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Technical Paper

1D Model of a Copper Exchanged Small Pore Zeolite Catalyst Based on Transient SCR Protocol

2013-04-08
2013-01-1578
Urea-selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalysts are the leading aftertreatment technology for diesel engines, but there are major challenges associated with meeting future NOx emission standards, especially under transient drive cycle conditions that include large swings in exhaust temperatures. Here we present a simplified, transient, one-dimensional integral model of NOx reduction by NH₃ on a commercial small-pore Cu-zeolite urea-SCR catalyst for which detailed kinetic parameters have not been published. The model was developed and validated using data acquired from bench reactor experiments on a monolith core, following a transient SCR reactor protocol. The protocol incorporates NH₃ storage, NH₃ oxidation, NO oxidation and three global SCR reactions under isothermal conditions, at three space velocities and at three NH₃/NOx ratios.
Journal Article

A Comparison of Experimental and Modeled Velocity in Gasoline Direct-Injection Sprays with Plume Interaction and Collapse

2017-03-28
2017-01-0837
Modeling plume interaction and collapse for direct-injection gasoline sprays is important because of its impact on fuel-air mixing and engine performance. Nevertheless, the aerodynamic interaction between plumes and the complicated two-phase coupling of the evaporating spray has shown to be notoriously difficult to predict. With the availability of high-speed (100 kHz) Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) experimental data, we compare velocity field predictions between plumes to observe the full temporal evolution leading up to plume merging and complete spray collapse. The target “Spray G” operating conditions of the Engine Combustion Network (ECN) is the focus of the work, including parametric variations in ambient gas temperature. We apply both LES and RANS spray models in different CFD platforms, outlining features of the spray that are most critical to model in order to predict the correct aerodynamics and fuel-air mixing.
Technical Paper

A Life-Cycle-Based Environmental Evaluation: Materials in New Generation Vehicles

2000-03-06
2000-01-0595
This project team conducted a life-cycle-based environmental evaluation of new, lightweight materials (e.g., titanium, magnesium) used in two concept 3XVs -- i.e., automobiles that are three times more fuel efficient than today's automobiles -- that are being designed and developed in support of the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles (PNGV) program. The two concept vehicles studied were the DaimlerChrysler ESX2 and the Ford P2000. Data for this research were drawn from a wide range of sources, including: the two automobile manufacturers; automobile industry reports; government and proprietary databases; past life-cycle assessments; interviews with industry experts; and models.
Technical Paper

A Modeling Study of SCR Reaction Kinetics from Reactor Experiments

2013-04-08
2013-01-1576
In order to further characterize and optimize the performance of Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) aftertreatment systems used on heavy-duty diesel engines, an accurately calibrated high-fidelity multi-step global kinetic SCR model and a reduced order estimator for on-board diagnostic (OBD) and control are desirable. In this study, a Cu-zeolite SCR catalyst from a 2010 Cummins ISB engine was experimentally studied in a flow reactor using carefully designed protocols. A 2-site SCR model describing mass transfer and the SCR chemical reaction mechanisms is described in the paper. The model was calibrated to the reactor test data sets collected under temperatures from 200 to 425 °C and SCR space velocities of 60000, 90000, and 120000 hr-1. The model parameters were calibrated using an optimization code to minimize the error between measured and simulated NO, NO₂, N₂O, and NH₃ gas concentration time histories.
Technical Paper

A Novel Capability for Crush Testing Crash Energy Management Structures at Intermediate Rates

2002-06-03
2002-01-1954
The crush performance of lightweight composite automotive structures varies significantly between static and dynamic test conditions. This paper discusses the development of a new dynamic testing facility that can be used to characterize crash performance at high loads and constant speed. Previous research results from the Energy Management Working Group (EMWG) of the Automotive Composites Consortium (ACC) showed that the static crush resistance of composite tubes can be significantly greater than dynamic crush results at speeds greater than 2 m/s. The new testing facility will provide the unique capability to crush structures at high loads in the intermediate velocity range. A novel machine control system was designed and projections of the machine performance indicate its compliance with the desired test tolerances. The test machine will be part of a national user facility at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and will be available for use in the summer of 2002.
Technical Paper

A Numerical Investigation on Scalability and Grid Convergence of Internal Combustion Engine Simulations

