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Technical Paper

1983 Ford Ranger Truck HSLA Steel Wheel

The demand for improved fuel economy in both cars and trucks has emphasized the need for lighter weight components. The application of high strength steel to wheels, both rim and disc, represents a significant opportunity for the automotive industry. This paper discusses the Ranger HSLA wheel program that achieved a 9.7 lbs. per vehicle weight savings relative to a plain carbon steel wheel of the same design. It describes the Ranger wheel specifications, the material selection, the metallurgical considerations of applying HSLA to wheels, and HSLA arc and flash butt welding. The Ranger wheel design and the development of the manufacturing process is discussed, including design modifications to accommodate the lighter gage. The results demonstrate that wheels can be successfully manufactured from low sulfur 60XK HSLA steel in a conventional high volume process (stamped disc and rolled rim) to meet all wheel performance requirements and achieve a significant weight reduction.
Technical Paper

1D Model of a Copper Exchanged Small Pore Zeolite Catalyst Based on Transient SCR Protocol

Urea-selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalysts are the leading aftertreatment technology for diesel engines, but there are major challenges associated with meeting future NOx emission standards, especially under transient drive cycle conditions that include large swings in exhaust temperatures. Here we present a simplified, transient, one-dimensional integral model of NOx reduction by NH₃ on a commercial small-pore Cu-zeolite urea-SCR catalyst for which detailed kinetic parameters have not been published. The model was developed and validated using data acquired from bench reactor experiments on a monolith core, following a transient SCR reactor protocol. The protocol incorporates NH₃ storage, NH₃ oxidation, NO oxidation and three global SCR reactions under isothermal conditions, at three space velocities and at three NH₃/NOx ratios.
Technical Paper

A Comparative Life Cycle Assessment of Magnesium Front End Autoparts: A Revision to 2010-01-0275

The Magnesium Front End Research and Development (MFERD) project under the sponsorship of Canada, China, and USA aims to develop key technologies and a knowledge base for increased use of magnesium in automobiles. The primary goal of this life cycle assessment (LCA) study is to compare the energy and potential environmental impacts of advanced magnesium based front end parts of a North American-built 2007 GM-Cadillac CTS using the current steel structure as a baseline. An aluminium front end is also considered as an alternate light structure scenario. A “cradle-to-grave” LCA is conducted by including primary material production, semi-fabrication production, autoparts manufacturing and assembly, transportation, use phase, and end-of-life processing of autoparts. This LCA study was done in compliance with international standards ISO 14040:2006 [1] and ISO 14044:2006 [2].
Technical Paper

A Comparative Study of the Fatigue Behavior of Spot Welded and Mechanically Fastened Aluminum Joints

The cyclic behavior of single overlap aluminum joints joined through a number of different methods has been investigated using Alcan 5754-O, an alloy that potentially could be used in structural applications. Overlap shear tests of spot welded, clinched and riveted joints are compared on the basis of their fatigue performance. The fatigue response of the spot welded joint was the baseline to which the other fasteners were compared. Test results showed an improvement of approximately 25% for both the mechanical clinch joints and aluminum rivets in fatigue strength at 106 cycles. The most significant improvement in fatigue strength of 100% was found for the self piercing rivets at 106 cycles. The failure behavior of the various joining methods is discussed as well as the surface appearance.
Technical Paper

A Failure Criterion for Stretch Bendability of Advanced High Strength Steels

Studies in an Angular Stretch Bend Test (ASBT) have demonstrated that the failure location moves from the side wall to punch nose area. This occurs as the R/T ratio decreases below a certain limit and applies to most low carbon steels with the exception of Dual Phase (DP) steels. Such behavior in DP steels indicates that bending effects have a severe impact on the formability of DP materials. Therefore, the traditional criterion using the forming limit curve (FLC) is not suitable to assess the formability at punch radius areas for DP steels due in part to its uniqueness of unconventional microstructures. In this paper, a new failure criterion, ‘Bending-modified’ FLC (BFLC), is proposed by extending the traditional FLC using the “Stretch Bendability Index” (SBI) concept for the stretch bendability assessment.
Journal Article

A Fatigue Life Prediction Method of Laser Assisted Self-Piercing Rivet Joint for Magnesium Alloys

Due to magnesium alloy's poor weldability, other joining techniques such as laser assisted self-piercing rivet (LSPR) are used for joining magnesium alloys. This research investigates the fatigue performance of LSPR for magnesium alloys including AZ31 and AM60. Tensile-shear and coach peel specimens for AZ31 and AM60 were fabricated and tested for understanding joint fatigue performance. A structural stress - life (S-N) method was used to develop the fatigue parameters from load-life test results. In order to validate this approach, test results from multijoint specimens were compared with the predicted fatigue results of these specimens using the structural stress method. The fatigue results predicted using the structural stress method correlate well with the test results.
Technical Paper

A Life-Cycle-Based Environmental Evaluation: Materials in New Generation Vehicles

