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Technical Paper

A Soft-Switched DC/DC Converter for Fuel Cell Vehicle Applications*

2002-06-03
2002-01-1903
Fuel cell-powered electric vehicles (FCPEV) require an energy storage device to start up the fuel cells and to store the energy captured during regenerative braking. Low-voltage (12 V) batteries are preferred as the storage device to maintain compatibility with the majority of today's automobile loads. A dc/dc converter is therefore needed to interface the low-voltage batteries with the fuel cell-powered higher-voltage dc bus system (255 V ∼ 425 V), transferring energy in either direction as required. This paper presents a soft-switched, isolated bi-directional dc/dc converter developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory for FCPEV applications. The converter employs dual half-bridges interconnected with an isolation transformer to minimize the number of switching devices and their associated gate drive requirements. Snubber capacitors including the parasitic capacitance of the switching devices and the transformer leakage inductance are utilized to achieve zero-voltage switching (ZVS).
Technical Paper

A Thermal Conductivity Approach for Measuring Hydrogen in Engine Exhaust

2004-10-25
2004-01-2908
Thermal conductivity detection has long been used in gas chromatography to detect hydrogen and other diatomic gases in a gas sample. Thermal conductivity instruments that are not coupled to gas chromatographs are useful for detecting hydrogen in binary gas mixtures, but suffer from significant cross-interference from other gas species that are separated when the detector is used with a gas chromatograph. This study reports a method for using a commercially-available thermal conductivity instrument to detect and quantify hydrogen in a diesel exhaust stream. The instrument time response of approximately 40 seconds is sufficient for steady-state applications. Cross-interference from relevant gas species are quantified and discussed. Measurement uncertainty associated with the corrections for the various species is estimated and practical implications for use of the instrument and method are discussed.
Technical Paper

Advanced Materials Characterization at the High Temperature Materials Laboratory

1999-04-28
1999-01-2256
The HTML (High Temperature Materials Laboratory) is a U.S. Department of Energy User Facility, offering opportunities for in-depth characterization of advanced materials, specializing in high-temperature-capable structural ceramics. Available are electron microscopy for micro-structural and microchemical analysis, equipment for measurement of the thermophysical and mechanical properties of ceramics to elevated temperatures, X-ray and neutron diffraction for structure and residual stress analysis, and high speed grinding machines with capability for measurement of component shape, tolerances, surface finish, and friction and wear properties. This presentation will focus on structural materials characterization, illustrated with examples of work performed on heat engine materials such as silicon nitride, industrial refractories, metal-and ceramic-matrix composites, and structural alloys.
Journal Article

Analytical Examination of the Relationship between Fuel Properties, Engine Efficiency, and R Factor Values

2019-04-02
2019-01-0309
The variability in gasoline energy content, though most frequently not a consumer concern, is an issue of concern for vehicle manufacturers in demonstrating compliance with regulatory requirements. Advancements in both vehicle technology, test methodology, and fuel formulations have increased the level of visibility and concern with regard to the energy content of fuels used for regulatory testing. The R factor was introduced into fuel economy calculations for vehicle certification in the late 1980s as a means of addressing batch-to-batch variations in the heating value of certification fuels and the resulting variations in fuel economy results. Although previous studies have investigated values of the R factor for modern vehicles through experimentation, subsequent engine studies have made clear that it is difficult to distinguish between the confounding factors that influence engine efficiency when R is being studied experimentally.
Journal Article

Application of a Tractive Energy Analysis to Quantify the Benefits of Advanced Efficiency Technologies for Medium- and Heavy-Duty Trucks Using Characteristic Drive Cycle Data

2012-04-16
2012-01-0361
Accurately predicting the fuel savings that can be achieved with the implementation of various technologies developed for fuel efficiency can be very challenging, particularly when considering combinations of technologies. Differences in the usage of highway vehicles can strongly influence the benefits realized with any given technology, which makes generalizations about fuel savings inappropriate for different vehicle applications. A model has been developed to estimate the potential for reducing fuel consumption when advanced efficiency technologies, or combinations of these technologies, are employed on highway vehicles, particularly medium- and heavy-duty trucks. The approach is based on a tractive energy analysis applied to drive cycles representative of the vehicle usage, and the analysis specifically accounts for individual energy loss factors that characterize the technologies of interest.
Technical Paper

Axial NO2 Utilization Measurements within a Partial Flow Filter during Passive Regeneration