2013-04-08
2013-01-1095
Traditional Lagrangian spray modeling approaches for internal combustion engines are highly grid-dependent due to insufficient resolution in the near nozzle region. This is primarily because of inherent restrictions of volume fraction with the Lagrangian assumption together with high computational costs associated with small grid sizes. A state-of-the-art grid-convergent spray modeling approach was recently developed and implemented by Senecal et al., (ASME-ICEF2012-92043) in the CONVERGE software. The key features of the methodology include Adaptive Mesh Refinement (AMR), advanced liquid-gas momentum coupling, and improved distribution of the liquid phase, which enables use of cell sizes smaller than the nozzle diameter. This modeling approach was rigorously validated against non-evaporating, evaporating, and reacting data from the literature.
Technical Paper

A Waste Heat Recovery System for Light Duty Diesel Engines

2010-10-25
2010-01-2205
In order to achieve proposed fuel economy requirements, engines must make better use of the available fuel energy. Regardless of how efficient the engine is, there will still be a significant fraction of the fuel energy that is rejected in the exhaust and coolant streams. One viable technology for recovering this waste heat is an Organic Rankine Cycle. This cycle heats a working fluid using these heat streams and expands the fluid through a turbine to produce shaft power. The present work was the development of such a system applied to a light duty diesel engine. This lab demonstration was designed to maximize the peak brake thermal efficiency of the engine, and the combined system achieved an efficiency of 45%. The design of the system is discussed, as are the experimental performance results. The system potential at typical operating conditions was evaluated to determine the practicality of installing such a system in a vehicle.
Technical Paper

Accurate Measurements of Heat Release, Oxidation Rates, and Soluble Organic Compounds of Diesel Particulates through Thermal Reactions

2010-04-12
2010-01-0814
In an effort of providing better understanding of regeneration mechanisms of diesel particulate matter (PM), this experimental investigation focused on evaluating the amount of heat release generated during the thermal reaction of diesel PM and the concentrations of soluble organic compounds (SOCs) dissolved in PM emissions. Differences in oxidation behaviors were observed for two different diesel PM samples: a SOC-containing PM sample and a dry soot sample with no SOCs. Both samples were collected from a cordierite particulate filter membrane in a thermal reactor connected to the exhaust pipe of a light-duty diesel engine. A differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) and a thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) were used to measure the amount of heat release during oxidation, along with subsequent oxidation rates and the concentrations of SOCs dissolved in particulate samples, respectively.
Technical Paper

Achieving Stable Engine Operation of Gasoline Compression Ignition Using 87 AKI Gasoline Down to Idle

2015-04-14
2015-01-0832
For several years there has been a great deal of effort made in researching ways to run a compression ignition engine with simultaneously high efficiency and low emissions. Recently much of this focus has been dedicated to using gasoline-like fuels that are more volatile and less reactive than conventional diesel fuel to allow the combustion to be more premixed. One of the key challenges to using fuels with such properties in a compression ignition engine is stable engine operation at low loads. This paper provides an analysis of how stable gasoline compression ignition (GCI) engine operation was achieved down to idle speed and load on a multi-cylinder compression ignition engine using only 87 anti-knock index (AKI) gasoline. The variables explored to extend stable engine operation to idle included: uncooled exhaust gas recirculation (EGR), injection timing, injection pressure, and injector nozzle geometry.
Technical Paper

Advanced Automatic Transmission Model Validation Using Dynamometer Test Data

2014-04-01
2014-01-1778
As a result of increasingly stringent regulations and higher customer expectations, auto manufacturers have been considering numerous technology options to improve vehicle fuel economy. Transmissions have been shown to be one of the most cost-effective technologies for improving fuel economy. Over the past couple of years, transmissions have significantly evolved and impacted both performance and fuel efficiency. This study validates the shifting control of advanced automatic transmission technologies in vehicle systems by using Argonne National Laboratory's model-based vehicle simulation tool, Autonomie. Different midsize vehicles, including several with automatic transmission (6-speeds, 7-speeds, and 8-speeds), were tested at Argonne's Advanced Powertrain Research Facility (APRF). For the vehicles, a novel process was used to import test data.
Technical Paper

Advanced Materials Characterization at the High Temperature Materials Laboratory

1999-04-28
1999-01-2256
The HTML (High Temperature Materials Laboratory) is a U.S. Department of Energy User Facility, offering opportunities for in-depth characterization of advanced materials, specializing in high-temperature-capable structural ceramics. Available are electron microscopy for micro-structural and microchemical analysis, equipment for measurement of the thermophysical and mechanical properties of ceramics to elevated temperatures, X-ray and neutron diffraction for structure and residual stress analysis, and high speed grinding machines with capability for measurement of component shape, tolerances, surface finish, and friction and wear properties. This presentation will focus on structural materials characterization, illustrated with examples of work performed on heat engine materials such as silicon nitride, industrial refractories, metal-and ceramic-matrix composites, and structural alloys.
Technical Paper

