozzle diameter. This modeling approach was rigorously validated against non-evaporating, evaporating, and reacting data from the literature.
Technical Paper

A Preliminary Study of Energy Recovery in Vehicles by Using Regenerative Magnetic Shock Absorbers

2001-05-14
2001-01-2071
Road vehicles can expend a significant amount of energy in undesirable vertical motions that are induced by road bumps, and much of that is dissipated in conventional shock absorbers as they dampen the vertical motions. Presented in this paper are some of the results of a study aimed at determining the effectiveness of efficiently transforming that energy into electrical power by using optimally designed regenerative electromagnetic shock absorbers. In turn, the electrical power can be used to recharge batteries or other efficient energy storage devices (e.g., flywheels) rather than be dissipated. The results of the study are encouraging - they suggest that a significant amount of the vertical motion energy can be recovered and stored.
Technical Paper

A Probabilistic Design Methodology for Commercial Aircraft Engine Cycle Selection

1998-09-28
985510
The objective of this paper is to examine ways in which to implement probabilistic design methods in the aircraft engine preliminary design process. Specifically, the focus is on analytically determining the impact of uncertainty in engine component performance on the overall performance of a notional large commercial transport, particularly the impact on design range, fuel burn, and engine weight. The emphasis is twofold: first is to find ways to reduce the impact of this uncertainty through appropriate engine cycle selections, and second is on finding ways to leverage existing design margin to squeeze more performance out of current technology. One of the fundamental results shown herein is that uncertainty in component performance has a significant impact on the overall aircraft performance (it is on the same order of magnitude as the impact of the cycle itself).
Journal Article

A Progress Review on Soot Experiments and Modeling in the Engine Combustion Network (ECN)

2016-04-05
2016-01-0734
The 4th Workshop of the Engine Combustion Network (ECN) was held September 5-6, 2015 in Kyoto, Japan. This manuscript presents a summary of the progress in experiments and modeling among ECN contributors leading to a better understanding of soot formation under the ECN “Spray A” configuration and some parametric variants. Relevant published and unpublished work from prior ECN workshops is reviewed. Experiments measuring soot particle size and morphology, soot volume fraction (fv), and transient soot mass have been conducted at various international institutions providing target data for improvements to computational models. Multiple modeling contributions using both the Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) Equations approach and the Large-Eddy Simulation (LES) approach have been submitted. Among these, various chemical mechanisms, soot models, and turbulence-chemistry interaction (TCI) methodologies have been considered.
Technical Paper

A Simple Fan Model for Underhood Thermal Management Analyses

2002-03-04
2002-01-1025
This work presents a simple fan model that is based on the actuator disk approximation, and the blade element and vortex theory of a propeller. A set of equations are derived that require as input the rotational speed of the fan, geometric fan data, and the lift and drag coefficients of the blades. These equations are solved iteratively to obtain the body forces generated by the fan in the axial and circumferential directions. These forces are used as momentum sources in a CFD code to simulate the effect of the fan in an underhood thermal management simulation. To validate this fan model, a fan experiment was simulated. The model was incorporated into the CFD code STAR-CD and predictions were generated for axial and circumferential air velocities at different radial positions and at different planes downstream of the fan. The agreement between experimental measurements and predictions is good.
Technical Paper

A Technique for Testing and Evaluation of Aircraft Flight Performance During Early Design Phases

1997-10-01
975541
A technique is proposed for examining complex behaviors in the “pilot - vehicle - operational conditions” system using an autonomous situational model of flight. The goal is to identify potentially critical flight situations in the system behavior early in the design process. An exhaustive set of flight scenarios can be constructed and modeled on a computer by the designer in accordance with test certification requirements or other inputs. Distinguishing features of the technique include the autonomy of experimentation (the pilot and a flight simulator are not involved) and easy planning and quick modeling of complex multi-factor flight cases. An example of mapping airworthiness requirements into formal scenarios is presented. Simulation results for various flight situations and aircraft types are also demonstrated.
Technical Paper

Accurate Measurements of Heat Release, Oxidation Rates, and Soluble Organic Compounds of Diesel Particulates through Thermal Reactions

2010-04-12
2010-01-0814
In an effort of providing better understanding of regeneration mechanisms of diesel particulate matter (PM), this experimental investigation focused on evaluating the amount of heat release generated during the thermal reaction of diesel PM and the concentrations of soluble organic compounds (SOCs) dissolved in PM emissions. Differences in oxidation behaviors were observed for two different diesel PM samples: a SOC-containing PM sample and a dry soot sample with no SOCs. Both samples were collected from a cordierite particulate filter membrane in a thermal reactor connected to the exhaust pipe of a light-duty diesel engine. A differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) and a thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) were used to measure the amount of heat release during oxidation, along with subsequent oxidation rates and the concentrations of SOCs dissolved in particulate samples, respectively.
Technical Paper