2017-03-28
2017-01-0988
Measuring axial exhaust species concentration distributions within a wall-flow aftertreatment device provides unique and significant insights regarding the performance of complex devices like the SCR-on-filter. In this particular study, a less complex aftertreatment configuration which includes a DOC followed by two uncoated partial flow filters (PFF) was used to demonstrate the potential and challenges. The PFF design in this study was a particulate filter with alternating open and plugged channels. A SpaciMS [1] instrument was used to measure the axial NO2 profiles within adjacent open and plugged channels of each filter element during an extended passive regeneration event using a full-scale engine and catalyst system. By estimating the mass flow through the open and plugged channels, the axial soot load profile history could be assessed.
Journal Article

Combustion Studies with FACE Diesel Fuels: A Literature Review

2012-09-10
2012-01-1688
The CRC Fuels for Advanced Combustion Engines (FACE) Working Group has provided a matrix of experimental diesel fuels for use in studies on the effects of three parameters, Cetane number (CN), aromatics content, and 90 vol% distillation temperature (T90), on combustion and emissions characteristics of advanced combustion strategies. Various types of fuel analyses and engine experiments were performed in well-known research institutes. This paper reviews a collection of research findings obtained with these nine fuels. An extensive collection of analyses were performed by members of the FACE working group on the FACE diesel fuels as a means of aiding in understanding the linkage between fuel properties and combustion and emissions performance. These analyses included non-traditional chemical techniques as well as established ASTM tests. In a few cases, both ASTM tests and advanced analyses agreed that some design variables differed from their target values when the fuels were produced.
Technical Paper

DOE Plant-Wide Energy Assessment Results Related to the U.S. Automotive Industry

2006-04-03
2006-01-0594
Forty-nine plant-wide energy efficiency assessments have been undertaken under sponsorship of the U.S. Department of Energy's Industrial Technologies Program. Plant-wide assessments are comprehensive, systematic investigations of plant energy efficiency, including plant utility systems and process operations. Assessments in industrial facilities have highlighted opportunities for implementing best practices in industrial energy management, including the adoption of new, energy-efficient technologies and process and equipment improvements. Total annual savings opportunities of $201 million have been identified from the 40 completed assessments. Many of the participating industrial plants have implemented efficiency-improvement projects and already have realized total cost savings of more than $81 million annually. This paper provides an overview of the assessment efforts undertaken and presents a summary of the major energy and cost savings identified to date.
Technical Paper

Diesel Particulate Oxidation Model: Combined Effects of Volatiles and Fixed Carbon Combustion

2010-10-25
2010-01-2127
Diesel particulate samples were collected from a light duty engine operated at a single speed-load point with a range of biodiesel and conventional fuel blends. The oxidation reactivity of the samples was characterized in a laboratory reactor, and BET surface area measurements were made at several points during oxidation of the fixed carbon component of both types of particulate. The fixed carbon component of biodiesel particulate has a significantly higher surface area for the initial stages of oxidation, but the surface areas for the two particulates become similar as fixed carbon oxidation proceeds beyond 40%. When fixed carbon oxidation rates are normalized to total surface area, it is possible to describe the oxidation rates of the fixed carbon portion of both types of particulates with a single set of Arrhenius parameters. The measured surface area evolution during particle oxidation was found to be inconsistent with shrinking sphere oxidation.
Technical Paper

Direct Measurement of EGR Cooler Deposit Thermal Properties for Improved Understanding of Cooler Fouling

2009-04-20
2009-01-1461
Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) cooler fouling has become a significant issue for compliance with NOx emissions standards. This paper reports results of a study of fundamental aspects of EGR cooler fouling. An apparatus and procedure were developed to allow surrogate EGR cooler tubes to be exposed to diesel engine exhaust under controlled conditions. The resulting fouled tubes were removed and analyzed. Volatile and non-volatile deposit mass was measured for each tube. Thermal diffusivity of the deposited soot cake was measured by milling a window into the tube and using the Xenon flash lamp method. The heat capacity of the deposit was measured at temperatures up to 430°C and was slightly higher than graphite, presumably due to the presence of hydrocarbons. These measurements were combined to allow calculation of the deposit thermal conductivity, which was determined to be 0.041 W/mK, only ∼1.5 times that of air and much lower than the 304 stainless steel tube (14.7 W/mK).
Technical Paper

Effects of Friction Stir Processing on Mechanical Properties of the Cast Aluminum Alloy A356