Ambient Temperature (20°F, 72°F and 95°F) Impact on Fuel and Energy Consumption for Several Conventional Vehicles, Hybrid and Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles and Battery Electric Vehicle

2013-04-08
2013-01-1462
This paper determines the impact of ambient temperature on energy consumption of a variety of vehicles in the laboratory. Several conventional vehicles, several hybrid electric vehicles, a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle and a battery electric vehicle were tested for fuel and energy consumption under test cell conditions of 20°F, 72°F and 95°F with 850 W/m₂ of emulated radiant solar energy on the UDDS, HWFET and US06 drive cycles. At 20°F, the energy consumption increase compared to 72°F ranges from 2% to 100%. The largest increases in energy consumption occur during a cold start, when the powertrain losses are highest, but once the powertrains reach their operating temperatures, the energy consumption increases are decreased. At 95°F, the energy consumption increase ranges from 2% to 70%, and these increases are due to the extra energy required to run the air-conditioning system to maintain 72°F cabin temperatures.
Journal Article

Ammonia Generation and Utilization in a Passive SCR (TWC+SCR) System on Lean Gasoline Engine

2016-04-05
2016-01-0934
Lean gasoline engines offer greater fuel economy than the common stoichiometric gasoline engine, but the current three way catalyst (TWC) on stoichiometric engines is unable to control nitrogen oxide (NOX) emissions in oxidizing exhaust. For these lean gasoline engines, lean NOX emission control is required to meet existing Tier 2 and upcoming Tier 3 emission regulations set by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). While urea-based selective catalytic reduction (SCR) has proven effective in controlling NOX from diesel engines, the urea storage and delivery components can add significant size and cost. As such, onboard NH3 production via a passive SCR approach is of interest. In a passive SCR system, NH3 is generated over a close-coupled TWC during periodic slightly rich engine operation and subsequently stored on an underfloor SCR catalyst. Upon switching to lean operation, NOX passes through the TWC and is reduced by the stored NH3 on the SCR catalyst.
Technical Paper

Ammonia Production and Utilization in a Hybrid LNT+SCR System

2009-11-02
2009-01-2739
A hybrid LNT+SCR system is used to control NOx from a light-duty diesel engine with in-cylinder regeneration controls. A diesel oxidation catalyst and diesel particulate filter are upstream of the LNT and SCR catalysts. Ultraviolet (UV) adsorption spectroscopy performed directly in the exhaust path downstream of the LNT and SCR catalysts is used to characterize NH3 production and utilization in the system. Extractive exhaust samples are analyzed with FTIR and magnetic sector mass spectrometry (H2) as well. Furthermore, standard gas analyzers are used to complete the characterization of exhaust chemistry. NH3 formation increases strongly with extended regeneration (or “over regeneration”) of the LNT, but the portion of NOx reduction occurring over the SCR catalyst is limited by the amount of NH3 produced as well as the amount of NOx available downstream of the LNT. Control of lean-rich cycling parameters enables control of the ratio of NOx reduction between the LNT and SCR catalysts.
Technical Paper

An Estimate of Diesel High-Efficiency Clean Combustion Impacts on FTP-75 Aftertreatment Requirements

2006-10-16
2006-01-3311
A modified Mercedes 1.7-liter, direct-injection diesel engine was operated in both normal and high-efficiency clean combustion (HECC) combustion modes. Four steady-state engine operating points that were previously identified by the Ad-hoc fuels working group were used as test points to allow estimation of the hot-start FTP-75 emissions levels in both normal and HECC combustion modes. The results indicate that operation in HECC modes generally produce reductions in NOX and PM emissions at the expense of CO, NMHC, and H2CO emissions. The FTP emissions estimates indicate that aftertreatment requirements for NOX are reduced, while those for PM may not be impacted. Cycle-average aftertreatment requirements for CO, NMHC, and H2CO may be challenging, especially at the lowest temperature conditions.
Technical Paper