This project team conducted a life-cycle-based environmental evaluation of new, lightweight materials (e.g., titanium, magnesium) used in two concept 3XVs -- i.e., automobiles that are three times more fuel efficient than today's automobiles -- that are being designed and developed in support of the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles (PNGV) program. The two concept vehicles studied were the DaimlerChrysler ESX2 and the Ford P2000. Data for this research were drawn from a wide range of sources, including: the two automobile manufacturers; automobile industry reports; government and proprietary databases; past life-cycle assessments; interviews with industry experts; and models.
Technical Paper

A New Manufacturing Technology for Induction Machine Copper Rotors

The benefits of energy and operational cost savings from using copper rotors are well recognized. The main barrier to die casting copper rotors is short mold life. This paper introduces a new approach for manufacturing copper-bar rotors. Either copper, aluminum, or their alloys can be used for the end rings. Both solid-core and laminated-core rotors were built. High quality joints of aluminum to copper were produced and evaluated. This technology can also be used for manufacturing aluminum bar rotors with aluminum end rings. Further investigation is needed to study the lifetime reliability of the joint. The improvement of manufacturing fixture through prototype test is also required.
Technical Paper

A New Mechanism for Measuring Exhaust A/F

Exhaust gas air-fuel ratio (A/F) sensors are common devices in powertrain feedback control systems aimed at minimizing emissions. Both resistive (using TiO2) and electrochemical (using ZrO2) mechanisms are used in the high temperature ceramic devices now being employed. In this work a new mechanism for making the measurement is presented based on the change in the workfunction of a Pt film in interaction with the exhaust gas. In particular it is found that the workfunction of Pt increases reversibly by approximately 0.7 V at that point (the stoichiometric ratio) where the exhaust changes from rich to lean conditions. This increase arises from the adsorption of O2 on the Pt surface. On returning to rich conditions, catalytic reaction of the adsorbed oxygen with reducing species returns the workfunction to its original value. Two methods, one capacitive and one thermionic, for electrically sensing this workfunction change and thus providing for a practical device are discussed.
Technical Paper

A Numerically Stable Computer Model for Sheet Metal Forming Analysis by 2D Membrane Theory

In this paper, we introduce a numerically stable 2D computer model for sheet metal forming analysis based on the membrane theory. It simulates both axisymmetrical and plane strain cases with various restraining and friction conditions. We implemented a more realistic material model that accounts for cyclic loading and unloading. Also, the difficult frictional force reversal problem has been overcome. A simulation package released within Ford Motor Company has proven robust and accurate for applications to industrial cases.
Technical Paper

A Rapid Method to Predict the Effectiveness of Inhibited Engine Coolants in Aluminum Heat Exchangers

The galvanostatic polarization method was used to determine the pitting potentials of candidate wrought aluminum alloys in inhibited ethylene glycol engine coolants. It was shown that the relative value of the pitting potential is an excellent measure of the long-term effectiveness of the coolants in preventing spontaneous pitting and crevice attack in the aluminum heat exchangers. The long-term effectiveness was determined by metallographic examination of aluminum heat exchangers subjected to a four-month, 50,000 mile simulated service circulation test.
Technical Paper

A Simple Approach to Selecting Automotive Body-in-White Primary-Structural Materials

A simple strategy for building lightweight automobile body-in-whites (BIWs) is developed and discussed herein. Because cost is a critical factor, expensive advanced materials, such as carbon fiber composites and magnesium, must only be used where they will be most effective. Constitutive laws for mass savings under various loading conditions indicate that these materials afford greater opportunity for mass saving when used in bending, buckling or torsion than in tensile, shear or compression. Consequently, it is recommended that these advanced materials be used in BIW components subject to bending and torsion such as rails, sills, “A-B-C” pillars, etc. Furthermore, BIW components primarily subject to tension, compression, or shear, such as floor pans, roofs, shock towers, etc., should be made from lower cost steel. Recommendations for future research that are consistent with this strategy are included.
Technical Paper

A Vehicle Micro Corrosion Environmental Study of Field and Proving Ground Tests

This paper presents the progress of an ongoing vehicle micro corrosion environment study. The goal of the study is to develop an improved method for estimating vehicle corrosion based on the Total Vehicle Accelerated Corrosion Test at the Arizona Proving Ground (APG). Although the APG test greatly accelerates vehicle corrosion compared to the field, the “acceleration factor” varies considerably from site-to-site around the vehicle. This method accounts for the difference in corrosivity of various local corrosion environments from site-to-site at APG and in the field. Correlations of vehicle microenvironments with the macroenvironment (weather) and the occurrence of various environmental conditions at microenvironments are essential to the study. A comparison of results from APG versus field measurements generated using a cold rolled steel based corrosion sensor is presented.
Technical Paper

Advanced Materials Characterization at the High Temperature Materials Laboratory

The HTML (High Temperature Materials Laboratory) is a U.S. Department of Energy User Facility, offering opportunities for in-depth characterization of advanced materials, specializing in high-temperature-capable structural ceramics. Available are electron microscopy for micro-structural and microchemical analysis, equipment for measurement of the thermophysical and mechanical properties of ceramics to elevated temperatures, X-ray and neutron diffraction for structure and residual stress analysis, and high speed grinding machines with capability for measurement of component shape, tolerances, surface finish, and friction and wear properties. This presentation will focus on structural materials characterization, illustrated with examples of work performed on heat engine materials such as silicon nitride, industrial refractories, metal-and ceramic-matrix composites, and structural alloys.
Technical Paper