2005-04-11
2005-01-1249
Surfaces of A356 castings were treated by friction stir processing to reduce porosity and to create more uniform distributions of second-phase particles. Dendritic microstructures were eliminated in stir zones. The ultimate tensile strength, ductility, and fatigue life of the cast A356 was increased by friction stir processing. Tensile specimens of cast and friction stir processed metal were also given a T7 heat treatment. Higher tensile strengths and ductilities were also measured for these friction stir processed specimens.
Journal Article

Effects of Fuel Physical Properties on Diesel Engine Combustion using Diesel and Bio-diesel Fuels

2008-04-14
2008-01-1379
A computational study using multi-dimensional CFD modeling was performed to investigate the effects of physical properties on diesel engine combustion characteristics with bio-diesel fuels. Properties of typical bio-diesel fuels that were either calculated or measured are used in the study and the simulation results are compared with those of conventional diesel fuels. The sensitivity of the computational results to individual physical properties is also investigated, and the results provide information about the desirable characteristics of the blended fuels. The properties considered in the study include liquid density, vapor pressure, surface tension, liquid viscosity, liquid thermal conductivity, liquid specific heat, latent heat, vapor specific heat, vapor diffusion coefficient, vapor viscosity and vapor thermal conductivity. The results show significant effects of the fuel physical properties on ignition delay and burning rates at various engine operating conditions.
Technical Paper

Effects of Silicon and Boron Additions on the Susceptibility to Quench Embrittlement and the Bending Fatigue Performance of Vacuum Carburized Modified 4320 Steel

2007-04-16
2007-01-1005
The effect of B and Si additions on fracture and fatigue performance of vacuum carburized 4320 steel and modifications of 4320 steel containing additions of Si (1.0 and 2.0 wt pct) and B (0 and 17 ppm) was evaluated by bending fatigue testing. Three rates of gas quenching, in 10 bar nitrogen and 15 and 20 bar helium, were used to cool specimens after carburizing. The B, protected by Ti additions, together with the Si additions, increased core hardenability. The B/Si modified steels showed no improvement in fatigue resistance, as measured by endurance limits established by 10 million cycle runouts without fracture. However, scanning electron microscopy showed that Si reduced sensitivity to intergranular fracture or quench embrittlement, a major cause of bending fatigue crack initiation, and contributed to variable fatigue performance, with both low-cycle failures and runout performance at applied stresses significantly above measured endurance limits.
Journal Article

Failure Mode and Fatigue Behavior of Friction Stir Spot Welds in Lap-Shear Specimens of Dissimilar Advanced High Strength Steels

2013-04-08
2013-01-1023
Failure mode and fatigue behavior of friction stir spot welds made with convex and concave tools in lap-shear specimens of dissimilar high strength dual phase steel (DP780GA) and hot stamped boron steel (HSBS) sheets are investigated based on experiments and a kinked fatigue crack growth model. Lap-shear specimens with the welds were tested under both quasistatic and cyclic loading conditions. Optical micrographs indicate that under both quasi-static and cyclic loading conditions, the welds mainly fail from cracks growing through the upper DP780GA sheets where the tools were plunged in during the welding processes. Based on the observed failure mode, a kinked fatigue crack growth model is adopted to estimate fatigue lives of the welds. In the kinked crack fatigue crack growth model, the stress intensity factor solutions for fatigue life estimations are based on the closed-form solutions for idealized spot welds in lap-shear specimens.
Journal Article

Failure Mode and Fatigue Behavior of Ultrasonic Spot Welds with Adhesive in Lap-Shear Specimens of Magnesium and Steel Sheets

2013-04-08
2013-01-1020
Failure modes and fatigue behaviors of ultrasonic spot welds in lap-shear specimens of magnesium AZ31B-H24 and hot-dipped-galvanized mild steel sheets with and without adhesive are investigated. Ultrasonic spot welded, adhesive-bonded, and weld-bonded lap-shear specimens were made. These lap-shear specimens were tested under quasi-static and cyclic loading conditions. The ultrasonic spot weld appears not to provide extra strength to the weld-bonded lap-shear specimen under quasi-static and cyclic loading conditions. The quasi-static and fatigue strengths of adhesive-bonded and weld-bonded lap-shear specimens appear to be the same. For the ultrasonic spot welded lap-shear specimens, the optical micrographs indicate that failure mode changes from the partial nugget pullout mode under quasi-static and low-cycle loading conditions to the kinked crack growth mode under high-cycle loading conditions.
Journal Article