An Examination of Spray Stochastics in Single-Hole Diesel Injectors

2015-09-01
2015-01-1834
Recent advances in x-ray spray diagnostics at Argonne National Laboratory's Advanced Photon Source have made absorption measurements of individual spray events possible. A focused x-ray beam (5×6 μm) enables collection of data along a single line of sight in the flow field and these measurements have allowed the calculation of quantitative, shot-to-shot statistics for the projected mass of fuel sprays. Raster scanning though the spray generates a two-dimensional field of data, which is a path integrated representation of a three-dimensional flow. In a previous work, we investigated the shot-to-shot variation over 32 events by visualizing the ensemble standard deviations throughout a two dimensional mapping of the spray. In the current work, provide further analysis of the time to steady-state and steady-state spatial location of the fluctuating field via the transverse integrated fluctuations (TIF).
Technical Paper

An Experimental and Computational Investigation of Gasoline Compression Ignition Using Conventional and Higher Reactivity Gasolines in a Multi-Cylinder Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine

2018-04-03
2018-01-0226
This research investigates the potential of gasoline compression ignition (GCI) to achieve low engine-out NOx emissions with high fuel efficiency in a heavy-duty diesel engine. The experimental work was conducted in a model year (MY) 2013 Cummins ISX15 heavy-duty diesel engine, covering a load range of 5 to 15 bar BMEP at 1375 rpm. The engine compression ratio (CR) was reduced from the production level of 18.9 to 15.7 without altering the combustion bowl design. In this work, four gasolines with research octane number (RON) ranging from 58 to 93 were studied. Overall, GCI operation resulted in enhanced premixed combustion, improved NOx-soot tradeoffs, and similar or moderately improved fuel efficiency compared to diesel combustion. A split fuel injection strategy was employed for the two lower reactivity gasolines (RON80 and RON93), while the RON60 and RON70 gasolines used a single fuel injection strategy.
Technical Paper

An Investigation of Particulate Morphology, Microstructures, and Fractal Geometry for ael Diesel Engine-Simulating Combustor

2004-10-25
2004-01-3044
The particulate matter (PM) produced from a diesel engine-simulating combustor was characterized in its morphology, microstructure, and fractal geometry by using a unique thermophoretic sampling and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) system. These results revealed that diesel PM produced from the laboratory-scale burner showed similar morphological characteristics to the particulates produced from diesel engines. The flame air/fuel ratio and the particulate temperature history have significant influences on both particle size and fractal geometry. The primary particle sizes were measured to be 14.7 nm and 14.8 nm under stoichiometric and fuel-rich flame conditions, respectively. These primary particle sizes are smaller than those produced from diesel engines. The radii of gyration for the aggregate particles were 83.8 nm and 47.5 nm under these two flame conditions.
Journal Article

Analysis of Residual Stress Profiles in the Cylinder Web Region of an As-Cast V6 Al Engine Block with Cast-In Fe Liners Using Neutron Diffraction

2011-04-12
2011-01-0036
Continuous efforts to develop a lightweight alloy suitable for the most demanding applications in automotive industry resulted in a number of advanced aluminum (Al) and magnesium alloys and manufacturing routes. One example of this is the application of 319 Al alloy for production of 3.6L V6 gasoline engine blocks. Aluminum is sand cast around Fe-liner cylinder inserts, prior to undergoing the T7 heat treatment process. One of the critical factors determining the quality of the final product is the type, level, and profile of residual stresses along the Fe liners (or extent of liner distortion) that are always present in a cast component. In this study, neutron diffraction was used to characterize residual stresses along the Al and the Fe liners in the web region of the cast engine block. The strains were measured both in Al and Fe in hoop, radial, and axial orientations. The stresses were subsequently determined using generalized Hooke's law.
Technical Paper

Application of High Performance Computing for Simulating Cycle-to-Cycle Variation in Dual-Fuel Combustion Engines

2016-04-05
2016-01-0798
Interest in operational cost reduction is driving engine manufacturers to consider low-cost fuel substitution in heavy-duty diesel engines. These dual-fuel (DF) engines could be operated either in diesel-only mode or operated with premixed natural gas (NG) ignited by a pilot flame of compression-ignited direct-injected diesel fuel. Under certain conditions, dual-fuel operation can result in increased cycle-to-cycle variability (CCV) during combustion. CFD can greatly help in understanding and identifying critical parameters influencing CCV. Innovative modelling techniques and large computing resources are needed to investigate the factors affecting CCV in dual-fuel engines. This paper discusses the use of the High Performance Computing resource Titan, at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, to investigate CCV of a dual-fuel engine.
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