Aluminum Rail Rivet and Steel Rail Weld DOE and CAE Studies for NVH

Vehicle body with aluminum riveted construction instead of steel welded one will be a big challenge to NVH. In this paper, aluminum and steel rails with the dimensions similar to the rear rail portion of a typical mid-size sedan were fabricated. Rivets were used to assemble the aluminum rails while welds were used to assemble the steel rails. Adhesive, rivet/weld spacing, and rivet/weld location were the three major factors to be studied and their impact on NVH were investigated. The DOE matrix was developed using these three major factors. Modal tests were performed on those rails according to the DOE matrix. The FEA models corresponding to the hardware were built. CAE modal analysis were performed and compared with test data. The current in-house CAE modeling techniques for spot weld and adhesive were evaluated and validated with test data.
Journal Article

An Investigation of the Effects of Cast Skin on the Mechanical Properties of an AM60 Die-Cast Magnesium Alloy

Magnesium die-cast alloys are known to have a layered microstructure composed of: (1) An outer skin layer characterized by a refined microstructure that is relatively defect-free; and (2) A “core” (interior) layer with a coarser microstructure having a higher concentration of features such as porosity and externally solidified grains (ESGs). Because of the difference in microstructural features, it has been long suggested that removal of the surface layer by machining could result in reduced mechanical properties in tested tensile samples. To examine the influence of the skin layer on the mechanical properties, a series of round tensile bars of varying diameters were die-cast in a specially-designed mold using the AM60 Mg alloy. A select number of the samples were machined to different final diameters. Subsequently, all of the samples (as-cast as well as machined) were tested in tension.
Technical Paper

An Ultra-Light Thin Sliding Door Design - A Multi-Product Multi-Material Solution

Sliding door designs are applied to rear side doors on vans and other large vehicles with a trend towards dual sliding doors with power operation. It is beneficial for the vehicle user to reduce the weight of and space occupied by these doors. Alcoa, in conjunction with Ford, has developed a multi-product, multi-material-based solution, which significantly reduces the cost of an aluminum sliding door and provides both consumer delight and stamping-assembly plant benefits. The design was successfully demonstrated through a concept readiness/technology demonstration program.
Technical Paper

An Ultrasonic Technique for Measuring the Elastic Constants of Small Samples

Using instrumentation designed for the ultrasonic measurement of thickness, a technique has been devised for measuring the isotropic elastic constants of small samples, i. e., samples 1 mm in thickness and a minimum of 5 mm in other dimensions. Young's modulus, the shear modulus and Poisson's ratio are calculated from measurements of density and ultrasonic shear and longitudinal wave velocities. Samples of valve train materials, including chill cast iron, low alloy steel, tool steel, stainless steel, a nickel-base superalloy, and a powder metal alloy were machined from components and analyzed. The magnitude of the measured values of the elastic constants are reasonable when compared with published values. The measurement error on all the constants is estimated to be less than 1%. Moduli determined by this method can be used in finite element analyses to improve designs.
Journal Article

Analysis of Residual Stress Profiles in the Cylinder Web Region of an As-Cast V6 Al Engine Block with Cast-In Fe Liners Using Neutron Diffraction

Continuous efforts to develop a lightweight alloy suitable for the most demanding applications in automotive industry resulted in a number of advanced aluminum (Al) and magnesium alloys and manufacturing routes. One example of this is the application of 319 Al alloy for production of 3.6L V6 gasoline engine blocks. Aluminum is sand cast around Fe-liner cylinder inserts, prior to undergoing the T7 heat treatment process. One of the critical factors determining the quality of the final product is the type, level, and profile of residual stresses along the Fe liners (or extent of liner distortion) that are always present in a cast component. In this study, neutron diffraction was used to characterize residual stresses along the Al and the Fe liners in the web region of the cast engine block. The strains were measured both in Al and Fe in hoop, radial, and axial orientations. The stresses were subsequently determined using generalized Hooke's law.
Technical Paper

Application of CAE Nonlinear Crash Analysis to Aluminum Automotive Crashworthiness Design

After establishing the performance requirements and initial design assumptions, CAE concept models are used to set targets for major structural components to achieve desirable crash performance. When the designs of these major components become available they are analyzed in detail using nonlinear crash finite element models to evaluate their performance. All these components are assembled together later in a full car model to predict the overall vehicle crash performance. If the analysis shows that the targets are met, the design drawings are released for prototype fabrication. When CAE tools are effectively used, it will reduce product development cycle time and the number of prototypes. Crash analysis methodology has been validated and applied for steel automotive product development. Recently, aluminum is replacing steel for lighter and more fuel efficient automobiles. In general aluminum has quite different performance from steel, in particular with lower ductility.