Failure Modes of Friction Stir Spot Welds in Lap-Shear Specimens of Dissimilar Advanced High Strength Steels under Quasi-Static and Cyclic Loading Conditions

2012-04-16
2012-01-0479
Failure modes of friction stir spot welds in lap-shear specimens of dissimilar high strength dual phase steel (DP780GA) and hot stamped boron steel (HSBS) sheets are investigated under quasi-static and cyclic loading conditions based on experimental observations. Optical micrographs of dissimilar DP780GA/HSBS friction stir spot welds made by a concave tool before and after failure are examined. The micrographs indicate that the failure modes of the welds under quasi-static and cyclic loading conditions are quite similar. The micrographs show that the DP780GA/HSBS welds mainly fail from cracks growing through the upper DP780GA sheets where the concave tool was plunged into during the welding process. Based on the observed failure modes, a kinked fatigue crack growth model is adopted to estimate fatigue lives.
Journal Article

Fatigue Behavior of Dissimilar Ultrasonic Spot Welds in Lap-Shear Specimens of Magnesium and Steel Sheets

2011-04-12
2011-01-0475
Fatigue behavior of dissimilar ultrasonic spot welds in lap-shear specimens of magnesium AZ31B-H24 and hot-dipped-galvanized mild steel sheets is investigated based on experimental observations, closed-form stress intensity factor solutions, and a fatigue life estimation model. Fatigue tests were conducted under different load ranges with two load ratios of 0.1 and 0.2. Optical micrographs of the welds after the tests were examined to understand the failure modes of the welds. The micrographs show that the welds mainly fail from kinked fatigue cracks growing through the magnesium sheets. The optical micrographs also indicate that failure mode changes from the partial nugget pullout mode under low-cycle loading conditions to the transverse crack growth mode under high-cycle loading conditions. The closed-form stress intensity factor solutions at the critical locations of the welds are used to explain the locations of fatigue crack initiation and growth.
Technical Paper

Graphitic Foam Thermal Management Materials for Electronic Packaging

2000-04-02
2000-01-1576
The goal of this program is to utilize the recently developed high conductivity carbon foam for thermal management in electronics (heat exchangers and heat sinks). The technique used to fabricate the foam produces mesophase pitch-based graphitic foam with extremely high thermal conductivity and an open-celled structure. The thermal properties of the foam have been increased by 79% from 106 to 187 W/m·K at a density of 0.56 g/cm3 through process optimization. It has been demonstrated that when the high-thermal-conductivity graphitic foam is utilized as the core material for the heat exchanger, the effective heat transfer can be increased by at least an order of magnitude compared to traditional designs. A once-through-foam core/aluminum-plated heat exchanger has been fabricated for testing in electronic modules for power inverters.
Technical Paper

Heavy Vehicle Propulsion Materials Program

1999-04-28
1999-01-2254
The objective of the Heavy Vehicle Propulsion Materials Program is to develop the enabling materials technology for the clean, high-efficiency diesel truck engines of the future. The development of cleaner, higher-efficiency diesel engines imposes greater mechanical, thermal, and tribological demands on materials of construction. Often the enabling technology for a new engine component is the material from which the part can be made. The Heavy Vehicle Propulsion Materials Program is a partnership between the Department of Energy (DOE), and the diesel engine companies in the United States, materials suppliers, national laboratories, and universities. A comprehensive research and development program has been developed to meet the enabling materials requirements for the diesel engines of the future.
Video

Ionic Liquids as Novel Lubricants or Lubricant Additives

2012-05-10
For internal combustion engines and industrial machinery, it is well recognized that the most cost-effective way of reducing energy consumption and extending service life is through lubricant development. This presentation summarizes our recent R&D achievements on developing a new class of candidate lubricants or oil additives ionic liquids (ILs). Features of ILs making them attractive for lubrication include high thermal stability, low vapor pressure, non-flammability, and intrinsic high polarity. When used as neat lubricants, selected ILs demonstrated lower friction under elastohydrodynamic lubrication and less wear at boundary lubrication benchmarked against fully-formulated engine oils in our bench tests. More encouragingly, a group of non-corrosive, oil-miscible ILs has recently been developed and demonstrated multiple additive functionalities including anti-wear and friction modifier when blended into hydrocarbon base oils.
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