Achieving Stable Engine Operation of Gasoline Compression Ignition Using 87 AKI Gasoline Down to Idle

2015-04-14
2015-01-0832
For several years there has been a great deal of effort made in researching ways to run a compression ignition engine with simultaneously high efficiency and low emissions. Recently much of this focus has been dedicated to using gasoline-like fuels that are more volatile and less reactive than conventional diesel fuel to allow the combustion to be more premixed. One of the key challenges to using fuels with such properties in a compression ignition engine is stable engine operation at low loads. This paper provides an analysis of how stable gasoline compression ignition (GCI) engine operation was achieved down to idle speed and load on a multi-cylinder compression ignition engine using only 87 anti-knock index (AKI) gasoline. The variables explored to extend stable engine operation to idle included: uncooled exhaust gas recirculation (EGR), injection timing, injection pressure, and injector nozzle geometry.
Technical Paper

Advanced Automatic Transmission Model Validation Using Dynamometer Test Data

2014-04-01
2014-01-1778
As a result of increasingly stringent regulations and higher customer expectations, auto manufacturers have been considering numerous technology options to improve vehicle fuel economy. Transmissions have been shown to be one of the most cost-effective technologies for improving fuel economy. Over the past couple of years, transmissions have significantly evolved and impacted both performance and fuel efficiency. This study validates the shifting control of advanced automatic transmission technologies in vehicle systems by using Argonne National Laboratory's model-based vehicle simulation tool, Autonomie. Different midsize vehicles, including several with automatic transmission (6-speeds, 7-speeds, and 8-speeds), were tested at Argonne's Advanced Powertrain Research Facility (APRF). For the vehicles, a novel process was used to import test data.
Technical Paper

Aerodynamic Load Maps of Vehicle Shapes at Arbitrary Attitude

2015-09-15
2015-01-2574
The interest in flying cars comes with the question of characterizing aerodynamic loads on shapes that go beyond traditional aircraft shapes. When carried as slung loads under aircraft, vehicles can encounter severe aerodynamic loads, which may also cause them to go into divergent oscillations that can threaten the vehicle and aircraft. Slung loads can encounter the wind at arbitrary attitudes. Flight test certification for every vehicle-aircraft combination is prohibitive. Characterizing the aerodynamic loads with sufficient resolution for use in dynamic simulation, has in the past been extremely arduous. Sharp changes that drive instabilities arise over small ranges of yaw and pitch. With the Continuous Rotation technique developed by our group, aerodynamic load characterization is viable and efficient. With two well-chosen attitude sweeps and appropriate transformations, the entire 6-DOF load map can be obtained, for several rates.
Technical Paper

Aerothermodynamic Design of Supersonic Channel Airfoils for Drag Reduction

1997-10-01
975572
A supersonic channel airfoil (SCA) concept that can be applied to the leading edges of wings, tails, fins, struts, and other appendages of aircraft, atmospheric entry vehicles and missiles in supersonic flight for drag reduction is described. It is designed to be beneficial at conditions in which the leading edge is significantly blunted and the Mach number normal to the leading edge is supersonic. The concept is found to result in significantly reduced wave drag and total drag (including skin friction drag) and significantly increased L/D. While this reduction over varying flight conditions has been quantified, some leading edge geometries result in adverse increases in peak heat transfer rates. To evaluate the effectiveness of SCAs in reducing drag without paying any penalties in other areas like lifting capacity, heating rates or enclosed volume, the design space was studied in greater detail using MDO methods.
Technical Paper

Air-to-Fuel Ratio Calculation Methods for Oxygenated Fuels in Two-Stroke Engines

2015-04-14
2015-01-0965
In 1990, Roy Douglas developed an analytical method to calculate the global air-to-fuel ratio of a two-stroke engine from exhaust gas emissions. While this method has considerable application to two-stroke engines, it does not permit the calculation of air-to-fuel ratios for oxygenated fuels. This study proposed modifications to the Roy Douglas method such that it can be applied to oxygenated fuels. The ISO #16183 standard, the modified Spindt method, and the Brettschneider method were used to evaluate the modifications to the Roy Douglas method. In addition, a trapped air-to-fuel ratio, appropriate for two-stroke engines, was also modified to incorporate oxygenated fuels. To validate the modified calculation method, tests were performed using a two-stroke carbureted and two-stroke direct injected marine outboard engine over a five-mode marine test cycle running indolene and low level blends of ethanol and iso-butanol fuels.
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